عنوان مقاله [English]
In order to design retaining walls, first the initial dimensions of the wall should be estimated. In order to choose these dimensions, the designer should use reasonable proportions that were achieved by previous experiences of the designing different retaining walls. These dimensions are introduced based on a ratio of the height of walls. Current reseasrches showed that by changing the conditions such as properties of the backfill materials of the retaining wall, the local seismic conditions, the height of the wall and limitation in choosing the arbitrarily dimensions etc, these estimated dimensions would not be appropriate for an economical design. In this paper, by means of genetic and bees algorithms, economical dimensions of the wall for static, pseudostatic and pseudodynamic loading conditions will be calculated precisely in a such way that stability of the retaining wall against sliding, overturning and bearing capacity are provided. Also from structural consideration point of view, the designed walls could resist appropriately against the applied forces.