هیدروکربن‌های حلقوی معطر (PAHs) در رسوبات رواناب شهری (مطالعه موردی شهر تهران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

هیدروکربن‌های حلقوی معطر (PAHs )به‌دلیل سمیت، پایداری، چربی دوستی، تجمع زیستی و اثرات سرطانزایی و جهش‌زایی مورد توجه ویژه هستند. رواناب‌های شهری مقادیر قابل توجهی ترکیبات PAHs دارند که انتقال آنها به محیط‌های پذیرنده مخاطرات محیط زیستی و بهداشتی در پی دارد. به‌دلیل ویژگی آبگریزی، بیش‌تر این ترکیبات در محیط‌های آبی به‌صورت هم پیوند با ذرات معلق و رسوبات تجمع و انتقال می‌یابند. بنابراین ارزیابی رسوبات به‌عنوان یکی از محیط‌های موثر بر سرنوشت آنها اهمیت دارد. این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی مقدار و منشا ترکیبات PAHs در رسوبات رواناب تهران انجام شده است. نمونه‌ها از سه زیرحوضه اصلی شهر تهران در اردیبهشت 1396 برداشت و غلظت 16 ترکیب PAHs و کربن آلی اندازه‌گیری و با پنج شاخص نسبت‌های تشخیصی، منابع انتشار محتمل آنها تعیین شد. غلظت مجموع PAHs در گستره57 تا2/978 نانوگرم برگرم وزن خشک رسوب بود. پراکندگی غلظت کل ترکیبات در زیرحوضه 2(57- 976/6 نانوگرم برگرم) به‌دلیل قرارگیری در مرکز شهر و تنوع منابع آلاینده نسبت به زیرحوضه 1(84/4 -773/2 نانوگرم بر گرم)و زیرحوضه 3(76/3 -978/2 نانوگرم بر گرم) بالاتر بود. همچنین، بین کربن آلی کل و غلظت PAHs همبستگی معنی‌دارو قوی وجود دارد، اما ضریب آن در هر زیرحوضه متفاوت است. در تمام ایستگاه‌ها به استثنای ایستگاه C1S27 ،ترکیبات 3 و 4 حلقه‌ای به‌ویژه کرایزن، فلئورانتن و پایرن غالب بودند. چهار شاخص منشاء ترکیبات را پایروژنیک و شاخصHMW/LMW در 30 درصدایستگاه‌ها منشاء پتروژنیک نشان داد. به‌طور کلی، به‌دلیل تراکم بالای جمعیت و ترافیک و فعالیت‌های انسانی، منابع پایروژنیک نسبت به پتروژنیک سهم غالب را دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Runoff Sediments (Case Study: Tehran City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Hasani Moghaddam
  • Seyed Hossein Hashemi
  • Ali Ghadiri
Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of special importance because of their toxicity, stability, lipophilicity, bioaccumulation, carcinogenesis and mutagenic impacts on living organisms and human. Urban runoff contains significant amounts of PAH compounds, which result in transfer them to receiving environments and have significant environmental and health risks. Because of the hydrophobicity characteristic, transport of these compounds in aquatic environment, mainly coupled to suspended particles and sediments. Hence, evaluation of sediments is considered as one of the environments that affect the fate and transport of these compounds. Present study was performed to evaluating the concentrations and sources of PAH compounds in sediments of Tehran urban runoff network. The sediment samples were taken from the three main sub catchments of Tehran city in April 2017 and the concentration of 16 priority PAH compounds and organic carbon was measured and finally their probable emission sources were determined using five indexes of diagnostic ratios. The total PAHs concentration in three sub-catchments ranged from 57 to 978.2 ng / g dry weight. Also, distribution of concentrations in sub- catchment 2(57-976.6 ng/g) was higher than the sub[1]catchment 1(84.4-773.2 ng/g) and Sub-catchment 3(76.3–978.2 ng/g) due to the locating in center of the city and the diversity of pollutant sources. Moreover, the survey of the relationship between total organic carbon and PAHs showed a significant and strong correlation between these two variables, but its coefficient varied in each sub-catchments. At all stations except the station C1S27, 3 and 4 rings compounds in comparison with the other compounds had significant dominance. Four indexes showed the origin of compounds at all stations are pyrogenic and The LMW/HMW index showed that the source of contamination in 30% of the stations is petrogenic. Generally, the results showed that the portion of pyrogenic sources is significantly higher due to high population density, traffic and human activities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • sediment
  • polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • total organic carbon
  • Runoff
  • source identification
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