The Effect of Belt Truss Level on the Performance of Steel High-Rise Buildings Subject to Near Field earthquake

Document Type : Research Article


Faculty of Engineering, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


In this study based on conducting several non-linear dynamic time history analyses subjected to the both types of near and far field three components earthquake records, the seismic response parameters of inelastic behavior of tall buildings with belt truss frameworks have been investigated. A three-dimensional basic outrigger braced tube model as well as three other resistant skeletons which contain different configurations of belt trusses in height, have been designed according to the Iranian seismic code 2800 (4th edition) and Iranian national building code (steel structures-division 10). The dynamic response parameters of all studied structures have been assessed under influence of free field three components earthquake records. Because the overall dynamic response of the studied structures would change subjected to record by record separately, the corresponding response velocity spectra of each of the selected records were notified numerically. Furthermore, in order to denote the effects of higher modes, the aforementioned response velocity spectra were evaluated corresponding to the natural period of the studied structures. Having accurate evaluation of the analytical results indicate that the existence of belt truss causes a significant increase in structural stiffness and mitigates drift and base bending moment. Also the highest drift demand obtained for the model without belt truss and the model with belt truss located at 0.5H, occurs relatively in 0.83 to 0.9 of normalized height. This demand parameter calculated for the model with the top belt truss occurs in 0.5 to 0.8 of normalized height.


Main Subjects

[1] S. Fawzia, A. Nasir, T. Fatima, Study of the effectiveness of outrigger system for high-rise composite buildings for cyclonic region, International Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering, WASET, 5(12) (2011), 789-797.
[2] R.S. Nair, Belt trusses and basements as "virtual" outriggers for tall buildings, Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Construction, 35(4) (1998) 140-146.
[3] P. Pudjisuryadi, B. Lumantarna, H. Tandya, I. Loka, Ductility of a 60-story shearwall frame-belt truss (virtual outrigger) building, Civil Engineering Dimension, 14(1) (2012) 19-25.
[4] B. Taranath, Optimum belt truss location for high-rise structures, Structural Engineer, 53(8) (1979) 18-21.
[5] A. Rutenberg, Earthquake analysis of belted high-rise building structures, Engineering Structures, 1(4) (1979) 191-196.
[6] B.S. Smith, I. Salim, Formulae for optimum drift resistance of outrigger braced tall building structures, Computers and Structures, 17(1) (1983) 45-50.
[7] A. Rutenberg, D. Tal, Lateral load response of belted tall building structures, Engineering Structures, 9(1) (1987) 53-67.
[8] P.S. Kian, S.F. Torang, The use of outrigger and belt truss system for high-rise concrete buildings, Journal of Civil Engineering Science and Application, 3(1) (2001) 36-41.
[9] S. Fawzia, T. Fatima, Deflection control in composite building by using belt truss and outriggers system, Proceedings of the 2010 World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology Conference, 2010.
[10] R. Kamgar, M.M Saadatpor, A simple mathematical model for free vibration analysis of combined system consisting of frame tube, shear core, belt truss and outrigger system with geometrical discontinuities". Applied Mathematical Modeling, 36 (2012) 4918-493.
[11] M. Nicoreac, J. Hoenderkamp, Periods of vibration of braced frames with outriggers, Procedia Engineering, 40 (2012) 298-303.
[12] M.I. Moinuddin, M.A. Afrozkhan, Study for the optimum location of outriggers for high-rise concrete building, International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering, 2(1) (2013) 628-633.
[13] S. Lee, A. Tovar, Outrigger placement in tall buildings using topology optimization, Engineering Structure, 74 (2014) 122-129.
[14] Standard No. 2800 (2014). Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings, 4th Edition, Tehran, Iran. (in Persian)
[15] Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), Iranian National Building Code, Division 6, Design Loads for Buildings, 2015. (in Persian)
[16] Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), Iranian National Building Code, Division 10, Steel Structures, 2015. (in Persian)
[17] Federal Energy Management Agency (FEMA), (1998), Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings: Fema 356: Createspace Independent Publication.
[18] CSI (2010) Analysis reference manual for Sap2000, Berkeley-California, USA.
[19] CSI (2007) PERFORM3D - structural analysis software, Berkeley-California, USA.
[20] PEER Strong Motion, http:/
[21] H. Movahed, A. Meshkat-Dini, M. Tehranizadeh, Seismic evaluation of steel special moment resisting frames affected by pulse type ground motions, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (BHRC), 15(4) (2014) 575-585.
[22] Seismosignal Software, Seismosoft (Earthquake Engineering Software Solution),
[23] M. Abdi-Moghadam, A. Meshkat-Dini, (February 2015) Assessment of seismic behavior of tall buildings with outrigger system, Proceedings of the 5th National and 1st International Conference on Steel Structures, Tehran, IRAN. (in Persian)
[24] A.K. Chopra, Dynamics of Structures: Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering, 2007.
[25] M. Willford, A. Whittaker, R. Klemencic, Recommendations for the seismic design of high-rise buildings, Council for Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), (2008).
[26] A. Gupta, H. Krawinkler, Dynamic P-delta effects for flexible inelastic steel structures, Journal of Structural Engineering, 126(1) (2000) 145-154.
[27] M. Abdi Moghadam, A. Meshkat-Dini, A. Sarvghad Moghadam, (2015) Seismic Performance of Steel Tall Buildings with Outrigger System in Near Fault, Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, Tehran, IRAN.
[28] P.K. Malhotra, Response of building to near-field pulse like ground motion, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamic, 28 (1999) 1309-1326.
[29] E. Kalkan, S. Kunnath, Effects of fling step and forward directivity on seismic response of buildings, Earthquake Spectra, 22 (2006) 367-390.