Dynamic Analysis of Earth Dams under De-Noised Earthquake Records

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.


In this study, the dynamic behavior of earth dams with clay core was analyzed using the finite element method. The seismic responses of earth dams under main and wavelet-based decomposed earthquake records were investigated. Earthquake records were decomposed up to five stages by using the wavelet de-noising method. The ratio of acceleration response spectrum to maximum acceleration, ratio of velocity response spectrum to maximum velocity, ratio of displacement response spectrum to maximum displacement, Fourier amplitude spectrum and time history of Arias intensity of earth dam crest under main and wavelet-based decomposed earthquake records were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the acceleration response spectrum ratio of dam crest under de-noised records up to 3rd level and the velocity and displacement spectrum ratios of dam crest up to 4th level has an acceptable accuracy in comparison to the responses under main earthquake records. Results of the dynamic analysis indicated that Fourier amplitude spectra and Arias intensity of earth dam crest under de-noising based records up to 4th level are compatible with main earthquake records. The results also showed that the wavelet-based decomposed earthquake records can be a reliable alternative for main earthquake records in the dynamic analysis of earth dams.


Main Subjects

[1] G. Gazetas, P. Dakoulas, Seismic analysis and design of rockfill dams: state-of-the-art, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 11(1) (1992) 27-61.
[2] M. Rashidi, S.M. Haeri, Evaluation of behaviors of earth and rockfill dams during construction and initial impounding using instrumentation data and numerical modeling, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(4) (2017) 709-725.
[3] D. Russo, S, Sica, S. Del Gaudio, R. De Matteis, A. Zollo, Near-source effects on the ground motion occurred at the Conza Dam site (Italy) during the 1980 Irpinia earthquake, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15(10) (2017) 4009-4037.
[4] F. Nasiri, H. Javdanian, A. Heidari, Behavior of earth dams due to downsampling-based records. In: 8th International Conference on Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (SEE8), 11 November, Tehran, Iran, 2019.
[5] S. Chakraborty, J. T. Das, A. J. Puppala, A. Banerjee, Natural frequency of earthen dams at different induced strain levels, Engineering geology, 248 (2019) 330-345.
[6] A. W. M. Elgamal, R. F, Scott, M. F. Succarieh, L. Yan, La Villita dam response during five earthquakes including permanent deformation, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 116(10) (1990) 1443-1462
[7] Papalou, J. Bielak, Nonlinear seismic response of earth dams with canyon interaction, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 130(1) (2004) 103-110.
[8] L. Pelecanos, S. Kontoe, L. Zdravkovic, Dam–reservoir interaction effects on the elastic dynamic response of concrete and earth dams, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 82 (2016) 138-141.
[9] L. Pelecanos, S. Kontoe, L. Zdravkovic, The effects of dam–reservoir interaction on the nonlinear seismic response of earth dams, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, (2018) 1-23.
[10] S. Rampello, E. Cascone, N, Grosso, Evaluation of the seismic response of a homogeneous earth dam, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29(5) (2009) 782-798.
[11] X. M. Ding, H. L. Liu, T. Yu, G. Q. Kong, Nonlinear finite element analysis of effect of seismic waves on dynamic response of Shiziping dam, Journal of Central South University, 20(8) (2013) 2323-2332.
[12] D. Aliberti, E. Cascone, G. Biondi, Seismic performance of the San Pietro dam, Procedia Engineering, 158 (2016) 362-367.
[13] F. Castelli, V. Lentini, C. A. Trifaro, 1D seismic analysis of earth dams: the example of the Lentini site, Procedia Engineering, 158 (2016) 356-361.
[14] Charatpangoon, J. Kiyono, A. Furukawa, C. Hansapinyo, Dynamic analysis of earth dam damaged by the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 64 (2014) 50-62.
[15] Y. Sawada, H. Nakazawa, T. Oda, S. Kobayashi, S. Shibuya, T. Kawabata, Seismic performance of small earth dams with sloping core zones and geosynthetic clay liners using full-scale shaking table tests, Soils and foundations, 58(3) (2018) 533-519.
[16] S. Park, N. R. Kim, Safety evaluation of cored rockfill dams under high seismicity using dynamic centrifuge modeling, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 97 (2017) 345-363.
