بهینه‌سازی عملکرد TBM با معرفی نمودار اندرکنش نفوذ-نیروی عمودی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه مکانیک سنگ و تونلسازی، دانشکده مهندسی معدن، دانشگاه امیرکبیر، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در مراحل طراحی و اجرای پروژه‌های حفاری تونل با TBM، بهینه‌سازی پارامترهای عملکرد به منظور به حداکثر رساندن نفوذ ابزار برشی و سرعت پیشروی ضروری است. در این راستا، انجام آزمایش‌های آزمایشگاهی می‌تواند نتایج ارزشمندی به دست بدهد، اما به دلیل وجود برخی نواقص برای چنین آزمایش‌هایی (به عنوان مثال اختلاف زیاد بین نیروی چرخشی اندازه‌گیری شده در آزمایشگاه و داده‌های واقعی میدانی)، نیاز به اصلاح چنین روش‌هایی همچنان وجود دارد. تاکنون تلاش‌های بسیار کمی برای بررسی عملکرد بهینه ابزار برشی (به عنوان مثال نیروی عمودی و نیروی چرخشی) بر اساس اطلاعات پروژه‌های تونلی تکمیل شده از سراسر جهان انجام شده است. در این مقاله برای بررسی پارامترهای عملکرد TBM و بهینه‌سازی آنها، ابتدا یک بانک اطلاعاتی گسترده تهیه شده است و در ادامه روابط بین پارامترهای مختلف این بانک اطلاعاتی با دو شاخص نیروی عمودی و نیروی چرخشی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. بر اساس نتایج این تحلیل‌ها، مشخص شده است که سرعت خطی ابزار برشی با دو پارامتر شاخص نیروی عمودی (NFI) و شاخص نیروی چرخشی (RFI) ارتباط مستقیم دارد. در این راستا، دو رابطه با استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل آماری داده‌های بیش از 260 پروژه تونلی برای ارزیابی هر دو شاخص NFI و RFI توسعه یافته است. روابط مربوطه به ترتیب دارای ضریب تعیین 77 و 68 درصد هستند. در ادامه بر مبنای این روابط، یک فرآیند بهینه‌سازی برای به حداکثر رساندن نفوذ ابزار برشی و سرعت پیشروی با استفاده از محدودیت‌های مختلف عملیاتی (شامل ظرفیت نیروی ابزار برشی، محدودیت گشتاور کله حفار، محدودیت‌های هندسه برش و محدودیت نرخ نفوذ) ارائه شده است. در این فرآیند، در مرحله اول، نمودار اندرکنش نفوذ-نیروی عمودی ابزار برشی با در نظر گرفتن سه محدودیت حداکثر ظرفیت باربری ابزار برشی، حداکثر مقدار نفوذ به دلیل محدودیت‌های هندسی ابزار برشی، و حداکثر گشتاور مجاز کله حفار در مقادیر مختلف سرعت چرخش آن محاسبه شده است. در مرحله دوم، با استفاده از رابطه ارائه شده برای شاخص نیروی عمودی و نمودار اندرکنش نفوذ-نیروی عمودی، حداکثر مقدار نفوذ دیسک برشی محاسبه شده است. در نهایت، با استفاده از روابط ارائه شده برای محاسبه نرخ پیشروی و با در نظر گرفتن تأخیرات توقف برای تعویض دیسک‌های برشی، نحوه به حداکثر رساندن نرخ پیشروی توضیح داده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimization of TBM Performance using Force-Penetration Interaction Diagram for Hard Rock

نویسنده [English]

  • Ebrahim Farrokh
Mining Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In the phase of the design of a TBM, it is essential to optimize the cutter head characteristics concerning cut and cutter geometry parameters to maximize both cutter penetration and TBM advance rate. In this regard, valuable results have been achieved from numerical simulations and laboratory tests, however, due to the presence of some shortcomings for such methods (e.g. high difference between rolling force measured in the laboratory and actual field data), there is a high demand by the industry to conduct actual field data analyses. So far, very few efforts have been made to study the optimum cutter performance (e.g. penetration, normal force, and rolling force) based on the information of completed tunnel projects from around the world. To investigate the influence of various parameters on the cutter penetration and to provide basic guidelines for the evaluation of the optimum TBM performance in hard rock conditions, an extensive field database is compiled. Based on the data analysis of this database, it is found that the linear speed of the cutters has a direct correlation with two major parameters of normal force index (NFI) and rolling force index (RFI). In this regard, two formulas are generated using statistical analysis of the data from around 260 tunnel projects to evaluate both NFI and RFI. The corresponding formulas have a coefficient of determination of 77 and 68%, respectively. These formulas are used in an optimization process to maximize cutter penetration using the interaction of various operational constraints (cutter load capacity, cutter head torque limit, cutter geometry constrains, and cutter head penetration rate limits). The produced interaction diagram is called the force-penetration interaction diagram. The new findings of this study can provide a foundation to improve the design process of hard rock TBMs and to optimize their performance considering various project setting parameters.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • optimization
  • TBM performance
  • interaction diagram
  • Penetration
  • NFI
  • RFI
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