Static examination of the interface behavior of the filter soil material-the asphaltic concrete core using direct shear apparatus- Case study: Mijran dam

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

2 Department of Geology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


 Recently, the advantages of using asphalt concrete in the core compared to the clayey core have increased the application of core asphalt concrete in embankment dams. Due to the importance of the interfacial behavior of the asphaltic core and soil filter in the stability of these dams and the need for a more detailed investigation of the complex behavior of materials in the core-­filter interface, in the present research, interfacial behavior of soil filter and asphalt core in the Mijran embankment dam (Mazandaran province) was investigated. For this purpose, a direct shear apparatus on a large scale is used. Soil materials­, including clayey gravel (GC) and poorly graded gravel (GP), are according to the grain size distribution used in Mijran dam construction­. In this research, the influence of factors such as compaction percentage of filter material and shear rate were investigated on shear strength and interlocking parameters (­dilatancy angle and shear stiffness)­, as well as interaction ratio in the soil of filter and the core asphalt concrete interface. In this investigation, the ratio of the interfacial friction angle of soil material- asphalt concrete to the soil materials friction angle was defined as the interaction ratio. According to the findings, upon increasing the compaction level, the increasing amount in the interaction ratio in the interface GP material was higher compared to the GC material in the interface. On the other hand, the influence of the shear rate on the interaction ratio was similar in both the GC and GP materials in the interface.


