Efficiency of various binders in solidification/stabilization of heavy metals and compressive strength in sludge of Ceramic tile factory Niloufar in Birjand

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

3 Assistant professor-Department of Earth Sciences Engineering- Arak University of Technology-Arak-Iran


Solidification/stabilization (S/S) is a common process in the treatment of sludge containing heavy metals. In this study, S/S of ceramic tile industry sludge was investigated using cement and additives like water, lime, microsilica, and clay. By response surface methodology, the effect of different additives on compressive strength and metals concentration after the pollution leakage test was evaluated. Results showed the highest compressive strength in high amounts of cement. Decreasing the waste and replacing more lime, clay, and microsilica, the compressive strength increased. Under obtained optimum conditions, by 5.77% lime, 8.69% clay, 4.35% microsilica, and 51.84% cement, the maximum compressive strength was achieved at about 116 kg/cm2. The minimum concentration of Cr was 0.0782 mg/L and resulted from 11.23% lime, 21.31% clay, 10.65% microsilica and 27.46% cement. Minimum Pb concentration (0.0043 mg/L) was obtained in 11.23% lime, 21.31% clay, 4.35% microsilica and 33.76% cement. The more efficiency in compressive strength is related to cement. In addition, applying the binders concluded the effective reduction of Cr and Pb concentration in leaching the stabilized samples.


