Seismic Vulnerability Study of Derrick Supported Flare Using Incremental Dynamic Analysis

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Qom University, Qom, Iran

2 Department of Civil engineering, Engineering faculty, university of Qom, Qom, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Structural Engineering Research Center, International Institute of Earthquakes Engineering and Seismology


The vulnerability of industrial plants to natural hazards has made the world worried because of countries' general disability about the prediction of the level of effects and preparedness for the consequences of these types of events. For this purpose, seismic assessment of plant equipment is a strategic issue. One of the most equipment that is used in most oil & gas plants is stack flares. Stack flares are a type of stacks that are used for burning additional flammable gases before causing any other problem for other plant facilities. Proper seismic assessment of this type of equipment has been missed in the past and its exact performance evaluation can be effective in determining probable damages in future earthquakes and distinguishing the weakness of components of this type of structure. In this study, probabilistic seismic behavior of two designed and constructed stack flares is investigated and using incremental dynamic analysis their fragility curve and behavior factor are calculated. Results show that in ordinary intensities, the seismic demand of these structures is not considerable but in the range of rare intensities, extreme damages are probable. Also, in the above case studies, the performance of the 4-sided stack with respect to 3-sided stack was more proper and seems more assessment is needed on the suggested behavior factor by codes.


Main Subjects

[1] E. Krausmann, A.M. Cruz, E. Salzano, Natech risk assessment and management: reducing the risk of natural-hazard impact on hazardous installations, Elsevier, 2016.
[2] A.M. Cruz, Challenges in NaTech risk reduction, Revista de Ingeniería, (37) (2012) 79-86.
[3] W.B. Group, Global Gas Flaring Reduction A Public-Private Partnership World Bank Group A Voluntary Standard For Global Gas Flaring And Venting Reduction, 2004.
[4] G. Fabbrocino, I. Iervolino, F. Orlando, E. Salzano, Quantitative risk analysis of oil storage facilities in seismic areas, Journal of hazardous materials, 123(1-3) (2005) 61-69.
[5] E. Renni, E. Krausmann, V. Cozzani, Industrial accidents triggered by lightning, Journal of hazardous materials, 184(1-3) (2010) 42-48.
[6] A. Standard, Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems, in, API Publishing Services, Texas A&M University/5912186001, 2014.
[7] F. Akeredolu, J. Sonibare, A review of the usefulness of gas flares in air pollution control, Management of environmental quality: an international journal,  (2004).
[8] I.E. Hata, Tokyo Services, Power, Research on Response Control System, 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon Portugal,  (2012).
[9] Y. Miyajima, I. Hata, M. Mashimo, M. Ogihara, T. Ishida, Response Control Systems by Tuned Dynamic Mass System for a 200-meter-tall tower-supported steel stack structure, in:  Proceedings of the 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, paper ID, 2017.
[10] A.C. Caputo, A. Vigna, Numerical Simulation of Seismic Risk and Loss Propagation Effects in Process Plants: An Oil Refinery Case Study, in:  Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2017, pp. V008T008A024.
[11] Study on Criminal Penalties in a Few Candidate Countries’ Environmental Law For the European Commission (DG Environment), 2003.
[12] A.C. Caputo, F. Paolacci, O.S. Bursi, R. Giannini, Problems and perspectives in seismic quantitative risk analysis of chemical process plants, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 141(1) (2019).
[13] R. Matsui, T. Takeuchi, K. Horiuchi, A. Imamura, T. Ogawa, Seismic Effect Of Members Fracture On Truss Tower, in:  IABSE Symposium Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2015, pp. 1-8.
[14] B. SayyafZadeh, S. Kouhestani, M. Sharifi, Derrick-Supported Flare-Stacks Seismic Fragility Assessment: A Case Study, Reliability Engineering and Resilience, 2(2) (2020) 1-16.
[15] F. Prestandard, commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings (FEMA356), Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency, 7(2) (2000).
[16] m.A.o.B. Officials, Uniform Building Code UBC-97 - Chapter 16, Division IV - Earthquake Design, in, 1997.
[17] C.f. Standardisation, EN 1993-3-1: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 3-1: Towers, masts and chimneys – Towers and masts, in.
[18] A. Mwafy, A.S. Elnashai, Calibration of force reduction factors of RC buildings, Journal of earthquake engineering, 6(02) (2002) 239-273.
[19] D.Z. Tzvetan Georgiev, Lora Raycheva Performance assessment of concentrically braced frames with modified braces depending on the applied beam-column joints, Eccomas Proceedia,  (2017).
[20] C. Urzúa, R. Herrera, Comparison of the seismic behaviour of two industrial steel structures designed in accordance with chilean practices and aisc requirements.
[21] M.R. Tabeshpour, M.H. Erfani, H. Sayyadi, Study on ultimate capacity of offshore jacket platforms considering the effects of general and local buckling of the elements, Advances in Solid and Fluid Mechanics., 1(1) (2019) 9-17.
[22] H. Pan, L. Tian, X. Fu, H. Li, Sensitivities of the seismic response and fragility estimate of a transmission tower to structural and ground motion uncertainties, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 167 (2020) 105941.
[23] L. Tian, H. Pan, R. Ma, L. Zhang, Z. Liu, Full-scale test and numerical failure analysis of a latticed steel tubular transmission tower, Engineering Structures, 208 (2020) 109919.
[24] D. Vamvatsikos, Seismic performance, capacity and reliability of structures as seen through incremental dynamic analysis, Stanford University, 2002.
[25] I. Iervolino, C.A. Cornell, Record selection for nonlinear seismic analysis of structures, Earthquake Spectra, 21(3) (2005) 685-713.
[26] D. Vamvatsikos, C.A. Cornell, Applied incremental dynamic analysis, Earthquake spectra, 20(2) (2004) 523-553.
[27] A.T. Council, FEMA P695 - Quantification of building seismic performance factors, US Department of Homeland Security, FEMA, 2009.
[28] J.-S. Chiou, C.-H. Chiang, H.-H. Yang, S.-Y. Hsu, Developing fragility curves for a pile-supported wharf, Soil dynamics and earthquake engineering, 31(5-6) (2011) 830-840.
[29] L. Tian, H. Pan, R. Ma, Probabilistic seismic demand model and fragility analysis of transmission tower subjected to near-field ground motions, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 156 (2019) 266-275.
[30] H. Krawinkler, G. Seneviratna, Pros and cons of a pushover analysis of seismic performance evaluation, Engineering structures, 20(4-6) (1998) 452-464.
[31] R. Allahvirdizadeh, Y. Gholipour, Reliability evaluation of predicted structural performances using nonlinear static analysis, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15(5) (2017) 2129-2148.
[32] N. Ahmad, M. Masoudi, Eccentric steel brace retrofit for seismic upgrading of deficient reinforced concrete frames, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 18(6) (2020) 2807-2841.
[33] C.-M. Uang, Establishing R (or R w) and C d factors for building seismic provisions, Journal of structural Engineering, 117(1) (1991) 19-28.
[34] N. Fanaie, S. Ezzatshoar, Studying the seismic behavior of gate braced frames by incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 99 (2014) 111-120.
[35] B. Asgarian, H. Shokrgozar, BRBF response modification factor, Journal of constructional steel research, 65(2) (2009) 290-298.
[36] S. Etli, E.M. Güneyisi, Assessment of Seismic Behavior Factor of Code-Designed Steel–Concrete Composite Buildings, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 46(5) (2021) 4271-4292.
[37] E. Krausmann, A.M. Cruz, B. Affeltranger, The impact of the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake on industrial facilities, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 23(2) (2010) 242-248.