Replacement of OPC with RCP in Concrete Containing RCA (Investigation of Mechanical, Economic and Environmental Characteristics)

Document Type : Research Article


1 M.Sc., Faculty of Engineering, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

2 Civil, engineering, lorestan university, khorramabad, iran

3 Ph.D student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran


This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the properties of environmentally friendly concrete. In the making of specimens, 0%, 15%, and 30% of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) were replaced by recycled concrete powder (RCP) and silica fume (SF). In addition, 0%, 50%, and 100% of natural aggregates (NA) were replaced by recycled concrete aggregates (RCA). In the production of RCA, 3 types of concrete waste with an initial strength of 20, 40, and 80 MPa were used. In this study, rheological, mechanical (compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths), economic and environmental (GWP) properties of 28 mix designs were investigated. The results showed that the use of RCA and RCP has a negative effect on rheological and mechanical properties. However, the results showed that the use of RCA and RCP has a positive effect on environmental and economic properties. Moreover, the results indicated that the negative effect of RCA can be prevented by increasing the initial strength of RCA, and the negative effect of RCP can be prevented by using SF. Finally, by optimization of mixing designs, it was concluded that it is justified to use 50% of RCA with an initial strength of 40 and 80 MPa and 30% of RCP and SF, in terms of rheological, mechanical, economic, and environmental properties.


