Effect of recycled materials on autogenous shrinkage of ultra-high performance concrete

Document Type : Research Article



2 Faculty of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


The study aims is to decrease the silica fume (SF) content of UHPC by using natural zeolite (NZ) with different levels of replacement (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% by volume), to mitigate autogenous shrinkage with almost equivalent mechanical performance. The results demonstrated that the addition of NZ as a replacement of SF had a positive effect on maintaining internal RH in the higher range as well as in reducing the autogenous shrinkage of UHPC. The mixtures with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% replacing SF by NZ had lower autogenous shrinkage compared to reference mixtures containing 100% SF. The results of Thermogravimetric and microstructure analysis indicated that NZ had appropriate pozzolanic activity. The results of the compressive strength test showed that by replacing 50% SF with NZ, the 90 days compressive strength of 164.37 MPa could be achieved, which was only slightly lower than the reference mixture with 90 days compressive strength of 169.07 MPa. replacing SF with NZ yielding a cost-effective solution. By replacing 50% NZ replacement of SF, UHPC mix with 90 days compressive strength over 150 MPa, with low autogenous shrinkage and relatively low cost can be produced. 


Main Subjects

[1] Hagymassy, J., Brunauer, J.R., and Mikhail, R.S. (1969). Pore structure analysis by water vapor adsorption, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 29 (3), 485 – 491.
[2] El-Jazairi, B., and J. M. Illston. A Simultaneous Semi-isothermal Method of Thermogravimetry and Derivative Thermogravimetry, and Its Application to Cement Pastes. Cement and Concrete Research,
Vol. 7, 1977, pp. 247–257.
[3] Paillere, A.M., Buil, M., & Serrano, J. (1989). Effect of fiber addition on the autogenous shrinkage of silica fume. Materials Journal, 86, 139–144.
[4] Trombly, J. (1993). Developing Non-Traditional Glass Markets. Resource Recycling, Secondary markets for post-consumer glass.
[5] Richard, P., & Cheyrezy. M. (1995). Composition of reactive powder concretes, Cement and Concrete Research. 25,1501–1511.
[6] Khayat, K.H., & Aitcin, P.C. (1996). Silica fume in concrete: an overview, Fourth CANMET/ACI International Conference on Fly ash, Silica fume, slag and natural pozzolans in concrete, SP-132, V.2, 835. Guide for use of silica fume, 234R-96 ACI Publications.
[7] Tazawa, E. (1999). Autogenous Shrinkage of Concrete. Proceedings of the International Workshop organized by the Japan Concrete Institute, Taylor, New York.
[8] Poon, C.S., Lam, L., Kou. S.C., & Lin, Z.S. (1999). A study on the hydration rate of natural zeolite blended cement pastes. Construction and Building Materials. 13, 427–32.
[9]- de Larrard F. (1999). Concrete mixture proportioning: A scientific approach, Modern Concrete AATechnology Series, E&FN Spon (Eds).
[10] Chan, Y.N., & Xihuang ,Ji. (1999). Comparative study of the initial surface absorption and chloride diffusion of high performance zeolite, silica fume and PFA concretes, Cement and Concrete Composites, 21, 293-300.
[11] Aïtcin, P.C. (2000). Cements of Yesterday and Today-Concrete of Tomorrow. Cement and Concrete Research, 30, 1349-1359.
[12] Jin, W., Meyer, C., & Baxter, S. (2000). Concrete with glass aggregate. ACI Materials Journal, 97, 208–13.
[13] Rao, G.A. (2001). “Long-term drying shrinkage of mortar—influence of silica fume and size of fine aggregate.” Cement and Concrete Research., 31 (2), 171–175.
[14] Bilek, V., Keršner, Z., Schmid, P., & Mosler, T. (2002). The possibility of self-curing concrete. Scotland, UK : Innovations  and  developments  in  concrete  materials  and construction
[15] Jones, M., Zheng, L., & Newlands, M. (2002). Comparison of particle packing models for proportioning concrete constitutents for minimum voids ratio. Materials and Structures, 35, 301-309.
