Effect of Temperature and Number of Heating–Cooling Cycles on the Mode I, Mode II and the Mixed-Mode I-II Fracture Toughness of concrete

Document Type : Research Article


1 Imam Khomeini International University

2 Imam Khomeini international university


In this research, the effects of temperature and number of heating-cooling cycles on mode I, mode II and the effective value of the mixed-mode I-II fracture toughness of concrete were investigated through two series of tests. In the first series of tests, the effect of temperature was studied in a heating-cooling cycle at ambient temperature (25 °C) and 60, 150, 200, 300, 500, and 700 °C. The highest and lowest mode I, mode II and the effective value of the mixed-mode I-II fracture toughness were, respectively, observed at 150 and 700°C. In the second series of tests, the effect of the number of heating-cooling cycles was investigated on mode I, mode II and the effective value of the mixed-mode I-II fracture toughness of concrete specimens at 150°C and a crack inclination angle of 45°. According to the results, mode I, mode II and the effective value of the mixed-mode I-II fracture toughness increased in the first cycle and decreased with increasing the number of heating-cooling cycles. As the crack inclination increased, the effective value of the mixed-mode I-II fracture toughness of the concrete specimens increased. The mode II fracture toughness increased up to a crack inclination angle of 45° and then decreased. Moreover, with increasing the crack inclination angle, the mode I fracture at the inclination angle of 0° was changed into the mixed-mode (tension–shear) fracture at inclination angles smaller than 28.8°. The mixed-mode tension–shear fracture was changed into the mixed-mode compressive–shear fracture at crack inclination angles larger than 28.8°.


Main Subjects

[1]. Feng, G., Kang, Y., Chen, F., Liu, Y. W., & Wang, X. C. (2018). ‘The influence of temperatures on mixed-mode (I+ II) and mode-II fracture toughness of sandstone’. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 189, 51-63.
[2]. Ayatollahi, M. R., & Aliha, M. R. M. (2008). ‘On the use of Brazilian disc specimen for calculating mixed mode I–II fracture toughness of rock materials’. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 75(16), 4631-4641.
[3]. Lim, I. L., Johnston, I. W., & Choi, S. K. (1994). ‘Assessment of mixed-mode fracture toughness testing methods for rock’. In International journal of rock mechanics and mining sciences & geomechanics abstracts, 31(3), 265-272).
[4]. Awaji, H. and Sato, S. (1978). ‘Combined Mode Fracture Toughness Measurement by the Disc Test, J. of Engng’. Materials and Tech., 100, 175-182.
[5]. Sanchez, E. (1979). ‘Inverses of fuzzy relations. Application to possibility distributions and medical diagnosis’. Fuzzy sets and systems, 2(1), 75-86.
[6]. Khan, K. (1998). ‘Fracture toughness investigation of an indigenous limestone rock formation’. (Doctoral dissertation, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals).
[7]. Atkinson, C., Smelser, R. E., & Sanchez, J. (1982). ‘Combined mode fracture via the cracked Brazilian disk test’. International Journal of Fracture, 18(4), 279-291.
[8]. Chong K, Kuruppu M (1984). ‘New specimen for fracture toughness determination for rock and other materials’. Int J Fract 26, 59–62.
[9]. Aliha, M.R.M., Mahdavi, E. and Ayatollahi, M.R., 2017. ‘The influence of specimen type on tensile fracture toughness of rock materials’. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 174(3), 1237-1253.
[10]. Kundu, T. (2008). ‘Fundamentals of fracture mechanics’. CRC press.
[11]. Funatsu, T., Kuruppu, M., & Matsui, K. (2014). ‘Effects of temperature and confining pressure on mixed-mode (I–II) and mode II fracture toughness of Kimachi sandstone’. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, (67), 1-8.
[12]. Xiankai, B., Meng, T., & Jinchang, Z. (2018). ‘Study of mixed mode fracture toughness and fracture trajectories in gypsum interlayers in corrosive environment’. Royal Society open science, 5(1), 171374.
[13]. Erarslan, N. (2019). Analysing mixed mode (I–II) fracturing of concrete discs including chevron and straight-through notch cracks. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 167, 79-92.
[14]. Hosseini, M. (2017). .Effect of temperature as well as heating and cooling cycles on rock properties’. Journal of Mining and Environment, 8(4), 631-644.
[15]. Ghazvinian, Abdolhadi, Hamid Reza Nejati, Vahab Sarfarazi, and Mir Raouf Hadei. ‘Mixed mode crack propagation in low brittle rock-like materials’. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 6, no. 11 (2013), 4435-4444.
[16]. Al-Shayea, N. A., & Khan, K. (2001). ‘Fracture Toughness Envelope of a Limestone Rock at High Confining Pressure and Temperature’. In ICF10, Honolulu (USA).
[17]. Feng, G., Wang, X., Wang, M., & Kang, Y. (2020). ‘Experimental investigation of thermal cycling effect on fracture characteristics of granite in a geothermal-energy reservoir’. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 235, 107180.
[18]. National Standard Organization of Iran, (2013). ‘Mixing chamber, humidity chamber, humidity chamber and water baths used in the test of hydraulic cement and concrete’, Standard No. 17040 (in persian)
[19] Ulusay, R., & Hudson, J. A.  (1978). Suggested methods for determining tensile strength of rock materials, Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr, 15, 99–103.
[20] Bieniawski, Z. T., & Bernede, M. J. (1979). Suggested methods for determining the uniaxial compressive strength and deformability of rock materials, Int J Rock Mech Min Sci, 16, 138–140.
[21] Vogler, U.,  Kovari, K.  (1978). Suggested methods for determining the strength of rock materials in triaxial compression, Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr, 15, 47–51.
[22] Franklin, J. A. (1979). Suggested method for determining water content, porosity,density, absorption and related properties and swelling and slake durability index properties, Int J Rock Mech Min Sci, 16, 141–156.
[23] Rummel, F., Van Heerden, W. (1978). Suggested methods for determining sound velocity, Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr, 15, 53–58.
[24]. Lippiatt, N. R., & Bourgeois, F. S. (2014). ‘Recycling-oriented investigation of local porosity changes in microwave heated-concrete’. KONA Powder and Particle Journal, 31, 247-264.
[25]. Sadri Mumtazi, A.,  Nosrati, H., Tahmoursi, m. (2013). ‘Evaluation of fibrous concrete properties containing recycled aggregates using non-destructive methods’, Journal of Concrete Research, 6(1) 73-76 (in persian).
[26]. Hejazi, M.  Hashemi, M. Batawani, M. (2013). ‘The effect of steel fibers on mechanical properties and performance against heat and frost of self-compacting lightweight concrete’,Concrete Research, 6(1) 47-63 (in persian).
[27]. Khoury, G. (1992). ‘Compressive strength of concrete at high temperatures’. a reassessment, Magazine of concrete Research 44(161), 291-300.
[28]. Grattan-Bellew, P. E. (1996). ‘Microstructural investigation of deteriorated Portland cement concretes’. Construction and building materials, 10(1), 3-16.
[29]. Zhou, Q., & Glasser, F. P. (2001). ‘Thermal stability and decomposition mechanisms of ettringite at< 120 C. Cement and Concrete Research’, 31(9), 1333-1339.
[30]. Abdel-Fattah, H., & Hamoush, S. A. (1997). ‘Variation of the fracture toughness of concrete with temperature’. Construction and Building Materials, 11(2), 105-108.