Investigation of the effect of natural windbreaks on flowing sandy soils and determining the type of optimal windbreak using the method (DBA) (Case study of Sistan and Baluchestan province)

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ihu

2 Khajeh Nasir al-Din Tusi University


Sistan and Baluchestan province is located in the southeast of Iran and has a dry and unfavorable climate. Due to environmental changes such as the drying up of Lake Hamoon and the occurrence of so-called 120-day winds, suitable conditions have been provided for wind erosion of the soil and the occurrence of dust storms and the movement of sand dunes at high speed. One way to prevent this is to use natural windbreaks. Windbreaks are defined as barriers that reduce wind speed and usually use vegetation as a barrier. The function of windbreaks is to reduce wind speed, change the direction and angle of the wind around the windbreak area. By locating and constructing windbreaks, the movement of flowing hills can be prevented to a large extent. The purpose of this study is to determine the appropriate plant species in the province for the construction of natural windbreaks and select the optimal sample using the distance-based method. Also, with the studies performed, the amount of decrease in wind speed before and after the windbreak and the appropriate distance of its construction from a specific area were determined. Finally, it was found that Chesh and Kurt, coriander, turmeric, hawthorn and almond trees are suitable species for planting in this area. Also, using the DBA method, it was determined that the Acacia Nilotica tree is more optimal than other species for the construction of windbreaks.