Main Subjects

[1] J. De Brito, N. Saikia., Recycled aggregate in concrete: use of industrial, construction and demolition waste, Springer Science & Business Media. (2012).
[2] US Geological Survey (2011) USGS mineral program cement report, United States Geological Survey.
[3] H. Shima, H. Tateyashiki, R. Matsuhashi, Y. Yoshida., An advanced concrete recycling technology and its applicability assessment through input-output analysis, Journal of advanced concrete technology. 3(1) (2005) 53-67.
[4] C. Xue, A. Shen, Y. Guo, T. He., Utilization of Construction Waste Composite Powder Materials as Cementitious Materials in Small-Scale Prefabricated Concrete, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. (2016).
[5] E. Kwon, J. Ahn, B. Cho, D. Park., A study on development of recycled cement made from waste cementitious powder, Construction and Building Materials. 83 (2015) 174-180.
[6] Q. Liu, T. Tong, S. Liu, D. Yang, Q. Yu., Investigation of using hybrid recycled powder from demolished concrete solids and clay bricks as a pozzolanic supplement for cement, Construction and Building Materials. 73 (2014) 754-763.
[7] S. Ahmari, X. Ren, V. Toufigh, L. Zhang., Production of geopolymeric binder from blended waste concrete powder and fly ash, Construction and Building Materials. 35 (2012) 718-729.
[8] X. Ma, Z. Wang., Effect of ground waste concrete powder on cement properties, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. (2013).
[9] Y. J. Kim, Y. W. Choi., Utilization of waste concrete powder as a substitution material for cement, Construction and building materials. 30 (2012) 500-504.
[10] M. Ahmadi, A. Hasani, M. Soleymani., Role of Recycled Steel Fibers from Tires on Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregate from Building Waste, Concrete research journal. 7 (2) (2014) 57-68. (In Persian)
[11] N. D. Oikonomou., Recycled concrete aggregates, Cem Concr Compos. 27 (2) (2005) 315-318.
[12] C.A. Carneiro, P.R.L. Lima, M.B. Leite, R.D.T. Filho., Compressive stress–strain behavior of steel fiber reinforced-recycled aggregate concrete, Cement and Concrete Composites. 46 (2017) 886-893.
[13] R. Chan, X. Liu, I. Galobardes., Parametric study of functionally graded concretes incorporating steel fibres and recycled aggregates, Construction and Building Materials. 242 (2020) 118186.
[14] A. Sahraei Moghadam, F. Omidinasab, S. Moazami Goodarzi., Assessment of mechanical properties of environmentally friendly concrete with emphasis on selection of optimal mix designs in terms of resistance and economy, Amirkabir journal of civil engineering. (2020) 17920-6712. (In Persian)
[15] V. Afroughsabet, L. Biolzi, T. Ozbakkaloglu., Influence of double hooked-end steel fibers and slag on mechanical and durability properties of high performance recycled aggregate concrete, Composite Structures. 181 (2017) 273-284.
[16] ASTM C 39/C 39M-03 (2003). “Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.”
[17] M. D. J. Sanchez, P.A. Gutierrez., Study on the influence of attached mortar content on the properties of recycled concrete aggregate, Construction and building materials. 23 (2009) 872-877.
[18] M. Pepe, R. D. Toledo Filho, E. A. Koenders, E. Martinelli., Alternative processing procedures for recycled aggregates in structural concrete, Construction and Building Materials. 69 (2014) 124-132.
[19] ASTM C125-19, Standard Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019.
[20] ASTM C131 / C131M-14 (2006). “Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine.”
[21] ASTM C150 (2012). “Standard Specification for Portland Cement.”
[22] ASTM C 143/C 143M-15a (2015). “Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete.”
[23] K. Akhavan Kazemi, O. Eren, A. R. Rezaei., Some mechanical properties of normal and recycled aggregate concretes, Scientia Iranica A. 22 (6) (2015) 1972-1980.
[24] M. Benaicha, X. Roguiez, O. Jalbaud, Y. Burtschell, A. Hafidi Alaoui., Influence of silica fume and viscosity modifying agent on the mechanical and rheological behavior of self-compacting concrete, J. Constr. Build. Mater. 84 (2015) 103-110.
[25] X. Y. Lv, L. S. Wang, X. Chen, Q. Y. Li., Experimental study on the activity of concrete recycled powder, Journal of Qingdao Technological University. 30 (2009) 137-139.
[26] S.W. Tabsh, A.S. Abdelfatah., Influence of recycled concrete aggregates on strength properties of concrete, Constr Build Mater. 23 (2009) 1163-1167.
[27] F.T. Olorunsogo, N. Padayachee., Performance of recycled aggregate concrete monitored by durability indexes, Cem Concr Res. 32 (2002) 179-185.
[28] A. Ajdukiewicz, A. Kliszczewicz., Influence of recycled aggregates on mechanical properties of HS/HPC, Cement Concrete Compos. 24 (2002) 269-279.
[29] D. J. Moon, Y. B. Kim, J. S. Ryou., An approach for the recycling of waste concrete powder as cementitious materials, Journal of Ceramic Processing Research. 9(3) (2008) 278-281.
[30] ASTM C 496/C 496M-11 (2011). “Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.”
[31] Y.J. Kim, Quality properties of self-consolidating concrete mixed with waste concrete powder, Construct. Build. Mater. 135 (2017) 177-185.
[21] M. Mastali, A. Dalvand, Use of silica fume and recycled steel fibers in self-compacting concrete (SCC), Construction and Building Materials. 125 (2016) 196-209.
[33] A.M. Wagih, H.Z. El-Karmoty, M. Ebid, S.H. Okba., Recycled construction and demolition concrete waste as aggregate for structural concrete, Housing and Building National Research Center. 9 (2013) 193-200.
[34] ASTM C78 (2010). “Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading).”
[35] P. Zhu, X. Maoa, W. Qu, Z. Li, Z. Mac., Investigation of using recycled powder from waste of clay bricks and cement solids in reactive powder concrete, Construction and Building Materials. 113 (2016) 246-254.
[36] M. Mastali, A. Dalvand, The impact resistance and mechanical properties of fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SCC) containing nano-SiO2 and silica fume, Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering. 22(1) (2018) 1-27.
[37] Y. Hua, Z. Tang, W. Li, Y. Li, V. W. Y. Tamd., Physical-mechanical properties of fly ash/GGBFS geopolymer composites with recycled aggregates, Construction and Building Materials. 226 (2019) 139-151.
[38] M. Mastali, Z. Abdollahnejad, F. Pacheco-Torgal., Carbon dioxide sequestration on fly ash/waste glassalkali-based mortars with recycled aggregates: compressive strength, hydration products, carbon footprint, and cost analysis, Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering. (2018) 299-348.
[39] M. Mastali, A. Dalvand, A.R. Sattarifard, Z. Abdollahnejad, M. Illikainena., Characterization and optimization of hardened properties of selfconsolidating concrete incorporating recycled steel, industrial steel, polypropylene and hybrid fibers, Composites Part B. 151 (2018) 186-200.
[40] Ecoinvent, The Life Cycle Inventory Data Version 2.0, 2008.
[41] P. Van den Heede, M. Maes, E. Gruyaert, N. De Belie., Full probabilistic service life prediction and life cycle assessment of concrete with fly ash and blast-furnace slag in a submerged marine environment: a parameter study, Int J Environ Sust Dev. 11 (2012) 32-49.
[42] P.Van den Heede, N. De Belie., Environmental impact and life cycle assessment (LCA) of traditional and ‘green’concretes: literature review and theoretical calculations, Cement Concr. Compos. 34 (2012) 431-442.
[43] A. Akbar, K.M. Liew, Assessing recycling potential of carbon fiber reinforced plastic waste in production of eco-efficient cement-based materials, Journal of Cleaner Production. 274 (2020) 123001.
[44] A. Hajimohammadi, T. Ngo, P. Mendis, T. Nguyen, A. Kashani, J.S.J. van Deventer., Pore characteristics in one-part mix geopolymers foamed by H2O2: the impact of mix design, Mater. Des. 130 (2017) 381-391.
[45] F. Bayramov, C. Tasdemir, M. A. Tasdemir., Optimization of fibre reinforced concretes by means of statistical response surface method, Cement Concr Compos. 26 (2004) 665-675.
[46] W.F. Smith., Experimental design for formulation, American Statistical Association. (2005).
[47] O. Sengul, M.A. Tasdemir., Compressive strength and rapid chloride permeability of concretes with ground fly ash and slag, Mater Civ Eng. 21 (2009) 494-501.
[48] O. Sengul., Mechanical behavior of concretes containing waste steel fibers recovered from scrap tires, Construct Build Mater. 122 (2016) 649-58.