Implementation of energy method and evaluation of ductility reduction factors accuracy to estimate the seismic response of self-centering structures

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD Student in Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Zanjan University, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran


Self-centering structures have been introduced to overcome the financial and social difficulties of rebuilding structural damage caused by the residual deformation of structures. On the other hand, applying the force method as a common approach to the design of many structural systems cannot predict the actual performance of this advanced system. Meanwhile, energy-based approaches provide more accurate results than force-based approaches by selecting the desired yield mechanism and the desired displacement at the outset of the design process. In this study, the feasibility of using the energy method to compute the seismic performance of the self-centering concentrically-braced frame (SC-CBF) was evaluated for the first time. Comparing the calculated results with the laboratory and analytical outputs showed that the energy method is an efficient technique that can accurately estimate the structural response without any complex modeling. Also, by comparing the different ductility reduction relationships, it was observed that the equation presented by Lai-Biggs is the most appropriate relationship with more than 80% accuracy because of artificial earthquake records applications. Furthermore, the results revealed that the structure’s ultimate rotation and ductility ratio decreased by raising the structure elevation. The height increase improved the accuracy of predicted values from the energy method with other relationships to estimate the structural response.


Main Subjects

[1] D. Roke, R. Sause, J.M. Ricles, C.-Y. Seo, K.-S. Lee, Self-centering seismic-resistant steel concentrically-braced frames, in:  Proceedings of the 8th US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, EERI, San Francisco, April, 2006, pp. 18-22.
[2] M. Eatherton, G. Deierlein, X. Ma, H. Krawinkler, J. Hajjar, Towards a performance-based design framework for self-centering rocking braced-frame spine systems, in:  Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal, 2012.
[3] N. Rahgozar, M. Pouraminian, N. Rahgozar, Reliability-based seismic assessment of controlled rocking steel cores, Journal of Building Engineering, 44 (2021) 102623.
[4] Y. Qing, C.-L. Wang, Z. Zhou, B. Zeng, Seismic responses of multistory buildings with self-centering buckling-restrained braces: Influence of the pretension force, Engineering Structures, 238 (2021) 112249.
[5] S.M.M. Yousef-beik, S. Veismoradi, P. Zarnani, P. Quenneville, A new self-centering brace with zero secondary stiffness using elastic buckling, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 169 (2020) 106035.
[6] M.E.M. Garlock, Design, analysis, and experimental behavior of seismic resistant post-tensioned steel moment resisting frames, Lehigh University, 2003.
[7] P. Rojas, J. Ricles, R. Sause, Seismic performance of post-tensioned steel moment resisting frames with friction devices, Journal of structural engineering, 131(4) (2005) 529-540.
[8] M.S. Zareian, M.R. Esfahani, A. Hosseini, Experimental evaluation of self-centering hybrid coupled wall subassemblies with friction dampers, Engineering Structures, 214 (2020) 110644.
[9] J. Liu, L. Xu, Z. Li, Development and experimental validation of a steel plate shear wall with self-centering energy dissipation braces, Thin-Walled Structures, 148 (2020) 106598.
[10] S. Sritharan, S. Aaleti, D.J. Thomas, Seismic analysis and design of precast concrete jointed wall systems,  (2007).
[11] L. Niu, W. Zhang, Experimental Study on a Self-Centering Earthquake-Resistant Masonry Pier with a Structural Concrete Column, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2017 (2017).
[13] M. Ghamari, M. Shooshtari, Application of Performance-Based Plastic Design (PBPD) method for 3D steel structures, Engineering Structures, 199 (2019) 109649.
[14] A. Rouhi, H. Hamidi, Development of Performance Based Plastic Design of EBF Steel Structures Subjected to Forward Directivity Effect, International Journal of Steel Structures, 21(3) (2021) 1092-1107.
[15] E. Junda, S. Leelataviwat, P. Doung, Cyclic testing and performance evaluation of buckling-restrained knee-braced frames, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 148 (2018) 154-164.
[16] C. Qiu, X. Zhao, Y. Zhang, H. Hou, Robustness of performance-based plastic design method for SMABFs, International Journal of Steel Structures, 19(3) (2019) 787-805.
[17] G. Abdollahzadeh, H. Kuchakzadeh, A. Mirzagoltabar, Performance-based plastic design of moment frame-steel plate shear wall as a dual system, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 50(1) (2017) 21-34.
[18] S. Shoeibi, M.A. Kafi, M. Gholhaki, Performance-Based Seismic Design and Parametric Assessment of Linked Column Frame System, Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 62(3) (2018) 555-569.
[19] A. Karamodin, A. Zanganeh, Seismic design and performance of dual moment and eccentrically braced frame system using PBPD method, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, 14 (2017) 441-463.
[20] N.M. Newmark, W.J. Hall, Earthquake Spectra and Design, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 1982.
[21] H. Krawinkler, A.A. Nassar, Seismic design based on ductility and cumulative damage demands and capacities, in:  Nonlinear seismic analysis and design of reinforced concrete buildings, CRC Press, 1992, pp. 31-48.
[22] S.-S.P. Lai, J.M. Biggs, Inelastic response spectra for aseismic building design, Journal of the Structural Division, 106(6) (1980) 1295-1310.
[23] R. Riddell, P. Hidalgo, E. Cruz, Response modification factors for earthquake resistant design of short period buildings, Earthquake spectra, 5(3) (1989) 571-590.
[24] L.H. Lee, S.W. Han, Y.H. Oh, Determination of ductility factor considering different hysteretic models, Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics, 28(9) (1999) 957-977.
[25] G.W. Housner, Limit design of structures to resist earthquakes, in:  Proc. of 1st WCEE, 1956, pp. 5.1-5.13.
[26] S.-S. Lee, Performance-based design of steel moment frames using target drift and yield mechanism, University of Michigan, 2002.
[27] C.-M. Uang, V.V. Bertero, Use of energy as a design criterion in earthquake-resistant design, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California Berkeley …, 1988.
[29] ASCE, Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures, in, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2005.
[30] T. Takeuchi, K. Kasai, M. Midorikawa, Y. Matsuoka, T. Asakawa, I. Kubodera, Y. Kurokawa, S. Kishiki, H. Ando, Shaking table test using multipurpose test bed, Proceedings of 14WCEE,  (2008).
[31] X. Ma, H. Krawinkler, G. Deierlein, Seismic design and behavior of self-centering braced frame with controlled rocking and energy dissipating fuses, blume earthquake Eng (Vol. 174), Center TR, 2011.
[32] I.C. Computers and Structures, PERFORM-3D, in, software, Berkeley, CA, 2016.