Small Strain Shear Modulus of Sands Grouted with Zeolite-cement Suspension

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of civil engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Civil Engineering Department, Imam Khomeini International University

3 Department of Chemistry, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran


Cement production is one of the most important sources of CO2 emission in the world and an energetically demanding process. Therefore, the replacement of a part of it with cheaper and environmentally friendly materials such as zeolite is of great importance. In the present study, a series of bender element tests on loose sandy soils grouted with zeolite and cement was conducted to investigate the effects of cementation on the small strain shear modulus (G0 ) of them. The results showed that the G0 of grouted samples increased with an increase in zeolite content (Z) up to 30% (Z30). After that, a further increase in the amount of zeolite results in a decrease in the G0 . Also, in all Z and W/CM, the G0 decreased with increase in the sand grain size. The G0 corresponding to Z30 for D11 sand (the smallest particles) samples grouted with suspension having W/CM of 3, 5 and 7 is, respectively, 21.7, 16.7 and 12.5 times that of pore (unstabilized) sand. The minimum G0 is observed in samples grouted with Z90 and W/CM of 7, which is 2.16, 1.2 and 1.19 times the G0 of corresponding pore sands for D11, D1 and D2 sands, respectively


Main Subjects

[1]    M.W. Hussin, S.K. Lim, F. Zakaria, Engineering properties of high volume slag cement grout in tropical climate, Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, 19(1) (2007) 42–54.
[2]    M. Heidarzadeh, A.A. Mirghasemi, F. Eslamian, S.M. Sadr-Lahijani, Application of cement grouting for stabilization of coarse materials. International Journal of Civil Engineering, (1) (2013) 71-77.
[3]    S. Akbulut, A. Saglamer, Estimating the groutability of granular soils: a new approach, Tunnelling and underground space technology, 17(4) (2002) 371-380.
[4]    J. Lowe, T.C. Standford, Special grouting at Tarbela dam project, in: Grouting in Geotechnical Engineering, New Orleans, ASCE, New York, 1982, pp. 152–171.
[5]    G.S. Littlejohn, Design of cement based grouts, in: Grouting in Geotechnical Engineering, New Orleans, ASCE, New York, 1982, pp. 35–48.
[6]    B. De Paoli, B. Bosco, R. Granata, D.A. Bruce, Fundamental observations on cement based grouts (1) Traditional materials, in: Grouting in Geotechnical Engineering, New Orleans, ASCE, New York, 1992, pp. 474–485.
[7]    W.J.Clarke, M.D. Royal, M. Helal, Ultrafine cement tests and dam test grouting, in: Grouting, Soil Improvement and Geosynthetics, New Orleans, ASCE, New York, 1992, pp. 626–638.
[8]    L.G. Schwarz, R.J. Krizek, (1992) ‘Effect of mixing on rheological properties of microfine cement grouts’, Proc. of the Conf. on grouting, soil improvement and geosynthetics, New Orleans, ASCE, New York, 1992, pp. 512–525.
[9]    K.W. Liao, J.C. Fan, C.L. Huang, An artificial neural network for groutability prediction of permeation grouting with microfine cement grouts, Computers and Geotechnics, 38(8) (2011) 978-986.
[10] U. Mutman, A. Kavak, Improvement of granular soils by low pressure grouting, International Journal of Physical Sciences, 6(17) (2011) 4311-4322.
[11] I.A. Pantazopoulos, I.N. Markou, D.N. Christodoulou, A.I. Droudakis, D.K. Atmatzidis, S.K. Antiohos, E. Chaniotakis, Development of microfine cement grouts by pulverizing ordinary cements, Cement and Concrete Composites, 34(5) (2012) 593-603.
[12] M.Y. Cheng, N.D. Hoang, A novel groutability estimation model for ground improvement projects in sandy silt soil based on Bayesian framework, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 43 (2014) 453-458.
[13] I.N. Markou, D.N. Christodoulou, B.K. Papadopoulos, Penetrability of microfine cement grouts: experimental investigation and fuzzy regression modeling, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52(7) (2015) 868-882.
[14] M. Mollamahmutoglu, E. Avci, Effectiveness of microfine portland cement grouting on the strength and permeability of medium to fine sands, Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 59(3) (2015) 319-326.
[15] C.A. Anagnostopoulos, Effect of different superplasticisers on the physical and mechanical properties of cement grouts. Construction and Building Materials, 50 (2014) 162-168.
[16] L.G. Schwarz, R.J. Krizek,  (2006). Hydrocarbon residuals and containment in microfine cement grouted sand, Journal of materials in civil engineering, 18(2) (2006) 214-228.
