Applying Genetic Algorithm to estimate the behavior factor of EBF steel frames under pulse-type near-fault earthquakes, performance level approach

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Assistant professor and head of higher education office/ACECR Institute for higher education-Khuzestan branch-Ahwaz

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch, Ahvaz, Iran


The most important feature of the behavior factor is that it allows the structural designer to be able to evaluate the structural seismic demand, using an elastic analysis based on force-based principles quickly. In seismic codes such as the 2800 Standard, this coefficient is merely dependent on the type of lateral resistance system and is introduced with a fixed number. However, there is a relationship between the behavior factor, ductility (performance level), structural geometric properties, and type of earthquake (near and far). The main purpose of this paper is to establish an accurate correlation between the geometrical characteristics of the structure, performance level and the behavior factor in eccentrically steel frames under earthquakes near-fault. For this purpose, a genetic algorithm is used. Initially, a wide database consisting of 12960 data with 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 15- and 20- stories, 3 column stiffness types, and 3 brace slenderness types were designed and analyzed under 20 pulse-type near-fault earthquakes for 4 different performance levels. To generate the proposed relation, 7533 training data in the form of genetic optimization algorithm were used. To validate the proposed relationship, 2515 test data were used to calculate the mean squared error of the relationship in the fitness function. The results of the correlation show accuracy of the proposed coefficients. Also, the comparison of the response of maximum inelastic displacement of 5stories EBF from the proposed correlation and the mean inelastic time history analysis confirms the accuracy of the estimated relationship.


Main Subjects

[1] B. Standard, "Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance," Part, vol. 1, pp. 1998-1, 2005.
[2] Iranian national building code: Design and construction of steel structures-division 10, H. a. U. D. R. C. Road, Tehran, Iran, 2014.
[3] A. T. Council, Improvement of nonlinear static seismic analysis procedures. FEMA Region II, 2005.
[4] P. R. Santa-Ana and E. Miranda, "Strength reduction factors for multi-degree-of-freedom systems," in Proceedings of the 12th world conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2000, vol. 1446: Auckland, New Zealand.
[5] H. Krawinkler and M. Rahnama, "Effects of soft soils on design spectra," in 10th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 1992, vol. 10, pp. 5841-5846.
[6] J. F. Hall, T. H. Heaton, M. W. Halling, and D. J. Wald, "Near-source ground motion and its effects on flexible buildings," Earthquake spectra, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 569-605, 1995.
[7] H. Krawinkler, J. Anderson, V. Bertero, W. Holmes, and C. Theil Jr, "Steel buildings," Earthquake Spectra, vol. 12, no. S1, pp. 25-47, 1996.
[8] N. Makris and C. J. Black, "Dimensional analysis of bilinear oscillators under pulse-type excitations," Journal of Engineering Mechanics, vol. 130, no. 9, pp. 1019-1031, 2004.
[9] M. Gerami and D. Abdollahzadeh, "Local and global effects of forward directivity," Građevinar, vol. 65, no. 11., pp. 971-985, 2013.
[10] A. Mashayekhi, M. Gerami, and N. Siahpolo, "Assessment of Higher Modes Effects on Steel Moment Resisting Structures under Near-Fault Earthquakes with Forward Directivity Effect Along Strike-Parallel and Strike-Normal Components," International Journal of Steel Structures, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1543-1559, 2019.
[11] M.-B. Prendes-Gero, A. Bello-García, J.-J. del Coz-Díaz, F.-J. Suárez-Domínguez, and P.-J. G. Nieto, "Optimization of steel structures with one genetic algorithm according to three international building codes," Revista de la Construcción. Journal of Construction, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 47-59, 2018.
[12] A. Ede, O. Oshokoya, J. Oluwafemi, S. Oyebisi, and O. Olofinnade, "STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF A GENETIC ALGORITHM OPTIMIZED STEEL TRUSS STRUCTURE ACCORDING TO BS 5950," International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 358-364, 2018.
[13] M. Asadbeyg, Genetic Algorithm (no. 1st). Tehran: Asad publication (in Persian), 2019.
[14] P. L. Iglesias, D. Mora, F. J. Martinez, and V. S. Fuertes, "Study of sensitivity of the parameters of a genetic algorithm for design of water distribution networks," Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 61-69, 2007.
[15] J. H. Holland, Adaptation in natural and artificial systems: an introductory analysis with applications to biology, control, and artificial intelligence. MIT press, 1992.
[16] M. N. Ab Wahab, S. Nefti-Meziani, and A. Atyabi, "A comprehensive review of swarm optimization algorithms," PloS one, vol. 10, no. 5, 2015.
[17] S. No, "2800," (in Persian), Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings, vol. 3, 2005.
[18] AISC-360-05, Structural design guide to AISC specifications for buildings, 0442269048, P. F. Rice and E. S. Hoffman, 2005.
[19] T. L. Karavasilis, N. Bazeos, and D. E. Beskos, "Estimation of seismic drift and ductility demands in planar regular X‐braced steel frames," Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, vol. 36, no. 15, pp. 2273-2289, 2007.
[20] A. Fakhraddini, S. Hamed, and M. J. Fadaee, "Peak displacement patterns for the performance-based seismic design of steel eccentrically braced frames," Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 379-393, 2019.
[21] M. Bosco, E. M. Marino, and P. P. Rossi, "Modelling of steel link beams of short, intermediate or long length," Engineering structures, vol. 84, pp. 406-418, 2015.
[22] F. McKenna, "OpenSees: a framework for earthquake engineering simulation," Computing in Science & Engineering, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 58-66, 2011.
[23] R. Pekelnicky, S. D. Engineers, S. Chris Poland, and N. D. Engineers, "ASCE 41-13: Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings," Proceedings of the SEAOC, 2012.
[24] A. Tzimas, T. Karavasilis, N. Bazeos, and D. Beskos, "Extension of the hybrid force/displacement (HFD) seismic design method to 3D steel moment-resisting frame buildings," Engineering Structures, vol. 147, pp. 486-504, 2017.
[25] F. De Luca, I. Iervolino, and E. Cosenza, "Un-scaled, scaled, adjusted and artificial spectral matching accelerograms: displacement-and energy-based assessment," Proceedings of XIII ANIDIS,“L’ingegneria Sismica in Italia”, Bologna, Italy, 2009.
[26] J. Hancock, "The influence of duration and the selection and scaling of accelerograms in engineering design and assessment," Imperial College London (University of London), 2006.
[27] J. W. Baker, "Quantitative classification of near-fault ground motions using wavelet analysis," Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 1486-1501, 2007.
[28] M. Bosco and P. Rossi, "Seismic behaviour of eccentrically braced frames," Engineering Structures, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 664-674, 2009.
[29] A. Kuşyılmaz and C. Topkaya, "Design overstrength of steel eccentrically braced frames," International Journal of Steel Structures, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 529-545, 2013.
[30] P. Rossi and A. Lombardo, "Influence of the link overstrength factor on the seismic behaviour of eccentrically braced frames," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 1529-1545, 2007.
[31] A. Committee, "Specification for structural steel buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-10)," American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago-Illinois, 2010.