Evaluation of Moisture Durability of Modified Asphalt Mixture with Nano-Titanium Dioxide Using Surface Free Energy Method

Document Type : Research Article


1 Faculty of Civil Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

3 Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Moisture damage is one of the forms of asphalt pavement distress that occurs due to the presence of water and its effect on the mechanical properties of the asphalt mixture. Using nanomaterial as an additive is one of the solutions that delays this event and increases the durability of the mixture. In this study, the effect of nanomaterial (Nano-TiO2) on the moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures was investigated using the surface free energy method, indirect tensile strength test (ITS) and resilient modulus (Mr). Asphalt samples were fabricated by neat bitumen with a penetration grade of 85/100 and Siliceous aggregate. The bitumen was modified with 3and 6% (weight of bitumen) of Nano-TiO2. The results of the bitumen section indicate that by modifying the bitumen with Nano-TiO2, the acidic component of surface free energy decreases and its basic component increases. On the other hand, as the non-polar component increases, the bitumen-free energy would be increased. The addition of Nano-TiO2 to the asphalt mixture also increased the TSR. TSR reduction through the different freezing-thaw cycles for the modified mixtures was less compared to the control mixtures. The separation energy between bitumen-rock materials is also reduced by modifying the bitumen with this nanomaterial. Therefore, it improves the stripping resistance of the asphalt mixture. In addition, the results of resilient modulus indicate that bitumen modification with Nano-TiO2 increased the Mr values. Similar to changes in the TSR, the RMR value has been increased for the modified HMA and it increased the hot mix asphalt durability. 


Main Subjects

[2] J. Grenfell, N. Ad, Y. Liu, Assessing asphalt mixture moisture susceptibility through intrinsic adhesion, bitumen stripping and mechanical damage, Road Materials and Pavement Design, 15(1) (2014) 131–152.
[3] C. Xingwei, H. Baoshan, Evaluation of moisture damage in hot mix asphalt using simple performance and superpave indirect tensile tests, (2007).
[4] F. Xiao, J. Jordan, S. N. Amirkhanian, Laboratory investigation of moisture damage in warm-mix asphalt containing moist aggregate”, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2126(1) (2009) 115–124.
[5] C. DingXin, N. Dallas, R. Little, L. Lytton, C. James, Surface Energy Measurement of Asphalt and Its Application to Predicting Fatigue and Healing in Asphalt Mixture, (2002).
[6] H. Wen, Fatigue performance evaluation of WesTrack asphalt mixtures based on viscoelastic analysis of indirect tensile test, Ph.D. thesis, NC State Univ., Raleigh, NC, (2001).
[7] D. Packham, Work of adhesion: Contact angles and contact mechanics, Int. J. Adhes. Adhes, 16(2) (1996) 121–128.
[8] A. R. Copeland, Influence of moisture on bond strength of asphalt–aggregate systems, (PhD dissertation), Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Vanderbilt University, (2007).
[9] S. Wynand, Applications of Nanotechnology in Road Pavement Engineering, (2011).
[10] S. Ghaffarpour, A. Khodaii, Identification effect of Nano clay on engineering properties of asphalt mixtures, Amirkabir, MISC, 41(1) (2009), 49–57.
[11] G. Hamedi, F. Nejad, K. Oveisi, Estimating the moisture damage of asphalt mixture modified with Nano zinc oxide, Road Materials and Pavement Design, (2015).
[12] A. Akbari, A. Modarres, Effect of clay and lime Nano-additives on the freeze–thaw durability of hot mix asphalt, Road Materials and Pavement Design, (2017)
[13] G. Hamedi, Evaluating the effect of asphalt binder modification using nanomaterials on the moisture damage of hot mix asphalt, Road Materials and Pavement Design (2016).
[14] A. R. Azarhoosh, F. Nejad, A. Khodaii, Using the Surface Free Energy Method to Evaluate the Effects of Nanomaterial on the Fatigue Life of Hot Mix Asphalt, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 28 Issue 10 (2015).
[15] G. Shafabakhsh, S. Mirabdolazimi, M. Sadeghnejad, Evaluation the effect of nano-TiO2 on the rutting and fatigue behavior of asphalt mixtures, Constr. Build. Mater. (54) (2014) 566–571.
[16] J. Tanzadeh, F. Vahedi, P. Kheiry, R. Tanzadeh, Laboratory study on the effect of nano-TiO2 on rutting performance of asphalt pavements, Adv Mater Res: 622–3 (2012).
[17] A. R. Azarhoosh, F. Nejad, A. Khodaii, Evaluation of the effect of nano-TiO2 on the adhesion between aggregate and asphalt binder in hot mix asphalt, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 22 (8) (2016) 946-961.
[18] ASTM, Gradation specification for dense asphalt mixtures (D3513), West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International (2003).
[19] F. Xiao, A. N. Amirkhanian, S. N. Amirkhanian, Long-term ageing influence on rheological characteristics of asphalt binders containing carbon nanoparticles, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 12 (2011) 533–541.
[20] G. Hamedi, A. Azarhoosh, M. Khodadadi, Effects of Asphalt Binder Modifying with Polypropylene on Moisture Susceptibility of Asphalt Mixtures with Thermodynamically Concepts, Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 62 (4) (2018) 901-910.
[21] I. G. D. Rocha Segundo, E. A. L. Dias, F. D. P. Fernandes, E. F. D. Freitas, M. F. Costa, J. O. Carneiro, “Photocatalytic asphalt pavement: The physicochemical and rheological impact of TiO2 Nano/micro particles and ZnO micro particles onto the bitumen, Road Materials and Pavement Design, 20(6) (2019) 1452-1467.
[22] S. S. Karahancer, M. Kiristi, S. Terzi, M. Saltan, A. U. Oksuz, L. Oksuz, Performance evaluation of Nano-modified asphalt concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 71 (2014) 283–288.
[23] N. Esmaeili,, G. Hamedi,, M. Khodadadi, Determination of the stripping process of asphalt mixtures and the effective mix design and SFE parameters on its different phases, Construction and Building Materials, (213) (2019) 167-181.
[24] R. J. Good, C. J. Van Oss, The modern theory of contact angle and the hydrogen bond components of surface energies, Modern approach to wettability, New York: Plenum Press, (1971).
[25] M. Alavi, Y. Hajj, A. Hanz, H. Bahia, Evaluating Adhesion Properties and Moisture Damage Susceptibility of Warm-Mix Asphalts, Transportation research record, 2295 (1) (2012) 44-53.
[26] A. W. Hefer, Adhesion in bitumen-aggregate systems and quantification of the effect of water on the adhesive bond, College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, (2005).
[27] ASTM, Standard test method for Marshall Stability and flow of asphalt mixtures, ASTM D6927–15, West Conshohocken, PA, (2015).