[17] L.G. Schwarz, M. Chirumalla, Effect of injection pressure on permeability and strength of microfine cement grouted sand, in: Grouting for Ground Improvement: Innovative Concepts and Applications, 2007, pp. 1-15.
[18] N. Saiyouri, A.A. Alaiwa, P.Y. Hicher, Permeability and porosity improvement of grouted sand, European journal of environmental and civil engineering, 15(3) (2011) 313-333.
[19] I.A. Pantazopoulos, D.K. Atmatzidis, Dynamic properties of microfine cement grouted sands, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 42 (2012) 17-31.
[20] I.N. Markou, A.I. Droudakis, Factors affecting engineering properties of microfine cement grouted sands. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 31(4) (2013) 1041-1058.
[21] G.A. Rao, Investigations on the performance of silica fume-incorporated cement pastes and mortars, Cement and Concrete Research, 33(11) (2003) 1765-1770.
[22] J.S. Damtoft, J. Lukasik, D. Herfort, D. Sorrentino, E.M. Gartner, Sustainable development and climate change initiatives, Cement and concrete research 38(2) (2008) 115–127.
[23] N. Ansari, A.  Seifi, A system dynamics model for analyzing energy consumption and CO2 emission in Iranian cement industry under various production and export scenarios, Energy Policy 58 (2013) 75-89.
[24] P.K. Mehta, P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete microstructure, properties and materials, Mcgraw-hall, 3rd edition, 1993, pp. 15, 21-54.
[25] B. Muhunthan, F. Sariosseiri, Interpretation of geotechnical properties of cement treated soils, Research Report FHWA Contract DTFH61- 05-C-00008, Washington State University, Pullman WA, 2008.
[26] M. Sahmaran, The effect of replacement rate and fineness of natural zeolite on the rheological properties of cement-based grouts, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 35(8) (2008) 796-806.
[27] B. Ahmadi, M. Shekarchi, Use of natural zeolite as a supplementary cementitious material, Cement and Concrete Composites, 32(2) (2010) 134-141.
[28] A.H. Ören, A. Kaya, A.S. Kayalar, Hydraulic conductivity of zeolite–bentonite mixtures in comparison with sand–bentonite mixtures, Canadian Geotechnical Journal 48(9) (2011) 1343-1353.
[29] A.A. Ramezanianpour, A. Kazemian, M. Sarvari, B. Ahmadi, Use of natural zeolite to produce selfconsolidating concrete with low Portland cement content and high durability, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 25(5) (2012) 589-596.
[30] Y.B. Acar, A.E. El-Tahir, Low strain dynamic properties of artificially cemented sand, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 112(11) (1986) 1001-1015.
[31] S.K. Saxena, K.R. Reddy, A.S.  Avramidis, Liquefaction resistance of artificially cemented sand, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 114(12) (1988) 1395-1413.
[32] T.S. Chang, R.D. Woods, Effect of particle contact bond on shear modulus, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 118(8) (1992) 1216-1233.
[33] Sharma, S. S. & Fahey, M. 2004. Deformation characteristics of two cemented calcareous soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 41: 1139-1151
[34] S. Seng, H. Tanaka, Properties of cement-treated soils during initial curing stages, Soils and Foundations, 51(5) (2011) 775-784.
[35] T. Cuccovillo, M.R. Coop, (1997). Yielding and prefailure behaviour of structured sands, Geotechnique 47(3) (1997) 491-508.
[36] S. Baig, M. Picornell, S. Nazarian, Low strain shear moduli of cemented sands, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 123(6) (1997) 540–545.
[37] A.L. Fernandez,  J.C. Santamarina, Effect of cementation on the small-strain parameters of sands, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 38(1) (2001) 191-199.
[38] C. Dano, P.Y. Hicher, Behavior of uncemented sands and grouted sands before peak strength, Soils and foundations, 43(4) (2003) 13-19.
[39] H. Mola-Abasi, B. Kordtabar, A. Kordnaeij, Effect of Natural Zeolite and Cement Additive on the Strength of Sand, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 34(5) (2016) 1539-1551.
[40] H. Mola-Abasi, A. Khajeh, S. Naderi Semsani, Porosity/(SiO2 and Al2O3 Particles) Ratio Controlling Compressive Strength of Zeolite-Cemented Sands, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 36(2) (2018) 949-958.
[41] H. Mola-Abasi, A. Khajeh, S. Naderi Semsani, Effect of the Ratio between Porosity and SiO2 and Al2O3 on Tensile Strength of Zeolite-Cemented Sands. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 30(4) (2018).