[17] Xu, D. Zou, X. Kong, Z. Hu, Y. Zhou, Dynamic damage evaluation on the slabs of the concrete faced rockfill dam with the plastic-damage model, Computers and Geotechnics, 65 (2015) 258-265.
[18] K. I. Andrianopoulos, A. G. Papadimitriou, G. D. Bouckovalas, D. K. Karamitros, Insight into the seismic response of earth dams with an emphasis on seismic coefficient estimation Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 195-210.
[19] H. Javdanian, H. R. Zarif Sanayei, L. Shakarami, A regression-based approach to predict crest settlement of embankment dams under earthquake shaking, Scientia Iranica, 27 (2) (2020) 671-681.
[20] H. Javdanian, L. Shakarami, H. R. Zarif Sanayei, Modeling seismic settlement of earth dams due to earthquake loading, In: International Conference on New Findings of Civil, Architectural and Iran Building Industry, 11 December, Tehran, Iran, 2018.
[21] H. Javdanian, B. Pradhan, Assessment of earthquake-induced slope deformation of earth dams using soft computing techniques, Landslides, 16(1) (2019) 91-103.
[22] L. Shakarami, H. Javdanian, H.R. Zarif Sanayei, G. Shams, Numerical investigation of seismically induced crest settlement of earth dams, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 5(4) (2019) 1231-1238.
[23] H. Javdanian, Predicting seismic slope displacements of embankment dams using fuzzy systems, Journal of Dam and Hydroelectric Powerplant, 5(19) (2019) 25-35.
[24] A Heidari, E. Salajegheh, Wavelet analysis for processing of earthquake records, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, 9(5) (2008) 513-524.
[25] T. P. Banjade, S. Yu, J. Ma, Earthquake accelerogram denoising by wavelet-based variational mode decomposition, Journal of Seismology, 23(4) (2019) 649–663.
[26] A. Kaveh, V. R. Mahdavi, A new method for modification of ground motions using wavelet transform and enhanced colliding bodies optimization. Applied Soft Computing, 47 (2016) 357-369.
[27] S. Soroushian, E. M. Maragakis, A. Ansari, Estimation of vertical floor displacement using a wavelet de-noising method, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 20(2) (2016) 279-297.
[28] G. Ghodrati Amiri, A. A. Rad, N. K. Hazaveh, Wavelet-based method for generating nonstationary artificial pulse-like near-fault ground motions, Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 29(10) (2014) 758-770.
[29] Salajegheh, A. Heidari, Optimum design of structures against earthquake by adaptive genetic algorithm using wavelet networks, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 28(4) (2004) 277-285.
[30] Salajegheh, A. Heidari, Optimum design of structures against earthquake by wavelet neural network and filter banks, Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics, 34(1) (2005) 67-82.
[31] Smyrou, I. E. Bal, P. Tasiopoulou, G. Gazetas, Wavelet analysis for relating soil amplification and liquefaction effects with seismic performance of precast structures, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 45(7) (2016) 1169-1183.
[32] O. Rioul, M. Vetterli, Wavelets and signal processing, IEEE signal processing magazine, 8 (1991) 14-38.
[33] I, Daubechies, The wavelet transform, time-frequency localization and signal analysis, IEEE Trans Inf. Theory, 36(5) (1990) 961-1005.
[34] A, Heidari, S. Pahlavan sadegh, J. Raeisi, Investigating the effect of soil type on non-linear response spectrum using wavelet theory, International Journal of Civil Engineering, (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40999-019-00394-6.
[35] R. E. Crochiere, Digital Signal Processor: Sub‐Band Coding, Bell System Technical Journal, 60(7) (1981) 1633-1653.
[36] E. Salajegheh, A. Heidari, Optimum design of structures for earthquake induced loading by wavelet neural network, In Intelligent Computational Paradigms in Earthquake Engineering, IGI Global, (2007) 80-100.
[37] L. Donoho, Nonlinear wavelet methods for recovery of signals, densities, and spectra from indirect and noisy data, In Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics. 47 (1993) http://dx.doi.org/10.1090/psapm/047.
[38] A. Ansari, A. Noorzad, H. Zafarani, H. Vahidifard, Correction of highly noisy strong motion records using a modified wavelet de-noising method, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 30(11) (2010) 1168-1181.
[39] R. B. J. Brinkgreve, (Ed.). Plaxis 2D: finite element code for soil and rock analyses, Version 8, Balkema Publisher, The Netherlands,(2002).
[40] R. L. Kuhlemeyer, J. Lysmer, Finite element method accuracy for wave propagation problems, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, 99 (1973) 421–427.
[41] A. Arias, Measure of earthquake intensity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, University of Chile, Santiago de Chile, (1970).