Investigating the influencing factors on the frequency of speeding violations: A case study of citizens of Tehran

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor at Shahid Beheshti University, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


As the most frequent driving violation, speeding has been the cause of 21% of accidents in the first three months of 1398 in Tehran. Speeding behavior has roots in drivers’ attributes and attitudes toward driving, which has not been studied enough for drivers in Tehran. This study examined the association between speeding violation frequency and drivers' attributes, including socioeconomic characteristics and attitudes toward driving. A Zero-inflated negative binomial regression model developed using a cohort of 470 adult drivers. Results show that the hours of physical activity and exercise per week, some perceptions such as "other drivers move slowly" and "Traffic violations are an immoral act" affect the occurrence and the frequency of speeding. Besides, having delays in most trips that the person is driving, driving experience of less than five years, and having vehicle body insurance directly affect the frequency of speeding. Based on the results, it can be concluded that reviewing the rules can be helpful in reducing speeding violations, for instance, adding some penalties in body insurance contracts for the number of speeding violations. Also, education courses for raising public awareness toward violations can be practical, especially for drivers with more experience and speeding violations.


Main Subjects

[1] P. Roess, S. Prassas, R. Mcshane, Traffic Engineering, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
[2] J. De Winter, D. Dodou, The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as a predictor of accidents: A meta-analysis, Journal of safety research, 41(6) (2010) 463-470.
[3] C.D. Fitzpatrick, S. Rakasi, M.A. Knodler Jr, An investigation of the speeding-related crash designation through crash narrative reviews sampled via logistic regression, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 98 (2017) 57-63.
[4] M. Mehrabi, P. Gholizade, Driving Violations Law approved in 2011, 2016.
[5] L. Aarts, I. Van Schagen, Driving speed and the risk of road crashes: A review, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 38(2) (2006) 215-224.
[6] B. Charbotel, J.L. Martin, M. Chiron, Work-related versus non-work-related road accidents, developments in the last decade in France, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42(2) (2010) 604-611.
[7] Speed limit violation, topmost traffic violations, in, 2018.
[8] Z. Avaz, M. Habibian, S. Moridpour, Sociological Study of the Influence of Citizen’s Traffic Ethics on Driving Violations Case Study Tehran, Journal of Traffic and Logistics Engineering Vol, 2(1) (2014).
[9] S. Mohamadi, A. Faghani, H. Khaksar, Investigated methodology of the effect of increasing rate fines for reduced violations of the rate of unauthorized, in:  Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Tehran, 2016.
[10] A. Tavakoli Kashani, S. Dabirinejad, The effect of some recreational aspects of life on driving violations and errors, in:  Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Tehran, 2017.
[11] J. Reason, A. Manstead, S. Stradling, J. Baxter, K. Campbell, Errors and violations on the roads: a real distinction?, Ergonomics, 33(10-11) (1990) 1315-1332.
[12] W. Elias, Y. Shiftan, Ethnic groups differences in regard to social networks, daily activity patterns, and driving behavior, Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 46 (2017) 316-328.
[13] T. Rosenbloom, A. Ben-Eliyahu, D. Nemrodov, A. Biegel, A. Perlman, Committing driving violations: an observational study comparing city, town and village, Journal of Safety Research, 40(3) (2009) 215-219.
[14] J. Shi, Y. Bai, X. Ying, P. Atchley, Aberrant driving behaviors: A study of drivers in Beijing, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42(4) (2010) 1031-1040.
[15] S.S. Smith, M.S. Horswill, B. Chambers, M. Wetton, Hazard perception in novice and experienced drivers: The effects of sleepiness, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41(4) (2009) 729-733.
[16] A. Stephens, M. Nieuwesteeg, J. Page-Smith, M. Fitzharris, Self-reported speed compliance and attitudes towards speeding in a representative sample of drivers in Australia, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 103 (2017) 56-64.
[17] G. Zhang, K.K. Yau, X. Gong, Traffic violations in Guangdong Province of China: speeding and drunk driving, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 64 (2014) 30-40.
[18] C.-M. Tseng, Operating styles, working time and daily driving distance in relation to a taxi driver's speeding offenses in Taiwan, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 52 (2013) 1-8.
[19] Y. Xu, Y. Li, L. Jiang, The effects of situational factors and impulsiveness on drivers’ intentions to violate traffic rules: Difference of driving experience, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 62 (2014) 54-62.
[20] C.-M. Tseng, Speeding violations related to a driver’s social-economic demographics and the most frequent driving purpose in Taiwan’s male population, Safety science, 57 (2013) 236-242.
[21] R. Fernandes, J. Hatfield, R.S. Job, A systematic investigation of the differential predictors for speeding, drink-driving, driving while fatigued, and not wearing a seat belt, among young drivers, Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 13(3) (2010) 179-196.
[22] Y. Alver, M. Demirel, M. Mutlu, Interaction between socio-demographic characteristics: Traffic rule violations and traffic crash history for young drivers, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 72 (2014) 95-104.
[23] C. Atombo, C. Wu, M. Zhong, H. Zhang, Investigating the motivational factors influencing drivers intentions to unsafe driving behaviours: Speeding and overtaking violations, Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 43 (2016) 104-121.
[24] M. Møller, N.P. Gregersen, Psychosocial function of driving as predictor of risk-taking behaviour, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(1) (2008) 209-215.
[25] P.A. Ellison, J.M. Govern, H.L. Petri, M.H. Figler, Anonymity and aggressive driving behavior: A field study, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10(1) (1995) 265.
[26] T. Rosenbloom, A. Perlman, A. Shahar, Women drivers' behavior in well-known versus less familiar locations, Journal of safety research, 38(3) (2007) 283-288.
[27] S.S. Pantangi, G. Fountas, P.C. Anastasopoulos, J. Pierowicz, K. Majka, A. Blatt, Do high visibility enforcement programs affect aggressive driving behavior? An empirical analysis using naturalistic driving study data, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 138 (2020) 105361.
[28] S. Salminen, E. Lähdeniemi, Risk factors in work-related traffic, Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 5(1) (2002) 77-86.
[29] C.-q. Xie, D. Parker, A social psychological approach to driving violations in two Chinese cities, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 5(4) (2002) 293-308.
[30] T. Zhang, A.H. Chan, W. Zhang, Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 81 (2015) 124-133.
[31] P. Washington, G. Karlaftis, L. Mannering, Statistical and econometric methods for transportation data analysis, in:  Count data models, 2011, pp. 283-302.
[32] J. Liu, Y. Ma, J. Johnstone, A goodness-of-fit test for zero-inflated Poisson mixed effects models in tree abundance studies, Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 144 (2020) 106887.
[33] General Population and Housing Census,  (2017).
[34] Tehran's Transportation Statistics and Information, 2016.
[35] Iran Transportation Incidents Comprehensive Information System, in, 2019.
[36] W. Cochran, Sampling techniques, 3 ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977.
[37] F.P. McKenna, R.A. Stanier, C. Lewis, Factors underlying illusory self-assessment of driving skill in males and females, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 23(1) (1991) 45-52.