Undular Flow Conditions and Discharge Coefficients in Rectangular Broad-Crested Weirs

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


Weirs are common hydraulic structures that can be used in conveyance water canals for increasing the water depth upstream of turnouts or measurement of flow discharge. In this study, the effect of hydraulic parameters and creation conditions of undular flow in the broad-crested weirs were investigated numerically using the finite volume method and the results were evaluated by the experimental method of other researchers. Results indicated that discharge coefficients (Cd) for experimental data are between 0.321-0.332, whereas the Cd for numerical simulation (using ANSYS FLUENT) is between 0.301-0.354. Over the crest where the minimum water depth (dmin) happens, when Fr1 is less than 1.5 (Fr1<1.5), the creation of waves was observed. This type of flow is known as the undular flow. In this situation, measuring water depth over the broad crested weir is not easy and can introduce error for discharge estimation. For preventing of the undular flow, the flow depth cannot be less than a specified value. In this study, this limitation was observed for H/L > 0.1. Thus it can result that long broad-crested weirs (H/L<0.1) are more susceptible than the broad-crested weirs (0.1≤H/L<0.4) in the creation of the undular flows. Additionally, a regression equation for estimation of the Cd in the broad-crested weirs is proposed with reasonable accuracy.


Main Subjects

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