Investigation of the effect of particle size and coal waste solution on sand stabilization with cement

Document Type : Research Article


M.S. Student, Civil Engineering department, Qom University of Technology.


The accumulation of coal waste from industry has made these materials available and economical to use in ground improvement, thereby reducing environmental pollution. Research has shown that adding cement to coal reduces coal pollution. Therefore, coal wastes of different sizes can be mixed with cement, and the resulting mixture can be used to stabilize and improve sandy soil in road construction or the construction of stone columns. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of particle size of coal wastes and coal leachate on the stabilization of fine sand with cement. To achieve this goal, different weight percentages of cement and coal wastes of various sizes were mixed, and the physical and strength characteristics of the resulting mixtures were investigated using several tests such as standard Proctor compaction and unconfined compression tests. To determine the optimal mixing ratio, the study examined the effect of the weight ratio of cement to coal wastes (0/100, 10/90, 20/80, 30/70, 40/60, 50/50) and the particle size of coal wastes passing Sieve No. 40, Sieve No. 200, as well as coal waste solution. The results show that the addition of finer particles of coal waste improves the strength of soils. The unconfined compression test results indicate that increasing the ratio of additives from 2.5% to 7.5% increases the compressive strength, and the optimal mixing ratio of additives is 90% cement and 10% fine coal waste particles.


Main Subjects

[1] J.-M. Dupas, A. Pecker, Static and Dynamic Properties of Sand-Cement, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 105(3) (1979) 419-436.
[2] G.W. Clough, N. Sitar, R.C. Bachus, N.S. Rad, Cemented Sands under Static Loading, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 107(6) (1981) 799-817.
[3] H. Bikdeli, M. Jiryaei Sharahi, B. Badarloo, A. Golabchifard, Experimental investigation of using reclaimed asphalt pavement aggregate in scrap tire encased stone column, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, 53(10) (2021) 4505-4518.
[4] M.S. Soltani, M. Jiryaei Sharahi, M. Amelsakhi, Effect of Zeolite and tire granules on cement stabilization of the sand, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, 54(2) (2022) 759-774.
[5] A. Giahi, M. Jiryaei Sharahi, B. Mohammadnezhad, Evaluation of a by-product and environmental-friendly chemical additives for clay soils with different mixing and curing methods, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, 53(2) (2021) 659-674.
[6] L. Li, Y. Lei, D. Pan, Economic and environmental evaluation of coal production in China and policy implications, Natural Hazards, 77(2) (2015) 1125-1141.
[7] M. Frías, M.S. De Rojas, R. García, A.J. Valdés, C. Medina, Effect of activated coal mining wastes on the properties of blended cement, Cement and concrete composites, 34(5) (2012) 678-683.
[8] C.R. dos Santos, J.R. do Amaral Filho, R.M.C. Tubino, I.A.H. Schneider, Use of coal waste as fine aggregates in concrete paving blocks,  (2013).
[9] M. Naghipour, M. Tazikeh, B. Hoseinian, The Use of Coal Waste in Concrete Construction & Survey of Compressive Strength, Concrete Research, 9(2) (2017) 43-53.
[10] H. Amiri, S. Azadi, M. Karimaei, H. Sadeghi, D. Farshad, Multi-objective optimization of coal waste recycling in concrete using response surface methodology, Journal of Building Engineering, 45 (2022) 103472.
[11] M. Taslimi Paein Afrakoti, A. Janalizadeh Choobbasti, M. Ghadakpour, S. Soleimani Kutanaei, Investigation of the effect of the coal wastes on the mechanical properties of the cement-treated sandy soil, Construction and Building Materials, 239 (2020) 117848.
[12] A. Modarres, Y.M. Nosoudy, Clay stabilization using coal waste and lime—Technical and environmental impacts, Applied clay science, 116 (2015) 281-288.
[13] O.P. Navagire, S.K. Sharma, D. Rambabu, Stabilization of black cotton soil with coal bottom ash, Materials Today: Proceedings, 52 (2022) 979-985.
[14] A. Modarres, S. Hesami, M. Soltaninejad, H. Madani, Application of coal waste in sustainable roller compacted concrete pavement-environmental and technical assessment, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 19(8) (2018) 748-761.
[15] S. Mansouri, M. Nasiri, A. Modarres, Technical and environmental impacts of coal waste used as a soil stabilizer in construction projects of forest roads, Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering: Journal for Theory and Application of Forestry Engineering, 42(3) (2021) 491-500.
[16] M.S. Shirin, M.M. Islam, M. Kumruzzaman, Stabilization of coal mine waste and its practical application as a road subgrade, American Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 5(5) (2020) 51-56.