A Study of Mechanical and Microstructures Properties of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Containing Nano-Graphene

Document Type : Research Article


1 MSC, student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Payame Noor University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Postdoctoral Research Assistant, Civil Faculty, Sharif University of Technology

3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Payame Noor University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

4 Manager of Quds Razavi Qarchak Lightweight Building Factory, Tehran, Iran

5 Managing Director of Ghods Razavi Lightweight Construction Factories Company, Tehran, Iran.


In recent years, autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) has been widely used in the building construction industry, especially for the construction of infill walls. However, the AAC suffers from several drawbacks such as low compressive and tensile strength, high water absorption as well as insufficient resistance against impacts. To address such issues, this study evaluates the mechanical properties of the AAC blocks in which, the cement has been replaced with nano-graphene. For this purpose, various replacement ratios (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8) were selected and different tests such as compressive and tensile strength (cylindrical specimens with the size of 10×20cm), impact resistance and water absorption (cubic specimens), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out. Promisingly, the results indicate that incorporation of the nano-graphene improves the compressive and tensile strength as well as the impact resistance by 45, 81, and 130% compared to the control specimen. Moreover, the water absorption of the specimens was reduced up to 61%. Based on the SEM results, the inclusion of the NG in the AAC, makes the grains stick together firmly and also, downsizes the grains by 30%.   


Main Subjects

[1] H. A. Al-Mudhaf, E. K. Attiogbe, Performance of autoclaved aerated-concrete masonry walls in Kuwait. Materials and Structures, 29(1996) 448-452.
[2] F. Seddighi, G. Pachideh, S. B. Salimbahrami, A study of mechanical and microstructures properties of autoclaved aerated concrete containing nano-graphene, Journal of building engineering, 43(2021) 103106.
[3] ACI 523.4R, Guide for design and Construction with Autoclaved Areated Concrete Panels, (2009).
[4] A. M. Memari, S. V. Grossenbacher, L. D. Iulo, Comparative evaluation of structural and water penetration performance of three dierent masonry wall types for residential construction. JCES, 1(1) (2012) 2-9.
[5] G. Al-Khaled, Hebel design analysis program, A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Architecture, University of South California, (2000).
[6] Z. David, U. Yankelevsky, A. Itzhak, Autoclaved aerated concrete behavior under explosive action, Construction and Building Materials, 12(6-7)(1998) 359-364.
[7] E. Holta, P. Raiviob, Use of gasication residues in aerated autoclaved concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 35(4) (2005) 796-802.
[8] J. Keriene, M. Kligys, A. Laukaitis, G. Yakovlev, A. Špokauskas, M. Aleknevicius, The influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes additive on properties of non-autoclaved and autoclaved aerated concretes, Construction and Building Materials, 49(2013) 527-535.
[9] P. Walczak, P. Szymański, A. Różycka, Autoclaved Aerated Concrete based on fly ash in density 350 kg/m3 as an environmentally friendly material for energy – efficient, Procedia Engineering, 122(2015) 39-46.
[10] B. Yuana, C. Straubb, S. Segers, Q.L. Yu, H.J.H. Brouwers, Sodium carbonate activated slag as cement replacement in autoclaved aerated concrete, Ceramics International, 43(2017) 6039-6047.
[11] W. Tao, H.E. Xingyang, Y. Jin, Z. Huang, S. Ying, Nano-treatment of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Waste and Its Usage in Cleaner Building Materials, Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed., 35(4) (2020) 786-793.
[12] Y. Peng, Y. Liu, B. Zhan, G. Xu, Preparation of autoclaved aerated concrete by using graphite tailings as an alternative silica source, Construction and Building Materials, 267(2021) 121792.
[13] J. Jiang, Q. Cai, B. Ma, Y. Hu, B. Qian, F. Mad, Z. Shao, Z. Xu, L. Wang, Effect of ZSM-5 waste dosage on the properties of autoclaved aerated Concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 278(2021) 122114.
[14] G. Pachideh, M. Gholhaki, O. Rezaifar, Experimental Study on Engineering Properties and Microstructure of Expansive Soils Treated by Lime Containing Silica Nanoparticles Under Various Temperatures, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 39(2021) 4157-4168.
[15] G. Pachideh, V. TouFigureh, Strength of SCLC Recycle Springs and Fibers Concrete Subject to High Temperatures Structural Concrete, (2021).
[16] S.C. Devi, R. Ahmad Khan, Mechanical and durability performance of concrete incorporating graphene oxide, Journal of  Materials and Engineering Structures, (6)(2019) 201–214.
[17] M.R. Mohammadi, J. Ahmadi, S. Mohammadi, The Effect of Graphene Nano Particle on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Portland Cement Concrete, Concrete Research, 12(1) (2020) 109-118.
[18] P.K. Akarsh, S. Marathe, A.K. Bhat, Influence of graphene oxide on properties of concrete in the presence of silica fumes and M-sand, Construction and Building Materials, (2021).
[19] R. Mowlaei, J. Lin, F. Basquiroto de Souza, A. Fouladi, A. Habibnejad Korayem, E. Shamsaei, W. Duan, The effects of graphene oxide-silica nanohybrids on the workability, hydration, and mechanical properties of Portland cement paste, Construction and Building Materials, 266(2021) 121016.
[20] S.P. Dalal, P. Dalal, Experimental Investigation on Strength and Durability of Graphene Nanoengineered Concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 276(2021) 122236.
[21] EN 196-6, Methods for testing cement determination of fineness. Brussels, Belgium: European Committee for Standardization, (2010).
[22] NF EN 12390-13 AFNOR, Testing hardened concrete, in: Determination of Secant Modulus of Elasticity in Compression, (2013) 18–455.
[23] BS EN 679, Determination of the compressive strength of autoclaved aerated concrete, (2005). [24] ASTM C469/C496, Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens, (2011).
[25] American Concrete Institute (ACI)-544.2R Committee report on Fiber Reinforced Concrete, (1999).
[26] A. Bagheri, Impact strength of concrete based on reactive powder reinforced with steel fibers, Proceedings of the Civil Engineering Conference, Amirkabir University, 42(3) (2010) 72-80.
[27] A. Laukaitis, J. Keriene, M. Kligys, D. Mikulskis, L. Lekunaite, Influence of Amorphous Nanodispersive SiO2 Additive on Structure Formation and Properties of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, Materials  Science (MEDŽIAGOTYRA), 16(3) (2010) 257-263.