Desorption and retention of cadmium and phenol contaminants in single and combined systems in cement-based stabilization/solidification

Document Type : Research Article


1 Civil Eng. Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University; School of Civil Eng., University of Tehran

2 School of Civil Eng. University of Tehran


One of the suggested techniques to inhibit the spread of contaminants in the soil is cement-based stabilization/solidification. The production of hydration products and the attainment of an alkaline pH are the two primary processes in this method. In natural conditions, contaminants enter the soil simultaneously and in combination with each other. The simultaneous presence of organic and heavy metal contaminants alters how the soil-cement system interacts with each contaminant. The objective of this study is to compare the leaching and retention amount of cadmium and phenol separately and simultaneously in cement-based stabilization/solidification. In this context, the TCLP test has been used to assess the leaching amount of phenol and cadmium, as well as their retention capacity in single and combined systems. An X-ray diffraction test was also carried out to examine the microstructure of the stabilization/solidification process. The results indicate that the retention percentage of phenol in the presence of cadmium did not differ much compared to the single system, while the amount of cadmium retention decreased in the presence of phenol. In a combined system, the simultaneous presence of phenol and cadmium causes a reduction in the intensity of the C-S-H peak compared to single systems. However, the presence of cadmium had a greater effect on reducing the intensity of the C-S-H peak than phenol. Furthermore, in the presence of cadmium, the amount of phenol extracted during the TCLP test has increased compared to the single system.


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