[16] Janotka, I., and Krajci, L. (2003). “Utilization of natural zeolite in Portland cement of increased sulphate resistance.” ACI Special Publications, 221, 223-229.
[17] Perraki, Th., Kakali, G., and Kontoleon, F. (2003). “The effect of natural zeolites on the early hydration of  Portland cement.” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 61, 205-212.
[18] Rougeau, P., & Borys, B. (2004). Ultra High Performance Concrete with ultrafine particles other than silica fume. International Symposium on Ultra High Performance Concrete, Kassel, Germany.
 [19] Brown, J. (2006). Highway span features UHPC. Civil Engineering, 76(7), 24–26.
[20] Graybeal, B. (2006). Material property characterization of ultrahigh performance concrete. FHWA-HRT-06-103, U.S.Department of Transportation, 176.
[21] Shaheen, E., Shrive, N., G., Allena, S. & Newtson, C.M., (2007), Optimization of mechanical properties and durability of reactive powder concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 104, 5-547
[22] Shekarchi, M., Nejad, JE., Ahmadi, B., & Rahimi, M. (2008). Improving concrete properties by using natural zeolite. Part I – Mechanical and durability properties. Iran Concr Journal, 30, 34–42.
[23] Caputo, D., Liguori, B., and Colella, C. (2008). “Some advances in understanding the pozzolanic activity of zeolites : the effect of zeolite structure”. Cement and Concrete Composites., 30(5),455–62.
[24] Brühwiler, E., & Denarié, E. (2008). Rehabilitation of concrete structures using Ultra-HighPerformance Fiber  Reinforced Concrete. Proc. Second Int. Symp. Ultra High Performance Concrete, Kassel University Press, Ed: Fehling, E., Schmidt, M., Stürwald, S., Kassel, Germany, 895-902.
[25] Yazici, H., H. Yiğiter, A.S., Karabulut, A., & Baradan, B. (2008). Utilization of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag as an alternative silica source in reactive powder concrete, Fuel, 87, 2401–2407.
[26] Tafraoui, A., Escadeillas, G., Lebaili, S., & Vidal, L. (2009). Metakaolin in the formulation of UHPC, Construction and Building Materials. 23, 669–674.
[27] Yazici, H., Yardimci, M.Y., Aydin, S., & Karabulut, A.S. (2009). Mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete containing mineral admixtures under different curing regimes. Construction and Building Materials. 23, 1223–1231.
[28] Idir, R., Cyr, M., Tagnit-Hamou, A., (2009). Use of waste glass as powder and aggregate incement-based materials, SBEIDCO – 1st Int Conf on Sust built Env Infr in Developing Countries ENSET, Oran Algeria , 109–116.
 [29] Yazici, H., Yardimci, M.Y., Aydin, S., & Karabulut, A.S. (2009). Mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete containing mineral admixtures under different curing regimes. Construction and Building Materials. 23, 1223–1231.
[30] Ahmadi, B., & Shekarchi M. (2010). Use of natural zeolite as a supplementary cementitious material. Cement and    Concrete Composite, 32, 134–41.
[31] Dumitru, I., Song, T., Caprar, V., Brooks, P., & Moss, J. (2010). Incorporation of recycled glass for durable  concrete. Second International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, Universita Polytechnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy, 9 pages.
[32] Idir, R., Cyr, M., & Tagnit-Hamou, A. (2010). Use of fine glass as ASR inhibitor in glass aggregate mortars. Construction and Building Materials, 24, 1309–1312.
[33] Uzal, B., Turanli, L., Yücel, H., Göncüoğlu, M.C., and Çulfaz, A. (2010). “Pozzolanic activity of clinoptilolite: A comparative study with silica fume, fly ash and a non-zeolitic natural pozzolan.” Cement and Concrete Research., 40 , 398– 404.
[34] Van Tuan, N., Ye, G., Van Breugel, K., & Copuroglu, O. (2011). Hydration and microstructure of ultra high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash. Cement and Concrete Research, 41, 1104–1111.
[35] Van Tuan, N., Ye, G, (2011), The study of using rice husk ash to produce ultra high performance
