Evaluation of the Effect of Anionic Surfactant of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Undrained Shear Strength Parameters of Crude Oil Contaminated Loose Sand

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of geotechnical engineering, faculty of engineering, Imam khomeini international university, Qazvin, Iran

2 Department of geotechnical engineering, engineering faculty, Imam khomeini international university, Qazvin, Iran

3 Department of geotechnical engineering, Engineering faculty, Imam khomeini international university, Qazvin, Iran


Contamination of soil with petroleum products due to leakage from oil tanks and pipelines causes damages to the environment and human life and in addition to severe environmental damages, depended on soil type, causes changes in its strength characteristics. One of the most important methods for crude oil remediation is the soil washing technique which can affect on strength of contaminated and also natural soil in addition to their effects on the degradation process. This study aims to investigate the effect of using soil washing technique using anionic surfactant of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at different concentrations on the degradation process of crude oil contamination and also, undrained shear strength parameters of loose sand contaminated by various concentrations of light crude oil. The results indicate that, under all confining pressures, by an increase of crude oil content up to around 5%, the shear strength of sandy soil decreases and then increases for crude oil content more than 5%. Also, reduction in internal friction angle and increase of cohesion by an increase of crude oil concentration are the results of this study. Soil washing by using different concentrations of SDS solution increases the shear strength of crude oil contaminated sandy soil, but the rate of this increase is lower at crude oil contents greater than 5% and high confining pressures. As a general remark, it can be said that the shear strength of both crude oil-contaminated sand and contaminated sand washed by a surfactant is less than the same for clean sand.


