The effect of cementing additives on the rheological properties, thickening time, and compressive strength in drilling operation

Document Type : Research Article


1 Petroleum Department/AUT

2 MSc. Petroleum Department/AUT


Plastic viscosity (PV), yield point (YP), fluid loss volume, thickening time, and compressive strength of cement are the main parameters that are necessary for a successful operation. In this study, 25 tests were done to design different slurries and find the effect of various additives, including extenders (bentonite and sodium silicate), accelerators (calcium chloride and sodium chloride), retarders (calcium lignosulfonate and CMHEC), and fluid loss controller (FLC). Calcium chloride provides acceptable results up to 6% of the weight of cement. For more than 6%, it provides unpredictable results. The amount of sodium chloride in high concentrations (30%) also acts as a retarder. Calcium lignosulfonate slows down thickening timeless than CMHEC, while CMHEC can retard the slurry more and increase the closing time. The slurry setting time trend increases in calcium lignosulfonate almost linearly while CMHEC increases nonlinearly. addition of FLC to cement water causes water to be retained in the slurry system and this causes the increase of this additive in the slurry to increase the setting time of cement and reduce its short-term strength (24 hours).


[1] A. Ahmed, A.A. Mahmoud, S. Elkatatny, W. Chen, The effect of weighting materials on oil-well cement properties while drilling deep wells, Sustainability, 11(23) (2019) 6776.
[2] M.A. Zomorrodian, Wellbore Integrity: Modifying and Characterizing Oil Well Cement To Enhance Wellbore Logging and Prevent Perforating Damages in Hydraulic Fractured Wells, 2014.
[3] G. Di Lullo, P. Rae, Cements for Long Term Isolation–Design Optimization by Computer Modelling and Prediction, in:  IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology, OnePetro, 2000.
[4] K. Johnstone, A. Gill, T. Conlon, M. Bahr, A. Waheed, Cementing Under Pressure in Well-Kill Operations: A Case History From the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, SPE Drilling & Completion, 23(02) (2008) 176-183.
[5] J. Azar, G. Samuel, Drilling Engineering Pennwell Corporation, Tulsa, OK,  (2007).
[6] A. Shahriar, Investigation on rheology of oil well cement slurries, The University of Western Ontario (Canada), 2011.
[7] L. Moran, T. Murray, Well cement fluid loss additive and method, 1991.
[8] F.L. Sabins, D.L. Sutton, The Relationship of Thickening Time. Gel Strength, and Compressive Strength of Oilwell Cements, SPE Production Engineering, 1(02) (1986) 143-152.
[9] W. Mahmood, A. Mohammed, K. Ghafor, Viscosity, yield stress and compressive strength of cement-based grout modified with polymers, Results in materials, 4 (2019) 100043.
[10] H. Eskandari-Naddaf, R. Kazemi, ANN prediction of cement mortar compressive strength, influence of cement strength class, Construction and Building Materials, 138 (2017) 1-11.
[11] K. Frenkenberger, S. Köhler, T. Heichele, K.-D. Hötzl, P. Weiss, A. Dressen, Cement accelerator, in, Google Patents, 2013.
[12] N. Shanahan, A. Sedaghat, A. Zayed, Effect of cement mineralogy on the effectiveness of chloride-based accelerator, Cement and Concrete Composites, 73 (2016) 226-234.
[13] J. Potgieter, S. Potgieter, R. McCrindle, C. Strydom, An investigation into the effect of various chemical and physical treatments of a South African phosphogypsum to render it suitable as a set retarder for cement, Cement and concrete research, 33(8) (2003) 1223-1227.
[14] M. Zajac, J. Skocek, F. Bullerjahn, M.B. Haha, Effect of retarders on the early hydration of calcium-sulpho-aluminate (CSA) type cements, Cement and Concrete Research, 84 (2016) 62-75.
[15] L.E. Brothers, D.W. Lindsey, D.T. Terry, Set retarded cement compositions and methods for well cementing, in, Google Patents, 1991.
[16] S. Gruber, J. Plank, Preparation and effectiveness of a high-temperature anti-settling agent for well cement slurries, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 81 (2020) 103416.
[17] W.S. Bray, W.R. Wood, Well cementing method using a dispersant and fluid loss intensifier, in, Google Patents, 1992.
[18] T. Kaduku, M. Daramola, F. Obazu, S. Iyuke, Synthesis of sodium silicate from South African coal fly ash and its use as an extender in oil well cement applications, Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 115(12) (2015) 1175-1182.
[19] S.C. Crema, C.H. Kucera, G. Konrad, H. Hartmann, Fluid loss control additives for oil well cementing compositions, in, Google Patents, 1991.
[20] A.P. Institute, API Specification for cements and materials for well cementing: API Spec. 10A, in, American Petroleum Institute Washington, 2002.
[21] E.B. Nelson, J.-F. Baret, M. Michaux, 3 Cement additives and mechanisms of action, in:  Developments in Petroleum Science, Elsevier, 1990, pp. 3-1-3-37.