Effects of Concrete Constituent Materials on the Penetration of Surface Water

Document Type : Research Article


Department of civil engineering, Faculty of engineering, International Imam Khomeini university, Qazvin, Iran


Concrete is one of the widely used materials in hydraulic structures. The permeability of these structures is considered to be one of the most important factors. Therefore, in this paper, the effects of aggregates, cement paste, transition zones, and concrete surface strength, on the penetration of surface water into the concrete are presented. For this study, 150 mm concrete cubes containing granite, andesite, siliceous, limestone, marble, and tuff aggregates were prepared. These specimens also contained type 2 Portland cement, silica fume, fly-ash, zeolite, and limestone powder. These admixtures replaced 10% of the cement content. While the “cylindrical chamber” was used for the permeability measurement, the “Twist-off” method was used to estimate the surface strength of the concrete specimens. Regression analysis of the permeability readings of the parent rocks, cement paste, interfacial transition zone length, and concrete surface strength revealed that the penetrated water volume into the concrete specimens could be predicted, using the proposed regression equation. It was also observed that, compared with other considered parameters, the cement paste, and concrete surface strength had the highest and lowest impact on the concrete permeability, respectively.


Main Subjects

[1] Weiss, S. Shields-Cook, Relating Transport Properties to Performance in Concrete Pavements, (2014).
[2] ACI Committee 201, American Concrete Institute (2016).
[3] K. Rahmani, B. Rahmanzadeh, S. Piroti, Experimental study of the effect of water-cement ratio on compressive strength, abrasion resistance, porosity and permeability of Nano silica concrete, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, 12(44) (2018) 16-24.
[4] I. Hager, T. Tracz, M. Choińska, K. Mróz, Effect of cement type on the mechanical behavior and permeability of concrete subjected to high temperatures, Materials, 12(18) (2019) 3021
[5] T. Joshi, U. Dave, Evaluation of strength, permeability and void ratio of pervious concrete with changing W/C ratio and aggregate size, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 7(4) (2016) 276-284.
[6] E. Lim, K.H. Tan, T.F. Fwa, Effect of mix proportion on strength and permeability of pervious concrete for use in pavement, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 10 (2013) 1565-1575.
[7] A. Leemann, R. Loser, B. Münch, Influence of cement type on ITZ porosity and chloride resistance of self-compacting concrete, Cement and Concrete Composites, 32(2) (2010) 116-120.
[8] G. Toplicic-Curcic, Z. Grdić, R. Ristic, I. Despotović, D. Dordevic, M. Dordevic, Aggregate type impact on water permeability of concrete, Romanian journal of materials, 42(2) (2012) 134-142.
[9] M. Tijani, W. Ajagbe, A. Ganiyu, O. Agbede, Effect of aggregate type on properties of pervious concrete, Journal of Modern Technology and Engineering, 4(1) (2019) 37-46.
[10] C. Argiz, M. Sanjuán, R. Muñoz-Martialay, Effect of the aggregate grading on the concrete air permeability, Materiales de Construcción, 64(315) (2014) 026.
[11] L. Kong, X. Chen, Y. Du, Evaluation of the effect of aggregate on concrete permeability using grey correlation analysis and ANN, Computers and Concrete, 17(5) (2016) 613-628.
[12] R. Hooton, Influence of silica fume replacement of cement on physical properties and resistance to sulfate attack, freezing and thawing, and alkali-silica reactivity, materials Journal, 90(2) (1993) 143-151.
[13] A.M. Diab, M.A. Abd Elwahab, H.E. Elyamany, M. Abd Elmoaty, Guidelines in compressive strength assessment of concrete modified with silica fume due to magnesium sulfate attack, Construction and Building Materials, 36 (2012) 311-318.
[14] M. Najimi, J. Sobhani, B. Ahmadi, M. Shekarchi, An experimental study on durability properties of concrete containing zeolite as a highly reactive natural pozzolan, Construction and Building Materials, 35 (2012) 1023-1033.
[15] A. Sadrmomtazi, B. Tahmouresi, R. Kohani Khoshkbijari, Effect of fly ash and silica fume on transition zone, pore structure and permeability of concrete, Magazine of Concrete Research, 70(10) (2018) 519-532.
[16] A.R. Mohamed, M. Elsalamawy, M. Ragab, Modeling the influence of limestone addition on cement hydration, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 54(1) (2015) 1-5.
[17] M. Naderi, Determination of concrete, stone, mortar, brick and other construction materials permeability with cylindrical chamber method, Registration of Patent in Companies and industrial property Office, Reg. N. 67726. Iran (2010).
[18] M. Naderi, Twist-off method for assessing material strength and their bond, Registration of Patent in Companies and industrial property Office, Reg. N. 23936. Iran (2007).
[19] M. Naderi, A. Kaboudan, Cylindrical Chamber: A New In Situ Method for Measuring Permeability of Concrete with and without Admixtures, Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 48(3) (2020).
[20] M. Naderi, A. Kaboudan, A. Akhavan Sadighi, Comparative Study on Water Permeability of Concrete Using Cylindrical Chamber Method and British Standard and Its Relation with Compressive Strength, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, 6(1) (2018) 116-131.
[21] M. Naderi, New twist-off method for the evaluation of in-situ strength of concrete, Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 35(6) (2007) 602-608.