concrete. Constr Build Mater;25:2030–5
. [36] Zaichenko, N.M. (2011). Internal curing and autogeneus shrinkage of high-strength concrete. Building and Material Construction Journal. Ukrainian State Academy of Railway Transport, 122, 236-244.
[37] Najimi, M, (2012), An experimental  study  on  durability  properties  of  concrete containing zeolite as a highly reactive natural pozzolan. Construction and Building Materials, vol. 35, p.p. 1023-1033.
[38] Soliman, A.M., & Nehdi, M.L. (2013). Effect of partially hydrated cementitious materials and superabsorbent polymer on early-age shrinkage of UHPC. Construction and Building Materials, 41, 270-275.
[39] Malešev, M. (2014). Zeolite impact on basic physical and mechanical properties of cement mortars. XXVI International symposium on researching and application of contemporary  achievements  in  civil  engineering  in  the  field  of  materials  and structures , Vrnjačka Banja, 29-31, 225-236.
[40] Radeka, M., Malešev, M., Radonjanin., and Tatomirović. (2014). “Pozzolanic activity of natural zeolite from one Serbian deposit.” XXVI International symposium on researching and application of contemporary achievements in civil engineering in the field of materials and structures., Vrnjačka Banja, 191-201.
[41] Kushartomo, W., Bali, I., & Sulaiman, B. (2015). Mechanical Behavior of Reactive Powder Concrete with Glass Powder Substitute. Procedia Engineering, 125, 617-622.
[42] Ghafari, E., Ghahari, S.A., Costa, S.A., Júlio, H., Portugal, E.A., & Durães, L. (2016). Effect of supplementary cementitious materials on autogenous shrinkage of ultra-high performance concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 127.
[43] Erten, E., Yalçınkaya, C., Beglarigale, A., Yiğiter, H., & Yazici. (2017). Erken yaş büzülme çatlaklarının lif içeren/içermeyen ultra yüksek performanslı betona gömülü donatı korozyonuna etkisi. Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, 32, 1347-1364.
[44] Yalçınkaya, C. & Yazici, H. (2017). Effects of ambient temperature and relative humidity on early-age shrinkage of UHPC with high-volume mineral admixtures. Construction and Building Materials, 144, 252-259.
[45] Zhang, J., Wang, Q., & Zhang, J. (2017). Shrinkage of internal cured high strength engineered cementitious composite with pre-wetted sand-like zeolite. Construction and Building Materials. 134, 664–672
 [46] Kunther, W., Ferreiro, S., Skibsted, J. (2017). Influence of the Ca/Si ratio on the compressive strength of  cementitious calcium–silicate–hydrate binders. Journal of Material Chemistry A, 5, 17401-17412.
[47]Tanarslan, H.M., Alver, N., Jahangiri, R., Yalcinkaya, C. & Yazici, H. (2017). Flexural strengthening of RC beams using UHPERC laminates: Bonding techniques and rebar addition. Construction and Building Materials, 155, 45-55.
[48] Murthy, R. A., Karihaloo, B.L., & Shanmuga Priya, D. (2018). Flexural behavior of RC beams retrofitted with ultra-high strength concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 175, 815-824.
[49] Xie, T., Fang, C., Mohamad Ali, M.S., & Visintin, P. (2018). Characterizations of autogenous and 2 drying shrinkage of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC): An experimental study. Cement and Concrete Composites, 91, 156-173.
[50] Liu, Z., El-Tawil, S., Hansen, W. & Wang, F. (2018). Effect of slag cement on the properties of ultra-high performance concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 190, 830-837.
[51] Paul, S.C., Šavija, B., & Babafemi, A.J. (2018). A comprehensive review on mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials containing waste recycled glass. Journal of Cleaner Production, 198, 891-906.
[52] Liu, K., Yu, R., Shui, Z., Li, X., ling, X., Yi, S., & Wu, S. (2019). Effects of Pumice-Based Porous Material on Hydration Characteristics and Persistent Shrinkage of Ultra-High performance Concrete (UHPC). Materials, 12(1), 11.