Effect of seawater in grout on the mechanical behavior of cement stabilized marine sand

Document Type : Research Article


Department of civil engineering, university of Qom


One of the challenges in the field of geotechnical engineering is the sustainable development of soil improvement methods in marine environments due to severe environmental conditions such as high salinity. Implementation of soil-cement columns using deep mixing method and jet-grouting methods is an effective way to deal with problems caused by low resistance of coastal problematic soils. What is common in the implementation of these columns in the engineering community is the need to use fresh water to make the grout used in these columns. This, both from the point of view of its supply and transportation costs and from the lack of fresh water in many areas, imposes high costs on projects and time delays. However, prior to the final cement retention, the saline water present in the environments of the columns was mixed with the fresh water in the grout as they were built deep in the soil. Investigating the feasibility of using seawater in mixing these columns and evaluating the behavior of soil-cement samples in marine conditions has received little attention. In this study, it has been attempted to investigate the effective factors in the grout mixing scheme, including water salinity, cement percentage, water-cement ratio and processing time on uniaxial compressive strength and sand-cement tensile strength. SEM images were also microstructurally evaluated for sample behavior. The results show that in the 15% to 25% cement content, the use of seawater in grout production does not decrease the strength of sand-cement samples in the marine environment. The obtained compressive strength range for sand-cement samples made with seawater is approximately (1.5 to 6) MPa and the tensile to compressive strength ratio of these samples is in the range (0.15 to 0.3).