Main Subjects

[1] M. Mohammad, Determining the trend of desertification in vulnerable areas of Iran based on climatic indicators and relying on mathematical models, Master Thesis in Climatology,  (2002) 145.(in Persian).
[2] O. Kamal, Natural hazards, (1) (2012) (in Persian).
[3] A. Al-Quraishi, Sand dunes monitoring using remote sensing and GIS techniques for some sites in Iraq, International Society for Optics and Photonics: Sanya, China,  (2013).
[4] m.h. Ramesht, a. sife, s. mahmoodi, Study the spread amount sand dunes at the east of jask in the time interval of (1990 to 2004) by gis & rs, geography and development, 11(31) (2013) (in Persian).
[5] A.M. Youssef, Mapping of Sand Dunes/Sheets/Accumulations Using Remote Sensing and their Potential Hazards in the New Projects West of El-Kawamel Area, Sohag, Egypt, Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Earth Sciences, 24(1) (2013) (in Persian).
[6] M. Takahashi, Z. Feng, T.A. Mikhailova, O.V. Kalugina, O.V. Shergina, L.V. Afanasieva, R.K.J. Heng, N.M. Abd Majid, H. Sase, Air pollution monitoring and tree and forest decline in East Asia: a review, Science of the Total Environment, 742 (2020) 140288.
[7] H.M. Taleb, M. Kayed, Applying porous trees as a windbreak to lower desert dust concentration: Case study of an urban community in Dubai, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 57 (2021) 126915.(in Persian).
[8] F. Firoozi, N. Nikpour, Z. Rakhshani, Investigating the development of sand dunes in Sistan plain and its impact on people's lives, in:  International Conference on Dust in Southwest Asia, undefined, 2020, pp. (in Persian).
[10] L.W. Price, Hedges and shelterbelts on the Canterbury Plains, New Zealand: transformation of an antipodean landscape, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 83(1) (1993) 119-140.
[11] W. Dierickx, Field evaluation of windbreak protection for orchards, Biosystems engineering, 84(2) (2003) 159-170.
[12] J. Caborn, Shelterbelts and microclimate Forestry commission Bulletin No 29 Edinburgh,  (1957).
[13] T. Ucar, F.R. Hall, Windbreaks as a pesticide drift mitigation strategy: a review, Pest Management Science: formerly Pesticide Science, 57(8) (2001) 663-675.
[14] J.P.L.L.E. Buck, D. Current, A.M.G.N.V. Thevathasan, P.R. Nair, M.G.H. Garrett, S.J.E.J.H. Andrew, R. Gillespie, J.R.B.L.H. John, T.R.A. Sudmeyer, S.S.D.B.T. Clason, North American Agroforestry: An integrated science and practice,  (2009).
[15] C. Mize, J.R. Brandle, M. Schoeneberger, G. Bentrup, Ecological development and function of shelterbelts in temperate North America, in:  Toward Agroforestry Design, Springer, 2008, pp. 27-54.
[16] I. Amiri, S. Amiri Dumari, M. Faramarzpour, J. Darini, Determining the optimal distances between rows of windbreaks using wind erosion threshold speed in dry areas (Case study: South of Kerman), in:  International Conference and Third National Conference on Agriculture, Environment and Food Security, undefined, 2019, pp. (in Persian).
[17] H. Ahmadi, Applied geomorphology (wind erosion),  (2012) 706.(in Persian).
[18] M. Karimi, G. Moradi, M. Omidy, M.R. Ahmadi, Investigation of windbreak construction on the edge of Miqan desert using prevailing wind, in:  National Conference on Science and Technology of Agricultural Sciences, Natural Resources and Environment of Iran, undefined, 2017, pp. (in Persian).
[19] B. Chen, Y. Nakama, Y. Zhang, Traditional village forest landscapes: Tourists' attitudes and preferences for conservation, Tourism Management, 59 (2017) 652-662.
[20] A. Al-Dousari, M. Ahmed, N. Al-Dousari, S. Al-Awadhi, Environmental and economic importance of native plants and green belts in controlling mobile sand and dust hazards, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16(5) (2019) 2415-2426.
[21] G. Jamali Nia, A. Fakhir, Determine the optimal windbreak height to reduce dust diffusion using wind tunnels, in:  International Congress of Civil Engineering, undefined, 2016, pp. (in Persian).
[22] Z. Jian, L. Bo, W. Mingyue, Study on windbreak performance of tree canopy by numerical simulation method, The Journal of Computational Multiphase Flows, 10(4) (2018) 259-265.
[23] B.B. Stunder, S. Arya, Windbreak effectiveness for storage pile fugitive dust control: a wind tunnel study, JAPCA, 38(2) (1988) 135-143.
[24] B.-S. Shiau, Windbreak shelter effect in Taichung Harbor, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 51(1) (1994) 29-41.
[25] C.-W. Park, S.-J. Lee, Verification of the shelter effect of a windbreak on coal piles in the POSCO open storage yards at the Kwang-Yang works, Atmospheric Environment, 36(13) (2002) 2171-2185.
[26] W. Cornelis, D. Gabriels, Optimal windbreak design for wind-erosion control, Journal of Arid Environments, 61(2) (2005) 315-332.
[27] R. JanMohammadi, M.R. Mollai Nia, The effect of eucalyptus tree windbreak on changes in wind speed, temperature and humidity, in:  The International Conference on Recent Progresses in Civil Engineering, undefined, iran(amol), 2018, pp. (in Persian).
[28] D.B. Lindenmayer, W.F. Laurance, The ecology, distribution, conservation and management of large old trees, Biological Reviews, 92(3) (2017) 1434-1458.
[30] A.Q. Arazi, M.H. Emtahani, M.R. Ekhtesasi, H. Soodaizadeh, Investigation of the effect of distance between turmeric trees as a live windbreak on alfalfa yield (Case study: Ardakan city(in:  National cinference on modern scienced & technologies (MAST), undefined, iran(zanjan), 2015, pp. (in Persian).
[31] A. Lalozaei, M.R.D. Ghaleno, M. Ebrahimi, effect of the tree windbreakers of tamarix and eucalyptus on some physical and chemical properties of soil in hamoon plain, Watershed engineering and management, 7(4) (2016) 536 - 542, (in Persian).
[32] a. hami, n. farikhi, n. khodayary, Numerical simulation of windbreak trees performance using CFD, University of Tabriz,  (2019) (in Persian).
[33] R. Garg, K. Sharma, R. Kumar, R. Garg, Performance analysis of software reliability models using matrix method, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 71 (2010) 31-38.
[34] s.d.R.P. Manmeet Analysis of inventory policies in manufacturing industries using distance based approach method, Journal of critical reviews,  (2020).