Effect of Foundation Flexibility on the Capacity of Concrete Moment Frames with Shear Wall

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Civil Engineering/ Tafresh University/ Tafresh/ Ian.


Considering the soil-foundation-structure interaction (SFSI) in the structural modeling procedure can change the seismic structural response. However, the SFSI effects are mostly ignored in the analysis procedure of structures, as a general engineering belief regarding its conservative effects. This conservation is not always the case, although the period and the damping of structures change by considering SFSI effects and consequently, the seismic demand decreases. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of foundation flexibility on the capacity of concrete moment frames with the shear wall. For this purpose, the beam on nonlinear Winkler foundation approach is used, which is a simple and efficient method. First, a collection of 3, 6 and 10 storied reinforced concrete moment resisting frames founded on soft, medium and hard soils are designed based on FEMA450. After the implementation of frames in Opensees software, a set of seismic scenarios are selected. In the following, each frame that has been founded on the soft, medium and hard soil is analyzed for the case of fixed-base and the flexible-base assumption by incremental dynamic analysis (IDA). A comparison is made between the results of each frame in the flexible-base and fixed-base conditions. The results show that the consideration of the SFSI effects can significantly influence the IDA curves and decrease the structural capacity of frames. So that dynamic instability will occur before the expected capacity corresponding to fixed-base assumptions has been achieved. This instability increases with increasing shear wave velocity of soils and height of frames. For example, 3 and 6 storied frames with the flexible base, which have been founded on soft soil, reach ultimate capacity in 52% and 45% of spectral acceleration corresponding to fixed base, respectively.


Main Subjects

[1] Wolf, J. P. (1985). Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
[2] Tuladhar, R. (2006). Seismic behavior of concrete pile foundation embedded in cohesive soil. Ph.D. Dissertation, Saitama University, Japan.
[3] Allotey, N. K. (2006). Nonlinear Soil- Structure interaction in performance- based design. (PhD thesis). University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
[4] Mylonakis, G. and Gazetas, G. (2000). Seismic soil structure interaction: Beneficial or Detrimental? Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 4(3), pp. 277-301.
[5] MacLeod, I. A. (2005). Modern structural analysis: modelling process and guidance. Thomas Telford.
[6] Jayalekshm, B. R., and Chinmayi, H. K. (2016). Effect of soil stiffness on seismic response of reinforced concrete buildings with shear walls. Innov. Infrastruct. Solut. (2016) 1:2.
[7] Bas, S. (2019). Estimation of Seismic Response of R/C Frame Structures to Vertical Earthquake Motion Considering Fixed Support and Soil-Structure-Interaction (SSI). International Journal of Engineering Research and Development. UMAGD, (2019) 11(1), 7-17.
[8] Rodriguez, M., Magna-Verdugo, C., and Abell, J. (2018). INFLUENCE OF SOIL STRUCTUREINTERACTION IN SHEAR-WALL RC BUILDINGS FRAGILITY CURVES. Eleventh U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Los Angeles, California.
[9] Anvarsamarin, A., Rahimzadeh Rofooei, F., and Nekooei, M. (2018). Soil-Structure Interaction Effect on Fragility Curve of 3D Models of Concrete Moment-Resisting Buildings. Shock and Vibration. Volume 2018, Article ID 7270137, 13 pages.
[10] Kraus, I., and Dzakic, D. (2013). Soil-structure interaction effects on seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete frames. SE-50EEE Conference, May 2013.
[11] Chandler, A. M., and Hutchinson, G. L. (2006). Code design provisions for tortionally coupled buildings on elastic foundation. Earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, 15 (4), 517-536.
[12] Barcena, A., and Esteva, L. (2007). Influence of dynamic soil- structure interaction on the nonlinear response and seismic reliability of multistory systems. Earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, 36 (3), 327-346.
[13] Bhattacharya, K., and Dutta, S. C. (2004). Assessing lateral period of building frames incorporating soil- flexibility. Journal of sound and vibration, 269 (3-5), 795-821.
[14] Chuanromanee, O., Hanson, R. D., and Woods, R. D. (1995). The influence of soil- structure interaction on the overall damping of structures with high damping. (pp. 575-582). Crete, Greece: 7th international conference on soil dynamics and earthquake engineering (SDEE 95).
[15] Lowes, L. N., Mitra, N., and Altoontash, A. (2004). A beam- column joint model for simulating the earthquake response of reinforced concrete frames. Report No. PEER-2003/10. Berkeley: Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California.
[16] Haselton. C. B. S., Taylor Lange, A. B. Liel, and G. G. Deierlein (2007). Beam-Column Element Model Calibrated for Predicting Flexural Response Leading to Global Collapse of RC Frame Buildings, Report No. PEER Report 2007/03. Berkeley Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of Engineering University of California.
[17] FEMA, (2009). Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors, FEMA P695/2009 Edition, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
[18] Ibarra. L. F., Media, R. A., & Krawinkler, H.  (2005). Hysteretic models that incorporate strength and stiffness deterioration. Earthquake Engineering & Structural dynamics.  34:1489–1511.
[19] Orakcal, K., Massone, L., Wallace, J. (2006). Analytical Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Walls for Predicting Flexural and Coupled– Shear-Flexural Responses. Report No. PEER Report 2006/07. Berkeley: Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of Engineering University of California.
[20] Marzban, S., Banazadeh, M., and Azarbakht, A. (2012). Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Frames Considering Soil Foundation-Structure Interaction. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings. DOI: 10.1002/tal.1048.
[21] Harden, C., Hutchinson, T. C., Martin, G. R., & Kutter, B. L. (2005). Numerical modelling of the nonlinear cyclic response of shallow foundations. Report No. PEER-2005/04. Berkeley: Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California.
[22] Gajan, S., Hutchinson, T. C.,Kutter, B. L., Raychowdhury, P. Ugalde, J. A., & Stewart, J. P. (2007). Numerical models for analysis and performance- based design of shallow foundations subjected to seismic loading. Report No. PEER-2007/04. Berkeley: Pacific Earthquake engineering Research Center, University of California.
[23] Nagae, T., Ghannoum, W. M.,  Kwon, J., Tahara, K., Fukuyama, K., Matsumori, T., Shiohara, H., Kabeyasawa, T., Kono, S., Nishiyama, M., Sause, R., Wallace, J. W., and Moehle, J. P. (2015). Design Implications of Large-Scale Shake-Table Test on Four-Story Reinforced Concrete Building. ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL, TECHNICAL PAPER. ACI Structural Journal, V. 112, No. 1-6, January- December 2015. MS No. S-2013-022.R2, doi: 10.14359/51687421. 2015, American Concrete Institute.
[24] Ghafory- Ashtiany, M., Mousavi, M., & Azarbakht, A. (2010). Strong ground motion record selection for the reliable prediction of the mean seismic collapse capacity of a structure group. Earthquake Engng Struct. Dyn. (2010). DOI: 10.1002/eqe.1055, www.wileyonlinelibrary.com
[25] Vamvatsikos, D., and Cornell, C. A (2002). Incremental dynamic analysis. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 2002; 31(3):491–514.