بررسی روند تغییرات آلودگی های نفتی موجود در رسوبات سطحی دریای خزر (سواحل استان مازندران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده مهندسی نفت، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران، ایران

2 دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران

3 گروه مهندسی طبیعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

چکیده

مناطق ساحلی دریای خزر در سال‌های اخیر تحت تاثیر آلودگی‌های زیادی قرار گرفته‌اند. این مناطق با توجه به وجود منابع هیدروکربنی در حوضه دریای مازندران و همچنین عوامل انسانی در معرض مشکلات زیست محیطی هستند. به منظور تعیین میزان آلودگی در نوار ساحلی این اکوسیستم در استان، غلظت آلکان‌های نرمال در 6 ایستگاه مختلف با برداشت 30 نمونه از رسوبات سطحی در عمق حدود 5 متری از سطح آب مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. بررسی غلظت آلکان‌های نرمال در ایستگاه‌های مورد مطالعه نشان می‌دهد میزان آلودگی هیدروکربنی موجود در نمونه‌های مورد مطالعه در این تحقیق، در مقایسه با مطالعات انجام شده در سال‌های قبل در همین ایستگاه‌ها افزایش قابل توجهی داشته است. میزان غلظت آلکان‌های نرمال از کمترین مقدار24/3 میکروگرم بر گرم نمونه خشک در ایستگاه نشتارود تا بیشترین مقدار 690/7 میکروگرم بر گرم نمونه خشک در ایستگاه نوشهر متغیر است و اغلب ایستگاه دارای غلظت متوسط هستند. افزایش میزان آلودگی‌ها در طی سال‌های اخیر در نتیجه افزایش فعالیت‌های نفتی مربوط به اکتشاف، تولید و بهره‌برداری از منابع نفتی و نیز عوامل انسانی می‌باشد. همچنین وجود جنگل‌های هیرکانی در سواحل جنوبی دریای مازندران و افزایش تصرف در جنگل‌ها در سال‌های اخیر نیز از علل انتقال آلودگی به دریای خزر و افزایش غلظت آلودگی‌ها در منطقه است. جهت تعیین منشا آلکان‌های نرمال در منطقه از شاخص‌های منشایابی شامل اندیس C17-n/Pristane، Pristane/Phytane,HMW/LMW، CPI و   C18-n/Phytane استفاده گردید و نتایج حاصل نشان‌دهنده ورودی‌های پتروژنیک و بیوژنیک در ایستگاه‌های نمونه‌برداری است که آلودگی‌های پتروژنیک به‌طور غالب در منطقه دیده می‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Oil Pollution Trend in Surface Sediments along the Coastal Area of the Caspian Sea (Mazandaran Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Raheb Hosseini Bizaki 1
  • Ahmad Reza Rabbani 1
  • Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiyari 2
  • Mitra Cheraghi 3
1 Department of Petroleum Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
2 Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran
3 Department of Nature Engineering, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran
چکیده [English]

Coastal areas of the Caspian Sea have been affected by pollution in recent years. These areas are exposed to environmental problems due to the presence of hydrocarbon resources in the Caspian Sea basin as well as human factors. To determine the amount of contamination in the coastal strip of this sea, the concentration of normal alkanes in 6 different stations was investigated by taking 30 samples from a depth of 5 meters from the water surface. Investigating the concentration of normal alkanes in the studied stations show that the amount of hydrocarbons contaminated in the studied area, compared with the previous year’s studies, shows a significant increase in concentration. The concentration of n-alkanes are among the 24.3 µg/g (the minimum concentration) in Nashtarood Station to 690.7 µg/g (the maximum concentration) in Noshahr Station, and most of the stations have moderate concentration of n-alkanes. The increase of pollution in recent years as a result of increased oil activities related to the exploration, production, and exploitation of oil resources and human factors. Also, the presence of Hyrcanian forests on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea and increasing seizure of forests in recent years have led to increased contamination in the region due to pollution transmission to the Caspian Sea. To determine the origin of normal alkanes in the region, the indexes of CPI, LMW / HMW, Pristane / Phytane, n-C17 / Pristane and n-C18 / Phytane were used. The results show petrogenetic and biogenic inputs at sampling stations that petrogenetic contamination is prevalent in the region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environment Pollution؛ Caspian Sea؛ n-alkanes
  • Petrogenic
  • Biogenic
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