Assessment of High Performance Concrete Containing Mineral Admixtures Under Sulfuric Acid Attack

Document Type : Research Article


1 Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Civil Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Concrete, as a main construction material has an alkali nature which makes it vulnerable to attack by acidic solutions. Therefore, investigations on performance of various types of concretes against different kinds of acid attacks are essential to achieve durable concretes in severe environments. Considering the significant effect of durability in sustainability of concrete structures, high performance concrete (HPC) which is characterized by its high compressive strength, low permeability and fine durability in many severe environments, is increasingly utilized in civil and infrastructural constructions. This paper presents an experimental study on durability of HPC and conventional concrete (CC) containing ordinary Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and natural pozzolan (NP) under sulfuric acid attack. Compressive strength, ultra-sonic pulse velocity determination, capillary water absorption test and evaluation of electrical resistivity were utilized to investigate mechanical properties and permeability of hardened concrete. The durability properties were studied through measurement of weight and compressive strength loss, ultra-sonic pulse velocity variations and length change of mortar prisms exposed to sulfuric acid. The results indicated that concretes containing less cementitious materials and mineral admixtures were more durable in acidic solutions, and incorporating higher volume of GGBFS and NP could improve performance of concrete against sulfuric acid attack.


Main Subjects

[1] P.C. Aïtcin, High performance concrete. CRC Press. (2011).
[2] SHRP-C/FR-91-103, High performance concretes, a state of the art report. Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1991.
[3] FIP/CEB, High strength concrete, state of the art report. Bulletin d'Information No. 197 (1990).
[4] M. Peterson, High-performance and self-compacting concrete in house building. Field tests and theoretical studies of possibilities and difficulties. Lund University, (2008).
[5] ACI 363R-10, Guide to Quality Control and Testing of High-Strength Concrete, American Concrete Institute (ACI), (2010).
[6] E. Shakeri, F. Bahman Zadeh, Evaluation Methods for Increasing the Durability of Concrete and Its Effect on the Economy. 8th National Congress on Civil Engineering, Babol, Iran, (2014) (In Persian).
[7] P. Mehta, P. J. M. Monteiro, Concrete, Microstructure Properties and Materials. McGraw-Hill Professional (2005).
[8] P. C. Hewlett, Lea’s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. Butterworth-Heinemann (2003).
[9] M. Alexander, A. Bertron, N. De Belie, Performance of Cement-based Materials in Aggressive Aqueous Environments. Springer (2013).
[10] Allahverdi, F. Skvara, Acidic Corrosion of Hydrated Cement Based Materials Part2. Kinetics of the Phenomenon and Mathematical Models. Ceramics− Silikáty, 44(4) (2000) 152-160.
[11] Rahmani, A. A. Ramazanianpour, Effect of Binary Cement Replacement Materials on Sulfuric Acid Resistance of Dense Concretes. Magazine of concrete research, 60(2) (2008) 145-155.
[12] Hewayde, M. Nehdi, E. Allouche, G. Nakhla, Effect of Mixture Design Parameters and Wetting-Drying Cycles on Resistance of Concrete to Sulfuric Acid Attack. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 19(2) (2007) 155-163.
[13] I. Fattuhi, B. P. Hughes, Ordinary Portland Cement Mixes with Selected Admixtures Subjected to Sulfuric Acid Attack. ACI Materials Journal, 85(6) (1988) 512-518.
[14] Sersale, G. Frigione, L. Bonavita, Acid Depositions and Concrete Attack: Main Influences. Cement and concrete research, 28(1) (1988) 19-24.
[15] Ramezanianpour, A.A.; Peidaiesh, M; Concrete knowledge (materials, properties, technology), Amirkabir university of technology press, Tehran, Iran (2010).
[16] A. Ramezanianpour, Cement Replacement Materials: Properties, Durability, Sustainability, Springer (2014).
[17] G. Alexander, C. Fourie, Performance of Sewer Pipe Concrete Mixtures with Portland and Calcium Aluminate Cements Subject to Mineral and Biogenic Acid Attack. Materials and Structures, 44(1) (2011) 313-330.
[18] S. Aydin, H. Yazici, H. Yigiter, B. Baradan, Sulfuric acid resistance of high-volume fly ash concrete. Building and Environment, 42(2), (2007) 717-721.
[19] J. Monteny, N. De Belie, L. Taerwe, Resistance of different concrete mixtures to sulfuric acid. Mateirals & Structures, 36(4), (1994) 242-249.
[20] Y. Senhadji, G. Escadeillas, M. Mouli, H. Khelafi, Influence of natural pozzolan, silica fume and limestone fine on strength, acid resistance and microstructure of mortar. Powder Technology, 254, (2014) 314-323.
[21] J. Monteny, E. Vincke, A. Beeldens, N. De Belie, L. Taerwe, D. Van Gemert, W. Verstraete, Chemical, Microbiological and In-Situ Test Methods for Biogenic Sulfuric Acid Corrosion of Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 30(4), (2000) 623–634.
[22] E. Vincke, E. V. Wanseele, J. Monteny, A. Beeldens, N. De Belie, L. Taerwe, W. Verstraete, Influence of Polymer Addition on Biogenic Sulfuric Acid Attack of Concrete, International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 49(4), (2002) 283-292.
[23] L. Rombe`n, Aspects of Testing Methods for Acid Attack on Concrete., CBI Forskning Research, Cement-och betong institutet, Stockholm , (1979).
[24] Z. T. Chang, X.J. Song, R. Munn, M. Marosszeky Using Limestone Aggregates and Different Cements for Enhancing Resistance of Concrete to Sulphuric Acid Attack., Cement and Concrete Research, 35(8), (2005) 1486-1494.
[25] Road, house and urban development research center, Iranian concrete mix design, Road, house and urban development research center Press (In Persian).
[26] ASTM C989, Standard specification for slag cement for use in concrete and mortars, ASTM international, West Conshohocken, PA, (2014).
[27] ASTM C618-12, Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete, ASTM international, West Conshohocken, PA. (2012).
[28] ASTM C494, Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete., ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. (2014).
[29] EN 480-5, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods. Determination of capillary absorption, European Standard (EN), (1997).
[30] Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). Florida Method of Test for Concrete Resistivity as an Electrical Indicator of its Permeability, Florida Department of Transportation (2004).
[31] ASTM C597-09, Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete, ASTM international, West Conshohocken, PA, (2009).
[32] ASTM C1012, Length Change of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate Solution, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2004).