Main Subjects

[1] M. Fatahian, M. Yousofzadeh, Y. Koohzadian, Analysis Of Foundation And Fuselage Of Dams In Static And Quasi-Static By Using Numerical Models, Journal of Engineering & Construction Management, 1(2) (2016) 11-15.
[2] H. Shafiei, M.S. Eskandari, A review of the embankment dam with asphalt concrete core, International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations, 5(8) (2016) 111-114.
[3] J. Gao, F. Dang, Z. Ma, Y. Xue, J. Ren, Improvement methods for reduction of the high stress of ultra-high asphalt concrete core dams, Applied Sciences, 9(21) (2019) 4618.
[4] K. Höeg, Asphaltic concrete cores for embankment dams, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Publicatie1993.
[5] M. Tajdini, R. Mahinroosta, H. Taherkhani, An investigation on the mechanical properties of granular materials in interface with asphaltic concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 62 (2014) 85-95.
[6] M. Tajdini, A. Arjroodi, A. Mahpour, Investigation of Parameters Interface of Asphaltic Concrete and Sand, Journal of Transportation Research, 16(2) (2019) 189-198.
[7] S. Feizi Khankandi , A.A. Mirghasemi, A. Ghalandarzadh, K. Hoeg, Cyclic triaxial tests on asphalt concrete as a water barrier for embankment dam, Soils and foundations, 48(3) (2008) 319-332.
[8] M.M. Khansari, Investigating and comparison of two types of rockfill dams with asphaltic core and clay core of the Salt river dam in Kerman province, in:  The First National Conference of Water Resources of Iran ( INCWR ), The regional water company of Kermanshah, Kermanshah, The regional water company of Kermanshah, Kermanshah, 2010, pp. 609-618.
[9] M. Tajdini, A. Rostami, M.M. Karimi, H. Taherkhani, Evaluation of the geo-mechanical parameters of the interface between asphalt concrete and sand with applying direct shear test and numerical modeling, Advanced Materials Research, 587 (2012) 116-121.
[10] A. Akhtarpour, A. Khodaii, Experimental study of asphaltic concrete dynamic properties as an impervious core in embankment dams, Construction and Building Materials, 41 (2013) 319-334.
[11] M.R. Keymanesh, S. Kie-Badroodi, P.J. Haghighatpour, An examination of the effect of bitumen content on the performance of moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixture under freeze-thaw cycles, International Journal of Engineering Innovation & Research, 3(6) (2014) 909-914.
[12] W. Wang, K. Höeg, Simplified material model for analysis of asphalt core in embankment dams, Construction and Building Materials, 124 (2016) 199-207.
[13] A. Abdelaziz, C.-H. Ho, J. Shan, A. Almonnieay, Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on fatigue cracking and rutting of asphalt pavements, in:  Pavement and Asset Management, CRC Press, 2019, pp. 199-205.
[14] J.-W. Seo, D.-W. Park, T.H.M. Le, Development of an asphalt concrete mixture for Asphalt Core Rockfill Dam, Construction and Building Materials, 140 (2017) 301-309.
[15] W. Wang, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, Investigation of interface between asphalt core and gravel transition zone in embankment dams, Construction and Building Materials, 185 (2018) 148-155.
[16] N. Merga Bayisa, Relative performance evaluation of asphaltic concrete core embankment dam and clay core embankment dam: By Plaxis software application, American Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, 4(1) (2019) 18-29.
[17] L. Cong, M. Ren, J. Shi, F. Yang, G. Guo, Experimental investigation on performance deterioration of asphalt mixture under freeze–thaw cycles, International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, 9(3) (2020) 218-228.
[18] D. Gemeda, The Alternative Design of Gidabo Embankment Dam: by Introducing Asphalt Concrete Core Southern Ethiopia, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 11(3) (2020) 1158-1175.
[19] M. Hamed, W.S. Sidik, H. Canakci, F. Celik, R.N. Georgees, Characterization of shear strength and interface friction of organic soil, Key engineering materials, 857 (2020) 203-211.
[20] M. Zhang, S. Sang, Y. Wang, X. Bai, Factors influencing the mechanical characteristics of a pile–soil interface in clay soil, Frontiers in Earth Science, 7 (2020) 364.
[21] M. Beren, I. Cobanoglu, S.B. Celik, O. Undul, Shear rate effect on strength characteristics of sandy soils, Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering,, 57(4) (2020) 281-287.
[22] J. Ghaffari, R. Binay, Investigation of loading rate effect on the shear strength of clay-sand mixture in triaxial test, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, 53(4) (2021) 21-21.
[23] A. Bek, G. Jeftić, S. Strelec, J. Jug, INFLUENCE OF SHEAR RATE ON THE SOIL'S SHEAR STRENGTH, Environmental Engineering-Inženjerstvo okoliša, 8(1-2) (2021) 39-47.
[24] D. Raj Bhat, Shear rate effect on residual strength of typical clay soils, Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 7(1) (2022) 1-16.
[26] Mijran Reservoir Dam Monitoring (in Persian), Mazandaran Regional Water Company, Soil and Water Resources Engineering Company.
[27] ASTM-D3080, Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils under Consolidated Drained Conditions, in West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
[28] ASTM-D422, Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils, in West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
[29] ASTM-D4318, Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils, in West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
[30] ASTM-D1557, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3)), in West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
[31] ASTM-D4254, Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density, in West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
[32] ASTM-D5581, Standard Test Method for Resistance to Plastic Flow of Bituminous Mixtures Using Marshall Apparatus (6 inch-Diameter Specimen), in West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
[33] AASHTO-T166, Bulk Specific Gravity (Gmb) of Compacted Asphalt Mixtures Using Saturated Surface-Dry Specimens, in American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials.
[34] AASHTO-T245, Standard Method of Test for Resistance to Plastic Flow of Asphalt Mixtures using Marshall Apparatus, in American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials.
[35] M. Fakhri, A. Ghanizadeh, Determination of Optimum Bitumen Content In Marshall Mix Design Method Using a Nonlinear Programming Model, Journal of Transportation Research, 3(4) (2007) 305-314.
[36] A. Hamidi, V. Yazdanjou, N. Salimi, Shear strength characteristics of sand-gravel mixtures, International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 3(1) (2009) 29-38.
[37] S.A.M.a.E. Shooshpasha, Comparison of the relative density effect on the behaviour of coarse-grained soils in the large-scale and small-scale direct shear tests, in: International Congress on Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Development,  Shahid Beheshti University,Tehran, Iran, 2016, pp. 1-12(in Persian).
[38] A. Komak Panah, E. Gangali, Investigation on the Effect of Specimen Size and Degradation of the Soils in the Strength Parameters in Direct Shear Test, Modares Civil Engineering journal, 12(4) (2013) 99-106.
[39] A. Sezer, S. Altun, B. Ahmet Goktepe, Relationships between shape characteristics and shear strength of sands, Soils and Foundations, 51(5) (2011) 857-871.
[40] S.M.a.A. Hamidi, Investigating the effect of coarse-grained gravel size on the strength - dilation relationship of mixed soils, in:  The fourth national conference of applied research in civil engineering , architecture and urban management, Khajeh Nasiral-din Tusi industrial university, Tehran (in Persian)
[41] R.J. Fragaszy, W. Su, F.H. Siddiqi, Effects of oversize particles on the density of clean granular soils, Geotechnical Testing Journal, 13(2) (1990) 106-114.
[42] M. Budhu, Soil Mechanics and Foundations. John Wley& Sons, 2000.
[43] A. Masoudian, An experimental investigation of dilative behavior of rockfill materials using direct shear box, M.Sc.  thesis on Civil Engineering -Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch(in Persian). , 2012.
[44] F. Musa Khani, A. Laki Rouhani, laboratory examination of the effects of particle size and change of normal stress oninternal friction angle and dilation angle and shear stiffness of granular soils with direct shear test, in:  the first National Conference of Geotechnical Engineering , Ardebil, 2013, pp. 1-8 (in Persian).
[45] A.I. Al-Mhaidib, Shearing rate effect on interfacial friction between sand and steel, in:  The Fifteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, OnePetro, 2005.
[46] M. Afrazi, M. Yazdani, A. Fakhimi, M. Alitalesh, Numerical analysis of effective parameters in direct shear test by hybrid discrete–finite element method, Modares Civil Engineering journal, 18(3) (2018) 13-24.
[47] J.E. Bowles, Foundation analysis and design, 1988.