عنوان مقاله [English]
Damage to canal concrete lining is one of the common problems in irrigation and drainage network projects. Results of several studies show that swelling of unsaturated expansive soils usually led to these damages. In a recent paper, this phenomenon is studied by physical modeling. In this paper, two different ways are studied to control and reduce the effect of swelling soil on canal lining. The first way is the optimization of the number and location of joints on canal lining and the second is the investigation of the effect of canal wall slope on soil-lining interaction behavior. For this purpose, the irrigation and drainage network of the Tabriz plain canal that is under construction on expansive soil is selected as a reference for the geometric properties of the canal section. The physical models are constructed on a small scale (1/10) in the laboratory and two techniques are used in tests: the PIV method and instrumentation. By using of PIV method displacement vectors, volumetric contours, and the magnitude of them in bed soil are obtained and drawn. In addition, the results of physical modelings show the effect of joints to control and distribute of expansive soil-canal lining interaction forces. In the other hand the strain gauges recorded data show that the relative displacement of panels and destructive bending moments of lining are decreased by considering joints on location of maximum internal forces in the canal section. Also it is inferred that the variation of canal wall slope is not an effective way to reduce the lining damages.
10. FG.Bell, “Stabilization and treatment of clay soils with lime”, Part – 1: basic principles. Ground engineering, 21(2), (1988), pp.10–15.
11. J.D.Nelson, D.J Miller, “Expansive Soils – Problems and Practice in Foundation and Pavement Engineering”, John Wiley and Sons. (1992), USA.
12. A. Seco, F. Ramírez, L. Miqueleiz, B. García, “Stabilization of expansive soils for use in construction”, Applied Clay Science, 51 (2011) 348–352.
13. C. Urena, J.M. Azanon, F. Corpas, F. Nieto d, C. Leon, L. Pérez, “Magnesium hydroxide, seawater and olive mill wastewater to reduce swelling potential and plasticity of bentonite soil”, Construction and Building Materials, 45(2013) 289–297.
14. Dina A. Emarah, Safwat A. Seleem, “Swelling soils treatment using lime and sea water for roads construction”, Alexandria Engineering Journal, (2017) Article in press.
15. D.E.Sheeran, R.J.Krizek, “Preparation of homogeneous soil samples by slurry consolidation”, Journal of Materials, 6 (2): (1971) pp. 356–373.
16. R.J. Mair, “Centrifugal modelling of tunnel construction in soft clay”, Ph.D Thesis, (1979) Cambridge University, UK.
17. C.M.Martin, “Physical and numerical modelling of offshore foundation under combined loads”, Ph.D.Thesis, (1994), Oxford University, UK.
18. S.H.Kim, “Interaction between closely spaced tunnels in clay”, Ph.DThesis, (1996), Oxford University, UK.
19. D.N.Chapman, A.H.C.Chan and D.V.L.Hunt, “Model tests for investigating ground movements caused by multiple tunnelling in soft ground”. In proceedings of the 6th conferece on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, London, Taylor& Francis Group, (2006), pp.1133-1137.
20. W.A. Take, “The influence of seasonal moisture cycles on clay slopes”, Ph.D Thesis, (2003), University of Cambridge, UK.
21. D.J.White, W.A. Take, W.A. and M.D. Bolton, “Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry”, Geotechnique 53, No.7, (2003) pp.619-63.