[42] S. Salamatpoor, Y. Jafarian, A. Hajiannia, Physical and mechanical properties of sand stabilized by cement and natural zeolite, The European Physical Journal Plus, 133(5) (2018) 205.
[43] S. Salamatpoor, Y. Jafarian, A. Hajiannia, Improvement of shallow foundations rested on saturated loose sand by zeolite-cement mixture: a laboratory study, Scientia Iranica, (2018)
[44] L.G. Schwarz, R.J. Krizek, 1994. Effect of preparation technique on permeability and strength of cementgrouted sand, Geotechnical Testing Journal, 17 (1994) 434–443.
[45] E. Delfosse-Ribay, I. Djeran-Maigre, R. Cabrillac, D. Gouvenot, Shear modulus and damping ratio of grouted sand, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 24 (2004) 461–71.
[46] M. Yildiz, A.S. Soganci, (2015). Improvement of the strength of soils which comprises granular pumice by injection of cement under low pressure, Scientia Iranica. Transaction A, Civil Engineering, 22(1) (2015) 81.
[47] C. Dano, N. Derache, Grout injection in the laboratory. In: Landmarks in Earth Reinforcement, Int. Symp. on Earth Reinforcement, 2001, pp. 21-26.
[48] M. Mollamahmutoglu, Y. Yilmaz, Engineering properties of medium-to-fine sands injected with microfine cement grout, Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, 29(2) (2011) 95-109.
[49] E. Avci, M. Mollamahmuto─člu, UCS Properties of Superfine Cement–Grouted Sand, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 28(12) (2016).
[50] S. Kumar, A study on the engineering behaviour of grouted loose sandy soils (Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D. thesis, Division of Civil Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India), (2010)
[51] ASTM D2487, Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (unified Soil Classification System), West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2017.
[52] ASTM D854, Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer, West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2014.
[53] ASTM D4253, Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table, West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2016.
[54] ASTM D4254, Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density, West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2016.
[55] ASTM D7928, Standard Test Method for ParticleSize Distribution (Gradation) of Fine-Grained Soils Using the Sedimentation (Hydrometer) Analysis, West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2017.
[56] ASTM D4320/D4320M, Standard Practice for Laboratory Preparation of Chemically Grouted Soil Specimens for Obtaining Design Strength Parameters, West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2009.
[57] ASTM D445, Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity), West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2017.
[58] E.E. Toumbakari, D.V. Gemert, T.P. Tassios, N. Tenoutasse, Effect of mixing procedure on injectability of cementitious grouts, Cement and Concrete Research, 29 (1999) 867-872.
[59] S. Akbulut, The improvement of geotechnical properties in granular soils by grouting, Ph.D. Dissertation, the Institute of the Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, 1999.
[60] S. Perret, K.H. Khayat, G. Ballivy, The effect of degree of saturation of sand on groutability—Experimental simulation, Ground Improvement, 4 (2000) 13–22.
[61] J.C. Dupla, J. Canou, D. Gouvenot, An advanced experimental set-up for studying a monodirectional grout injection process, Ground Improvement, 8(3) (2004) 91–99.
[62] ASTM D4219, Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength Index of Chemical- Grouted Soils, West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2008.
[63] R. Dyvik, C. Madshus, Lab Measurements of G m a x Using Bender Elements, in: Advances in the art of testing soils under cyclic conditions, 1985, pp. 186–196
[64] P.J.P. Gleize, A. Müller, H.R. Roman, Microstructural investigation of a silica fume–cement–lime mortar, Cement and Concrete composites, 25(2) (2003)171– 175.
[65] D. Porcino, V.N. Ghionna, R. Granata, V. Marcianò, Laboratory determination of mechanical and hydraulic properties of chemically grouted sands, Geomechanics and Geoengineering, 11(2) (2016) 164-175.
[66] S. Zebovitz, R.J. Krizek, D.K. Atmatzidis, Injection of fine sands with very fine cement grout, Journal of geotechnical engineering, 115(12) (1989) 1717-1733.
[67] C. Dano, P.Y. Hicher, S. Tailliez, Engineering properties of grouted sands, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental engineering, 130(3) (2004)328-338.