Passive Remediation with Colloidal Silica Effect on Shear Strength Properties of oil-contaminated Bushehr Carbonate Sand

Document Type : Research Article


1 Master of science, Imam Khomeini International University, Engineering Faculty, Iran

2 Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Imam khomeini international university, Qazvin, Iran

3 Islamic Azad University, Masal, Iran.


Crude oil is one of the soil and water pollution sources that change the geotechnical properties of the soil via both physical and chemical processes. Carbonate sand which is found in oil-rich and continental regions is exposed to oil pollution so that studying the effect of oil and petroleum product contamination is unavoidable. On the other hand, injecting a colloidal silica solution, stabilization and improvement of oil-contaminated sand has been investigated broadly. In this research, several triaxial undrained-unconsolidated tests were conducted to investigate the shear strength of carbonate sand contaminated with crude oil as well as contaminated sand stabilized by colloidal silica injection. The results showed that oil pollution reduced the maximum shear strength and the friction angle of carbonate sand, as well as a significant decrease in elasticity modulus while oil content increased. In injected specimens, colloidal silica increases the shear strength, cohesion, and stiffness significantly relative to the oil-contaminated ones.


Main Subjects

[1] H.A. Al-Sanad, W.K. Eid, N.F. Ismael, Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand, Journal of geotechnical engineering, 121(5) (1995) 407-412.
[2] E. Shin, J. Lee, B. Das, Bearing capacity of a model scale footing on crude oil-contaminated sand, Geotechnical & Geological Engineering, 17(2) (1999) 123-132.
[3] V.K. Puri, Geotechnical aspects of oil-contaminated sands, Soil and Sediment Contamination, 9(4) (2000) 359-374.
[4] E.C. Shin, B.M. Das, Bearing capacity of unsaturated oil-contaminated sand, International Journal of offshore and polar Engineering, 11(03) (2001).
[5] M.M. AkbarAbadi, S.S. Yasrebi, experimental study on shear strength behavior of an unsaturated crude oil contaminated clayey sand, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 2010.
[6] F. Wegian, M. Ismail, Assessment of bridge performance after oil contamination below foundation piles, Australian Journal of Civil Engineering, 6(1) (2010) 47-56.
[7] M. Vosoughi, M. Hasanlourad, The effect of oil contaminent on the shear strenght of carbonate sand, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, 2014.
[8] S.A. Nasehi, A. Uromeihy, M.R. Nikudel, A. Morsali, Influence of gas oil contamination on geotechnical properties of fine and coarse-grained soils, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 34(1) (2016) 333-345.
[9] A. Al-Rawas, H.F. Hassan, R. Taha, A. Hago, B. Al-Shandoudi, Y. Al-Suleimani, Stabilization of oil-contaminated soils using cement and cement by-pass dust, Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 16(6) (2005) 670-680.
[10] M. Saberian, M.M. Khabiri, Effect of oil pollution on function of sandy soils in protected deserts and investigation of their improvement guidelines (case study: Kalmand area, Iran), Environmental geochemistry and health,  (2016) 1-12.
[11] S.A. Zomorodian, M. Shabnam, S. Armina, B.C. O'Kelly, Strength enhancement of clean and kerosene-contaminated sandy lean clay using nanoclay and nanosilica as additives, Applied Clay Science, 140 (2017) 140-147.
[12] H. Liao, C. Huang, B. Chao, Liquefaction resistance of a colloid silica grouted sand, in:  Grouting and ground treatment, 2003, pp. 1305-1313.
[13] P.M. Gallagher, J.K. Mitchell, Influence of colloidal silica grout on liquefaction potential and cyclic undrained behavior of loose sand, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 22(9) (2002) 1017-1026.
[14] D. Camenzuli, D.B. Gore, Immobilization and encapsulation of contaminants using silica treatments: a review, Remediation Journal, 24(1) (2013) 49-67.
[15] P.P. Mbhele, Remediation of soil and water contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons using silica encapsulation, 2008.
[16] H.E. Bergna, W.O. Roberts, Colloidal silica: fundamentals and applications, CRC Press, 2005.
[17] P.M. Gallagher, Y. Lin, Colloidal silica transport through liquefiable porous media, Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, 135(11) (2009) 1702-1712.
[18] J. Jurinak, L. Summers, Oilfield applications of colloidal silica gel, SPE production engineering, 6(04) (1991) 406-412.