Probabilistic Progressive Collapse Analysis of 3D Steel Moment Frame Using Fragility Curves and Double-column-damage Approach

Document Type : Research Article


1 School of civil engineering, Iran university science and technology, Tehran, Iran

2 School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology

3 School of civil engineering, Iran University Science and Technology


In this research, a method of probabilistic analysis of progressive collapse has been introduced based on the concept of fragility curves. In order to develop the fragility curves, the stiffness of two columns is considered as the random variable and the displacement at the top of the removed columns is considered as the Damage Index (DI). Based on these measures, the fragility curves of a 4-story steel structure with Intermediate Moment Frame (IMF) system were developed. Six scenarios of progressive collapse were investigated, including the removal of the corner, perimeter, and middle double-columns. The simulations were performed using OpenSees software. The structural analyses were performed using nonlinear time history approach in a three-dimensional framework. The results showed that the IDA capacity curve of the lower stories is weaker than the upper stories. According to the results, at each considered DI and assumed performance level, damage to the removed double-columns occurs at more stiffness in the upper stories compared to the lower ones. The results showed that considering the floor slab can reduce the probability of fragility of structures. The effect of the floor on the lower stories of the structure is more than on the upper stories. The increasing effect of the floor on the structural fragility corresponding to the first to fourth stories are 13, 9, 6, and 2%, respectively. The probability of exceedance of the performance levels of IO, LS and CP is almost zero until the reduction of the double-column stiffness is 50, 70 and 75%, respectively.


Main Subjects

[1] U. Starossek, Typology of progressive collapse, Engineering Structures, 29(9) (2007) 2302-2307.
[2] GSA, Progressive collapse analysis and design guidelines for new federal office buildings and major modernization projects, Washington, DC,  (2016).
[3] ASCE 7, Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures, in, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2016.
[4] B.R. Ellingwood, R. Smilowitz, D.O. Dusenberry, D. Duthinh, H.S. Lew, N.J. Carino, Best practices for reducing the potential for progressive collapse in buildings,  (2007).
[5] DoD, Design of buildings to resist progressive collapse, Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 4-023-03,  (2009).
[6] J. Kim, T. Kim, Assessment of progressive collapse-resisting capacity of steel moment frames, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65(1) (2009) 169-179.
[7] J. Kim, D. An, Evaluation of progressive collapse potential of steel moment frames considering catenary action, The structural design of tall and special buildings, 18(4) (2009) 455-465.
[8] T. Li, Z. Shang, Y. Ji, C. Liu, Research on Catenary Action of Frame Structure in Progressive Collapse with Fiber Model, in:  3rd International Conference on Mechatronics, Robotics and Automation, Citeseer, 2015, pp. 175-179.
[9] F.H. Rezvani, A.M. Yousefi, H.R. Ronagh, Effect of span length on progressive collapse behaviour of steel moment resisting frames, in:  Structures, Elsevier, 2015, pp. 81-89.
[10] A. Pirmoz, M.M. Liu, Finite element modeling and capacity analysis of post-tensioned steel frames against progressive collapse, Engineering Structures, 126 (2016) 446-456.
[11] C.H. Chen, Y.F. Zhu, Y. Yao, Y. Huang, X. Long, An evaluation method to predict progressive collapse resistance of steel frame structures, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 122 (2016) 238-250.
[12] E. Brunesi, F. Parisi, Progressive collapse fragility models of European reinforced concrete framed buildings based on pushdown analysis, Engineering Structures, 152 (2017) 579-596.
[13] Y. Li, X. Lu, H. Guan, P. Ren, L. Qian, Probability-based progressive collapse-resistant assessment for reinforced concrete frame structures, Advances in Structural Engineering, 19(11) (2016) 1723-1735.
[14] D.-C. Feng, S.-C. Xie, J. Xu, K. Qian, Robustness quantification of reinforced concrete structures subjected to progressive collapse via the probability density evolution method, Engineering Structures, 202 (2020) 109877.
[15] J. Yu, Y.P. Gan, J. Ji, Behavior and design of reinforced concrete frames retrofitted with steel bracing against progressive collapse, The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 29(12) (2020) e1771.
[16] A. Sadeghi, H. Kazemi, M. Samadi, Reliability Analysis of Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Structure under the Light Vehicle Collision, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, 53(11) (2022) 14-14.
[17] A. Sadeghi, H. Kazemi, M. Samadi, The Probabilistic Analysis of Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Structures Performance under Vehicles Impact, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, 53(12) (2022) 16-16.
[18] K. Qian, B. Li, Z. Zhang, Influence of multicolumn removal on the behavior of RC floors, Journal of Structural Engineering, 142(5) (2016) 04016006.
[19] M. Nassir, J. Yang, S. Nyunn, I. Azim, F. Wang, Progressive Collapse Analysis of multi-story building under the scenario of multi-column removal, in:  E3S Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences, 2019, pp. 04050.
[20] F. Parisi, M. Scalvenzi, Progressive collapse assessment of gravity-load designed European RC buildings under multi-column loss scenarios, Engineering Structures, 209 (2020) 110001.
[21] J.-Z. Zhang, B.-H. Jiang, R. Feng, R. Chen, Robustness of steel moment frames in multi-column-removal scenarios, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 175 (2020) 106325.
[22] Q.N. Fu, K.H. Tan, X.H. Zhou, B. Yang, Three-dimensional composite floor systems under column-removal scenarios, Journal of Structural Engineering, 144(10) (2018) 04018196.
[23] Q. Fu, K.-H. Tan, Numerical study on steel-concrete composite floor systems under corner column removal scenario, Structures, 21 (2019) 33-44.
[24] Q.N. Fu, K.H. Tan, Parametric effects on composite floor systems under column removal scenario, Engineering Structures, 187 (2019) 161-176.
[25] V. Broujerdian, E. Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh, G. Ghodrati Amiri, Effect of composite slab on the progressive collapse control of steel moment frame structures, Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering,  (2020) -.
[26] U. Starossek, Progressive collapse of structures, thomas telford London, 2018.
[27] K. Khandelwal, S. El-Tawil, Collapse behavior of steel special moment resisting frame connections, Journal of Structural Engineering, 133(5) (2007) 646-655.
[28] Part 6th Iranian National Building Code, Design Loads for Buildings, in, Road, Housing and Urban Development Research Center, 2020.
[29] Standard No. 2800, Iranian Building Codes And Standards, in, Road, Housing and Urban Development Research Center, 2013.
[30] A. Tsitos, G. Mosqueda, A. Filiatrault, A.M. Reinhorn, Experimental investigation of progressive collapse of steel frames under multi-hazard extreme loading, in:  The 14th world conference on earthquake engineering, 2008, pp. 1-8.
[31] T. Kim, J. Kim, J. Park, Investigation of progressive collapse-resisting capability of steel moment frames using push-down analysis, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 23(5) (2009) 327-335.
[32] NO. 360 Standard, Instruction for Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, in, Office of Deputy for Strategic Supervision Department of Technical Affairs, 2014.
[33] FEMA 356, Prestandard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings, in, Washington, DC, 2000.
[34] J.W. Baker, Efficient analytical fragility function fitting using dynamic structural analysis, Earthquake Spectra, 31(1) (2015) 579-599.
[35] ASCE 41-17, Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings, in, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2017.