Main Subjects

1.Welch, F. Yando, Worldwide Oil Spill Incident Data Base: Recent Trends, International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings, 1993(1) (1993) 811-814.
2.K. Singh, R.K. Srivastava, S. John, Settlement Characteristics of Clayey Soils Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 17(3) (2008) 290-300.
3.Kermani, T. Ebadi, The Effect of Oil Contamination on the Geotechnical Properties of Fine-Grained Soils, Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 21(5) (2012) 655-671.
4.Khamehchiyan, A. Hossein Charkhabi, M. Tajik, Effects of crude oil contamination on geotechnical properties of clayey and sandy soils, Engineering Geology, 89(3) (2007) 220-229.
5.U.R. Ahmed, S. Abduljauwad, T. Akram, Geotechnical Behavior of Oil-Contaminated Fine-Grained Soils, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 12 (2007).
6.Hamidi, C. Jedari, Investigating The Consolidation Behavior of Contaminated Clay, Sharif Journal of Science and Technology, 29-2 (2011) 29-35.
7.Tong, W. Chen, X. Zheng, M. Li, Effect of Oil Contamination on Atterberg Limits of Soil, Advanced Materials Research, 374-377 (2011) 336-338.
8.Akinwumi, U. Maiyaki, S. Adubi, S. Daramola, B. Ekanem, Effects of Waste Engine Oil Contamination on The Plasticity, Strength and Permeability of Lateritic Clay, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 3 (2014) 331-335.
9.R. Estabragh, I. Beytolahpour, M. Moradi, A.A. Javadi, Mechanical Behavior of A Clay Soil Contaminated With Glycerol and Ethanol, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 20(5) (2016) 503-519.
10.A. Adeyemo, I.O. Adeoye, O.S. Bello, Adsorption of Dyes Using Different Types of Clay: A Review, Applied Water Science, 7(2) (2017) 543-568.
11.Karkush, Z. Kareem, Investigation The Impacts of Fuel Oil on The Geotechnical Properties of Cohesive Soil, Engineering Journal, 21 (2017) 127-137.
12.Karpuzcu, M. Arbili, F. Ghaffoori, A. Cabalar, An Assessment of The Effects of Light Crude Oil on The Geotechnical Properties of A Soil, Proceedings of Researchfora 23rd International Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, 5 (2018) 1-4.
13.Hasanloorad, H. Khabbazi, Oil Contaminats Effect on the Dispersivity Potential and Shear Strength of Dispersive Clay Soils, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, 50(2) (2018) 401-408.
14.A.J. Al-Adhamii, M.Y. Fattah, M.Th. Al-Hadidi, Crude Oil Effect on the Clayey Soil Mechanical and Physical Properties, 2018, 7(4.20) (2018) 453-458.
15.Ghadyani, A. Hamidi, M. Hatambeigi, Triaxial shear behaviour of oil contaminated clays, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 23(1) (2019) 112-135.
16.Meegoda, P. Ratnaweera, Compressibility of Contaminated Fine-Grained Soils, Geotechnical Testing Journal, 17(1) (1994) 101-112.
17.K. Nazir, Effect of motor oil contamination on geotechnical properties of over consolidated clay, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 50(4) (2011) 331-335.
18.Akpabio, I. Udoinyang, B.S, Effect of Used Motor Oil Contamination on Geotechnical Properties of Clay Soil on Uyo-Akwa Ibom, International Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 5 (2017) 22-30.
19.O. Karkush, A.G. Jihad, Impacts of kerosene contamination on the geotechnical characteristics of cohesive soil, 2019, 7(4) (2019) 5444-5448.
20. M. Roshanghiyas, M.H. Bagheri Puor, Effect of Crude Oil Contamination on the Geotechnical Properties of Kaolinite Clay soil in the Road, Journal of Transportation Infrastructure Engineering (JTIE), 5(2) (2019) 101-111.
21. Evgin, B.M. Das, Mechanical behavior of an oil contaminated sand, Environmental Geotechnology, (1992) 101-108.
22. A. Al-Sanad, W.K. Eid, N.F. Ismael, Geotechnical Properties of Oil-Contaminated Kuwaiti Sand, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 121(5) (1995) 407-412.
23. A. Al-Sanad, N.F. Ismael, Aging Effects on Oil-Contaminated Kuwaiti Sand, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 123(3) (1997) 290-293.
24. Aiban, The effect of temperature on the engineering properties of oil-contaminated sands, Environment International, 24 (1998) 153-161.
25. K. Puri, Geotechnical Aspects of Oil-Contaminated Sands, Journal of Soil Contamination, 9(4) (2000) 359-374.
26. Jamrah, A. Al-Futaisi, H. Hassan, S. Al-Oraimi, Petroleum contaminated soil in Oman: Evaluation of bioremediation treatment and potential for reuse in hot asphalt mix concrete, Environmental monitoring and assessment, 124 (2007) 331-341.
27. Ali Rahman, S. Abd Rahim, T. Lihan, W. Idris, M. Sakina, Effects of Surfactant on Geotechnical Characteristics of Silty Soil, Sains Malaysiana, 42 (2013) 881-891.
28. M. Abousnina, A. Manalo, J. Shiau, W. Lokuge, Effects of Light Crude Oil Contamination on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fine Sand, Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 24(8) (2015) 833-845.
29. J. Mehdizadeh, R. Ghiassi, K. Behnia, Evaluation of oil contamination effect on permeability and shear strength of sandy soils, Journal of petroleum research, 26(89) (2017) 45-56. (in Persian)
30. Ostovar, M.J. Mehdizadeh, R. Ghiassi, N. Shariatmadari, Effects of Crude Oil on Geotechnical Specification of Sandy Soils, Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, (2020) 1-16.
31.  H. Askarbioki, F. Kargaran Bafghi, M. Mokhtari, M. Khaleghi, Impact of gasoline contamination on mechanical behavior of sandy clay soil, Journal of Mining and Environment, 10(2) (2019) 389-399.
32. S. AbdelSalam, A.M.M. Hasan, Characterization of Shear Strength and Compressibility of Diesel Contaminated Sand, Recent Thoughts in Geoenvironmental Engineering, (2020) 39-48.
33. Aghajani, H. Katebi, S. Davari Algoo, Effect of Crude Oil Spill on Geotechnical Properties of Silty Sand Soil by Using Taguchi Method, Advance Researches in Civil Engineering, 2(2) (2020) 1-14.
34. Urum, T. Pekdemir, M. Gopur, Optimum Conditions for Washing of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil with Biosurfactant Solutions, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 81(3) (2003) 203-209.
35. Nedjhioui, N. Moulai-Mostefa, A. Morsli, A. Bensmaili, Combined effects of polymer/surfactant/oil/alkali on physical chemical properties, Desalination, 185(1) (2005) 543-550.
36. Paria, Surfactant-enhanced remediation of organic contaminated soil and water, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 138(1) (2008) 24-58.
37. Moradabadi, H. Ganjidoost, S. Javadian, Study on Mobilization And Desorption Effects of Biosurfactant Produced in Biodegradation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering (Amirkabir), 41(2) (2010) (in persian)
38. N. Seyed Razavi, A. Khodadadi, H. Ganjidoust, Treatment of soil contaminated with crude oil using biosurfactants, Journal of environmental studies, 37(60) (2012) 107-116. (In Persian)
39. Vincent, S. Osakwe, F. Egharevba, W.O. Medjor, A. Imohimi, O. Ize-Iyamu, Surfactant enhanced soil washing technique and its kinetics on the remediation of crude oil contaminated soil, PJST, 13 (2012) 443-456.
40. Thapa, A. Kc, A. Ghimire, A Review On Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants In Soil, Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, 8 (2012) 164-170.
41. Babalar, A.R. Estabragh, J. Abdolahi, Remediation of Cohesive Clay Contaminated to Gasoline Using Thermal Method and Surfactants Journal of Engineering Geology, 12(2) (2018) 213-236.
42. Hosnani, H. Amini, M.R. Sarmasti Emami, Ex-situ removal of crude oil from a contaminated soil using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS), Journal of environmental science and technology, 21(3) (2019) 38-46. (In Persian)
43. K. Singh, S. John, R.K. Srivastava, Studies on soil contamination due to used motor oil and its remediation, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 46(9) (2009) 1077-1083.
44. Ladd, Preparing Test Specimens Using Undercompaction, Geotechnical Testing Journal, 1(1) (1978) 16-23.
45.Been, M.G. Jefferies, J. Hachey, The critical state of sands, Géotechnique, 41(3) (1991) 365-381.