Main Subjects

[1] Y. Liu, Y. Jiang, H. Xiao, F. Lee, Determination of representative strength of deep cement-mixed clay from core strength data, Géotechnique, 67(4) (2017) 350-64.
[2] C.A. Anagnostopoulos, Strength properties of an epoxy resin and cement-stabilized silty clay soil,  Applied Clay Science, 114 (2015) 517-29.
[3] B. Nikbakhtan, M. Osanloo, Effect of grout pressure and grout flow on soil physical and mechanical properties in jet grouting operations, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 46(3) (2009) 498-505.
[4] M. Kitazume, M. Terashi, The Deep Mixing Method, CRC Press (2013).
[5] O. Helson, A. L. Beaucour, J. Eslami, A. Noumowe, P. Gotteland, Physical and mechanical properties of soilcrete mixtures: Soil clay content and formulation parameters, Construction and Building Materials, 131 (2017) pp: 775-83.
[6] S. Yoon, M. Abu-Farsakh, Laboratory Investigation on the Strength Characteristics of Cement-Sand as Base Material, Ksce Journal of Civil Engineering, 13(1) (2009) 15-22.
[7] A. Janalizadeh Choobbasti, S. Soleimani Kutanaei, Microstructure characteristics of cement stabilized sandy soil using nanosilica, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, (2017).
[8] P. Dr.Eng. Jamsawang, P. Dr.Eng. Voottipruex, S. Ph.D. Horpibulsuk, Flexural Strength Characteristics of Compacted Cement-Polypropylene Fiber Sand, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 27, 9, (2015).
[9] M. Esmaeili, F.Astaraki, H.Khajehei, Laboratory investigation on the effect of microsilica additive on mechanical properties of deep soil mixing columns in loose sandy soils, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, ISSN: 1964-8189 (2017) 2116-7214.
[10] N.C.Consoli, R.C. Cruz, A.V.D. Fonseca, M.R. Coop, Influence of Cement-Voids Ratio on Stress-Dilatancy Behavior of Artificially Cemented Sand, Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng, 138(1) (2012) 100-109.
[11] X. Wei, T. Ku, New design chart for geotechnical ground improvement: characterizing cement-stabilized sand, Acta Geotechnica, (2019).
[12] I.N. Markou, D.N. Christodoulou, M. Atmatzidis, Effect of Sand Gradation on the Groutability of Cement Suspensions, Grouting and Deep Mixing, ASCE (2012).
[13] M.Tajdini, M. Hajialilue Bonab, S. Golmohamadi, An Experimental Investigation on Effect of Adding Natural and Synthetic Fibres on Mechanical and Behavioural Parameters of Soil–Cement Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, ( 2017).
[14] M. Ismail, H.A Joer, W.H. Sim, M.F. Randolph, Effect of Cement Type on Shear Behavior of Cemented Calcareous Soil, Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng, 128(6) (2002) 520-529.
[15] H. Shoukry, M.F. Kotkata, S.A. Abo-EL-Enein, M.S. Morsy, S.S. Sheb, Enhanced physical. mechanical and microstructural properties of lightweight vermiculite cement composites modified with nano metakaolin, Construction and Building Materials, 112 (2016) 276–283.
[16] H. Hyashi, J. Nishikawa, K. Ohish, M. Terashi, Field Observation Of Long- Term Strength Of Cement Treated Soil, Groting and Ground Treatment, (2003).
[17] A.T.M.Z. Rabbi, J. Kuwano, Effect of Curing Time and Confining  Pressure on the Mechanical Properties of Cement-treated Sand, GeoCongress. 2012, ASCE (2012 ).
[18] S.H. Bahmani, N. Farzadnia, A. Asadi, B.B.K. Huat, The effect of size and replacement content of nanosilica on strength development of cement treated residual soil, Construction and Building Materials, 118 (2016) 294–306.
[19] M. Kitazume, M. Grisolia, E. Leder, I.P. Marzano, A. Alberto, S. Correiac, P.J.V. Oliveira, H. Åhnberg, M. Andersson, Applicability of molding procedures in laboratory mix tests for quality control and assurance of the deep mixing method, Soils and Foundations, 55(4) (2015) 761–777.
[20] B.V. V. Reddy, A. Gupta, Influence of sand grading on the characteristics of mortars and soil–cement block masonry, Construction and Building Materials, 22 (2008) 1614–1623.
[21] H.M. Kwon, A.T. Le, N.T. Nguyen, Influence of Soil Grading on Properties of Compressed Cement-soil, Ksce Journal of Civil Engineering, 14(6) (2010) 845-853.
[22] S.H. Bahmani, B.B.K. Huat, A. Asadi, N. Farzadnia, Stabilization of residual soil using SiO2 nanoparticles and cement, Construction and Building Materials, 64 (2014) 350–359.
[23] A. Sreekrishnavilasam, S. Rahardja, R. Kmetz, M. Santagata, Soil treatment using fresh and landfilled cement kiln dust, Construction and Building Materials, 21 (2007) 318–327.
[24] K.A. Tariq, T. Maki, Mechanical behaviour of cement-treated sand, Construction and Building Materials, 58 (2014) 54–63.
[25] L. Festugato, E. Menger, F. Benezra, E.A. Kipper, Fibre-reinforced cemented soils compressive and tensile strength assessment as a function of filament length, Geotextiles and Geomembranes 45 (2017) 77-82.
[26] R. Starcher, C.H. Liu,  Mechanical Behavior of Cement- and Cement-Fiber-Improved Soft Soils, Geo-Congress 2013, ASCE (2013).
[27] M. Mackevičius, D. Sližytė,  T. Zhilkina, Influence of calcite particles on mechanical properties of grouted sandy soil, Procedia Engineering, 172 ( 2017 ) 681 – 684.
[28] N.C. Consoli, M.A. Vendruscolo, P.D.M. Prietto, Behavior of Plate Load Tests on Soil Layers Improved with Cement and Fiber, Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng, 129(1) (2003) 96-101.
[29] A. Ates, Mechanical properties of sandy soils reinforced with cement and randomly distributed glass fibers (GRC), Composites, 96 (2016) 295-304.
[30] P.Sukontasukkul, P. Jamsawang, Use of steel and polypropylene fibers to improve flexural performance of deep soil–cement column, Construction and Building Materials, 29 (2012) 201–205.
[31] L. Ali, R.D. Woods, Creating Artificially Cemented Sand Specimen with Foamed Grout, Geotechnicaal Special Publication No. 197. GeoHunan International Conference 2009, (2009).
[32] Y. Yang, G. Wang,  S. Xie, X. Tu, X. Huang, Effect of mechanical property of cemented soil under the different pH value, Applied Clay Science, 79 (2013) 19–24.
[33] M.K. Karim, M.D.J. Alam, M.D.SH. Hoque, Effect of salinity of water in lime‑fly ash treated sand, Geo-Engineering, (2017).
[34] T. Meng, Y. Qiang, A. Hu, C.H. Xu, L. Lin, Effect of compound nano-CaCO3 addition on strength development and microstructure of cement-stabilized soil in the marine environment, Construction and Building Materials,151 (2017) 775–781.
[35] V. Khoshsirat, H. Bayesteh, M. Sharifi, Effect of high salinity in grout on the performance of cement-stabilizedmarine clay, Construction and Building Materials, 217 (2019) 93–107.
[36] E.M. Mbadike, A.U. Elinwa, Effect of salt water in the production of concrete, Nigerian Journal of Technology, 30(2) June ( 2011).
[37] S. K. Kaushik, S. Islam,  Suitability of Sea Water for Mixing Structural  Concrete Exposed to a Marine Environment, Civil Engineering Department. University of Roorkee, Roorkee-247 667, 17 (1995) 177-185.
[38] J.A.C. Xiao, C.H. Qiang, A. Nanni, K. Zhang, Use of sea-sand and seawater in concrete construction: Current status and future opportunities, Construction and Building Materials, 155 (2017) 1101–111.
[39] A. Younis, U. Ebead, P. Suraneni, A. Nanni, Fresh and hardened properties of seawater-mixed concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 190 (2018) 276–286.
[40] M. Bruce, R. Berg, J. Collin, G. Filz, M. Terashi, D. Yang, Federal Highway Administration   Design Manual. Deep Mixing for Embankment and Foundation Support, Publication No. FHWA-HRT-13-046. US Department of Transportation, (2013).
[41] F.M. Wegian, Effect of seawater for mixing and curing on structural concrete, The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering, ISSN: 1937-3260, 3(4) (2010) 1937-3279.
[42] A. ZhoU, R. Qin, C.H.L.Chow, D. Lau, Structural performance of FRP confine seawater concrete columns under chloride environment, Composite Structures, (2019).
[43] P. Croce, A. Flora, G. Modoni,  Jet grouting: technology. design and control, CRC Pres, (2014).
[44] P. Ghodousi, A. Ganjian, T. Parhizkar, A.A. ramezanianpour, Concrete technology in Persian Gulf environment: Pathology of concrete and evluation , Road, Housing & Urban Development Research Center, (1378), In Persian.