Document Type : Research Article


1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 Tehran university


Portland cement production is known as an environmental pollutant and high energy-consuming industry. One way to reduce cement production and consumption is to use supplementary cementitious materials. Pozzolans are widely used as supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) nowadays. Due to the widespread use of Portland cement in the construction industry, partial replacement of PC with SCMs such as calcined clays can reduce the harmful environmental impacts of cement production and enhance the durability of concrete structures and increase service life. In this study, the mechanical properties and durability of OPC and concretes containing Calcined Clays (CCs) and Limestone powder (LS) have been compared. In this research, the effect of using calcined clays (CC) and limestone powder (LS) as SCMs on the mechanical properties and durability of concrete was investigated. Six concrete mixtures have been prepared by replacing 30% of PC by 3 different CCs and LS as binary and ternary blended mixtures (LC3 mixtures). Mechanical properties, permeability and durability of concrete mixtures containing different CCs have been investigated by means of compressive strength, water absorption, electrical resistivity and rapid chloride migration test (RCMT). According to the results, although using binary and ternary blended mixtures have reduced the compressive strength compared with the control mixture, but the permeability and durability of mixtures have been significantly improved.


Main Subjects

[1] R. Polder, W. Peelen, W. Courage, Non‐traditional assessment and maintenance methods for aging concrete structures–technical and non‐technical issues, Materials and Corrosion, 63(12) (2012) 1147-1153.
[2] R.G. Pillai, R. Gettu, M. Santhanam, S. Rengaraju, Y. Dhandapani, S. Rathnarajan, A.S. Basavaraj, Service life and life cycle assessment of reinforced concrete systems with limestone calcined clay cement (LC3), Cement and Concrete Research, 118 (2019) 111-119.
[3] B. Sabir, S. Wild, J. Bai, Metakaolin and calcined clays as pozzolans for concrete: a review, Cement and concrete composites, 23(6) (2001) 441-454.
[4] A. Shukla, N. Gupta, K. Kishore, Experimental investigation on the effect of steel fiber embedded in marble dust-based concrete, Materials Today: Proceedings, 26 (2020) 2938-2945.
[5] V.W. Tam, A. Butera, K.N. Le, W. Li, Utilising CO2 technologies for recycled aggregate concrete: A critical review, Construction and Building Materials, 250 (2020) 118903.
[6] K.L. Scrivener, Options for the future of cement, Indian Concr. J, 88(7) (2014) 11-21.
[7] F. Avet, E. Boehm-Courjault, K. Scrivener, Investigation of CASH composition, morphology and density in Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3), Cement and Concrete Research, 115 (2019) 70-79.
[8] H. Du, S. Dai Pang, High-performance concrete incorporating calcined kaolin clay and limestone as cement substitute, Construction and Building Materials, 264 (2020) 120152.
[9] A.M. Rashad, S.R. Zeedan, The effect of activator concentration on the residual strength of alkali-activated fly ash pastes subjected to thermal load, Construction and Building Materials, 25(7) (2011) 3098-3107.
[10] S.-S. Park, H.-Y. Kang, Characterization of fly ash-pastes synthesized at different activator conditions, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 25(1) (2008) 78-83.
[11] M.J. Mwiti, J.K. Thiong'o, W.J. Muthengia, Properties of activated blended cement containing high content of calcined clay, Heliyon, 4(8) (2018) e00742.
[12] M.J. Mwiti, J.K. Thiong’o, W.J. Muthengia, Thermal resistivity of chemically activated calcined clays-based cements, in:  Calcined clays for sustainable concrete, Springer, 2018, pp. 327-333.
[13] J.M. Wachira, J.K. Thiong’o, J.M. Marangu, L.G. Murithi, Physicochemical performance of portland-rice husk ash-calcined clay-dried acetylene lime sludge cement in sulphate and chloride media, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2019 (2019).
[14] P.K. Mehta, P.J. Monteiro, Concrete: microstructure, properties, and materials, McGraw-Hill Education, 1986.
[15] A.A. Ramezanianpour, Cement replacement materials, Springer Geochemistry/Mineralogy, DOI, 10 (2014) 978-973.
[16] F. Moodi, A. Ramezanianpour, A.S. Safavizadeh, Evaluation of the optimal process of thermal activation of kaolins, Scientia Iranica, 18(4) (2011) 906-912.
[17] A.A. Ramezanianpour, H.B. Jovein, Influence of metakaolin as supplementary cementing material on strength and durability of concretes, Construction and Building materials, 30 (2012) 470-479.
[18] Z. Shui, K. Yuan, T. Sun, Q. Li, W. Zeng, Design and Preparation of Metakaolin-Based Mineral Admixture and its Effects on the Durability of Concrete, in:  Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete, Springer, 2015, pp. 229-236.
[19] H. Maraghechi, F. Avet, K. Scrivener, Chloride transport behavior of LC 3 binders, in:  Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete, Springer, 2018, pp. 306-309.
[20] S. Sui, F. Georget, H. Maraghechi, W. Sun, K. Scrivener, Towards a generic approach to durability: Factors affecting chloride transport in binary and ternary cementitious materials, Cement and Concrete Research, 124 (2019) 105783.
[21] Y. Dhandapani, T. Sakthivel, M. Santhanam, R. Gettu, R.G. Pillai, Mechanical properties and durability performance of concretes with Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3), Cement and Concrete Research, 107 (2018) 136-151.
[22] F. Avet, L. Sofia, K. Scrivener, Concrete performance of limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) compared with conventional cements, Advances in Civil Engineering Materials, 8(3) (2019) 275-286.
[23] J.M. Marangu, Physico-chemical properties of Kenyan made calcined clay-limestone cement (LC3), Case Studies in Construction Materials, 12 (2020) e00333.
[24] ASTM C618-19, Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019.
[25] Building and housing research center, The national Method for concrete mix design, BHRC Publication, No. S-479 (2008).
[26] ASTM C39 / C39M-21, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021.
[27] D. F. 5-578, "Florida method of test for concrete resistivity as an electrical indicator of its permeability", 2004.
[28] NT Build 492, ''Nord test method: Chloride Migration Coefficients from Non-Steady-State'', 1999.
[29] BS 1881-122, ''Method for determination of water absorption, Testing concrete, Part: 122, BSI London'', 2011.
[30] S. Krishnan, A.C. Emmanuel, S. Bishnoi, Hydration and phase assemblage of ternary cements with calcined clay and limestone, Construction and Building Materials, 222 (2019) 64-72.
[31] K. Scrivener, R. Snellings, B. Lothenbach, A practical guide to microstructural analysis of cementitious materials, Crc Press, 2018.