Effect of Lead Nitrate on the Behavior and Shear Strength Parameters of clayey sand

Document Type : Research Article


1 Civil Engineering Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Iran.

2 Civil Engineering department, Imam Khomeini International University, Iran


By the expansion of the industrial zones, heavy metals enter the environment, which contaminates the soil and groundwater. The leakage of heavy metals such as lead, zinc, copper, etc. is not only an environmental crisis but also causes changes in soil shear resistance parameters. In this research, with triaxial tests, the behavior of sandy soils with different percentages of kaolinite in two cases of non-contaminated and contaminated with lead is investigated. It was seen that by increasing the lead concentration, the hydrogen bonding between kaolinite particles and the resistance of contaminated soils reduces. Then, to investigate the effect of clay minerals on contaminated soils, the shear resistance parameters of soil with kaolinite and bentonite clay were compared. The results showed, clay minerals in contaminated soils, resulted in different shear behavior and resistance parameters, so that, increasing the lead concentration in bentonite causes the shear strength to increase.


Main Subjects

[1] D. Grasso, M.A. Butkus, D. O'Sullivan, N.P. Nikolaidis, Soil-washing design methodology for a lead-contaminated sandy-soil, Water research, 31(12) (1997) 3045-3056.
[2] S. Arasan, T. YETİMOĞLU, Effect of inorganic salt solutions on the consistency limits of two clays, Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 32(2) (2008) 107-115.
[3] V.Ouhadi, M.Fakhimjoo, T.Naeini, The Comparison of Plastic and Permeability Behavior of Bentonite in the Presence of Organic and Heavy Metal Contaminants, Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 46(85) (2017) 25-36.(In persian).
[4] V.Ouhadi, Z.Sharifian, Compare the effect of alkali metal contaminants and heavy metals on the plastic properties of kaolinite and bentonite clay, in:  in: First Natinal Conference on geotechnical engineering, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Technical Faculty, Iran, 2015.(In persian).
[5] H. Y. Fang, J.L. Daniels, Introductory geotechnical engineering: an environmental perspective, CRC Press, (2006).
[6] J. S. Li, Q. Xue, P. Wang, Z. Z. Li, Effect of lead (II) on the mechanical behavior and microstructure development of a Chinese clay, Applied Clay Science, 105 (2015) 192-199.
[7] Y. Chu, S. Liu, F. Wang, G. Cai, H. Bian, Estimation of heavy metal-contaminated soils’ mechanical characteristics using electrical resistivity, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(15) (2017) 13561-13575.
[8] C.Y. Bian .H , Liu .S, Cai .G, A study in the microcharacteristic and electricity properties of silt clay contaminated by heavy metal zinc, in:  The 15th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Fukuoka, (2015) 162-178.
[9] J. Park, Assessment of shear strength characteristics and zinc adsorption capacities of zeolite-amended soils for adsorptive fill materials, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering for the Degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering, Seoul National University, (2017).
[10] O.Abidoye , D. Afolayan, I. Akinwumi, Effects of lead nitrate on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soils: International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(7) (2018) 522–530.
[11] M.O. Karkush, T.Taher, Geotechnical evaluation of clayey soil contaminated with industrial wastewater, Archives of civil engineering, 13(1) (2017).
[12] G. Yılmaz, T. Yetimoglu, S. Arasan, Hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay liners permeated with inorganic salt solutions, Waste Management & Research, 26(5) (2008) 464-473.
[13] M.Sayyed, M.H.Sayadi, Variations in the heavy metal accumulations within the surface soils from the Chitgar industrial area of Tehran, Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 1(1) (2013) 36-46.
[14] G.Resmi, S.Thampi, S.Chandrakaran, Impact of lead contamination on the engineering properties of clayey soil, Journal Geological Society of India, 77, (2011) 42-46.
[15] R.E. Olson, Shearing strengths of kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, (1976) 102(GT2).
[16] Y. Chu, S. y. Liu, G. j. Cai, H.l. Bian, A study in the micro-characteristic and electricity properties of silt clay contaminated by heavy metal zinc, Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication, 2(14) (2016) 556-559.
[17] S. Arasan, Effect of chemicals on geotechnical properties of clay liners: a review, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 2(8) (2010) 765-775.
[18] J.A.H. Carraro, M. Prezzi, R. Salgado, Shear strength and stiffness of sands containing plastic or nonplastic fines, Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, 135(9) (2009) 1167-1178.
[19] J.C. Miranda-Trevino, C.A. Coles, Kaolinite properties, structure and influence of metal retention on pH, Applied Clay Science, 23(1-4) (2003) 133-139.
[20] D.L. Chapman, LI, A contribution to the theory of electrocapillarity, The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin philosophical magazine and journal of science, 25(148) (1913) 475-481.
[21] ASTM. D4972-01, Standard test method for pH of soils, Annual book of ASTM Standards, 4(08) (2001) 1-3.