Main Subjects

[1] A.A. Aydın, A. Aydın, Development of an immobilization process for heavy metal containing galvanic solid wastes by use of sodium silicate and sodium tetraborate, Journal of hazardous materials, 270 (2014) 35-44.
[2] O. Amuda, A. Giwa, I. Bello, Removal of heavy metal from industrial wastewater using modified activated coconut shell carbon, Biochemical Engineering Journal, 36(2) (2007) 174-181.
[3] D. Sud, G. Mahajan, M. Kaur, Agricultural waste material as potential adsorbent for sequestering heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions–A review, Bioresource technology, 99(14) (2008) 6017-6027.
[4] Y. Shao, H. Hou, G. Wang, S. Wan, M. Zhou, Characteristics of the stabilized/solidified municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash and the leaching behavior of Cr and Pb, Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 10(1) (2016) 192-200.
[5] C. Shi, R. Spence, Designing of cement-based formula for solidification/stabilization of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes, Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 34(4) (2004) 391-417.
[6] M. Alcántara, J. Gómez, M. Pazos, M.A. Sanromán, Electrokinetic remediation of lead and phenanthrene polluted soils, Geoderma, 173 (2012) 128-133.
[7] S. Asavapisit, S. Naksrichum, N. Harnwajanawong, Strength, leachability and microstructure characteristics of cement-based solidified plating sludge, Cement and Concrete Research, 35(6) (2005) 1042-1049.
[8] R.D. Spence, C. Shi, Stabilization and solidification of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes, CRC press, 2004.
[9] S. USEPA, Stabilization Use at Superfund Sites, EPA 542-R-00-010, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC, 2000.
[10] A.L. Abdul Rani, N.A. Rashid, M.A.H. Abdullah, M.F. Omar, Evaluation on physical and chemical properties of treated industrial wastewater sludge containing latex and heavy metals using ordinary Portland cement via stabilization / solidification technique, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 864(1) (2020) 012174.
[11] A.L. Abdul Rani, N.A. Rashid, M.A.H. Abdullah, M.F. Omar, A.S. Salim, N.A.I. Anuar, Studies on factors affecting unconfined compressive strength of industrial rubber sludge containing heavy metals treated using ordinary Portland cement via stabilization/solidification technique, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 932(1) (2020) 012046.
[12] Y. Xi, X. Wu, H. Xiong, Solidification/stabilization of Pb-contaminated soils with cement and other additives, Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 23(8) (2014) 887-898.
[13] B. Hale, L. Evans, R. Lambert, Effects of cement or lime on Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn mobility in field-contaminated and aged soils, Journal of hazardous materials, 199 (2012) 119-127.
[14] G.E. Voglar, D. Leštan, Solidification/stabilisation of metals contaminated industrial soil from former Zn smelter in Celje, Slovenia, using cement as a hydraulic binder, Journal of hazardous materials, 178(1-3) (2010) 926-933.
[15] C.-K. Park, Hydration and solidification of hazardous wastes containing heavy metals using modified cementitious materials, Cement and Concrete Research, 30(3) (2000) 429-435.
[16] M. Zain, M. Islam, S. Radin, S. Yap, Cement-based solidification for the safe disposal of blasted copper slag, Cement and Concrete Composites, 26(7) (2004) 845-851.
[17] C.Y. Rha, S.K. Kang, C.E. Kim, Investigation of the stability of hardened slag paste for the stabilization/solidification of wastes containing heavy metal ions, Journal of hazardous materials, 73(3) (2000) 255-267.
[18] V. Bednarik, M. Vondruska, M. Koutny, Stabilization/solidification of galvanic sludges by asphalt emulsions, Journal of hazardous materials, 122(1-2) (2005) 139-145.
[19] D.H. Moon, M. Wazne, I.-H. Yoon, D.G. Grubb, Assessment of cement kiln dust (CKD) for stabilization/solidification (S/S) of arsenic contaminated soils, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 159(2-3) (2008) 512-518.
[20] M. Vyšvařil, P. Bayer, Immobilization of heavy metals in natural zeolite-blended cement pastes, Procedia Engineering, 151 (2016) 162-169.
[21] G.Y. Al-Kindi, Evaluation the solidification/stabilization of heavy metals by Portland cement, Journal of Ecological Engineering, 20(3) (2019).
[22] K. Piekkari, K. Ohenoja, V. Isteri, P. Tanskanen, M. Illikainen, Immobilization of heavy metals, selenate, and sulfate from a hazardous industrial side stream by using calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement, Journal of Cleaner Production, 258 (2020) 120560.
[23] W.-l. Zhang, L.-y. Zhao, B.A. McCabe, Y.-h. Chen, L. Morrison, Dredged marine sediments stabilized/solidified with cement and GGBS: Factors affecting mechanical behaviour and leachability, Science of The Total Environment, 733 (2020) 138551.
[24] Z. Luo, C. Tang, Y. Hao, Z. Wang, G. Yang, Y. Wang, Y. Mu, Solidification/stabilization of heavy metals and its efficiency in lead–zinc tailings using different chemical agents, Environmental Technology, 43(11) (2022) 1613-1623.
[26] J. Ren, L. Dai, L. Tao, Stabilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge by attapulgite, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 71(3) (2021) 392-399.
[27] L. Liu, L. Huang, R. Huang, H. Lin, D. Wang, Immobilization of heavy metals in biochar derived from co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and calcium sulfate, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 403 (2021) 123648.
[28] M. Tantawy, A. El-Roudi, A. Salem, Immobilization of Cr (VI) in bagasse ash blended cement pastes, Construction and Building Materials, 30 (2012) 218-223.
[29] M.I. Ojovan, W.E. Lee, S.N. Kalmykov, An introduction to nuclear waste immobilisation, Elsevier, 2019.
[30] A. Antemir, C.D. Hills, P.J. Carey, K.H. Gardner, E.R. Bates, A.K. Crumbie, Long-term performance of aged waste forms treated by stabilization/solidification, Journal of hazardous materials, 181(1-3) (2010) 65-73.
[31] J. Duchesne, G. Laforest, Evaluation of the degree of Cr ions immobilization by different binders, Cement and Concrete Research, 34(7) (2004) 1173-1177.
[32] A.I. Khuri, S. Mukhopadhyay, Response surface methodology, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics, 2(2) (2010) 128-149.
[33] F. Geyikçi, E. Kılıç, S. Çoruh, S. Elevli, Modelling of lead adsorption from industrial sludge leachate on red mud by using RSM and ANN, Chemical Engineering Journal, 183 (2012) 53-59.
[34] B. Cubukcuoglu, S. Ouki, Solidification/stabilisation of electric arc furnace waste using low grade MgO, Chemosphere, 86(8) (2012) 789-796.
[35] R. del Valle-Zermeño, J. Giro-Paloma, J. Formosa, J. Chimenos, Low-grade magnesium oxide by-products for environmental solutions: characterization and geochemical performance, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 152 (2015) 134-144.
[36] M. Mohebbi, S. Gitipour, E. Madadian, Solidification/Stabilization of Cresol-Contaminated Soil: Mechanical and Leaching Behavior, Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 22(7) (2013) 783-799.
[37] R. Malviya, R. Chaudhary, Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: A review, Journal of hazardous materials, 137(1) (2006) 267-276.