Comparison of Hyporheic Exchanges in 2D and 3D Riffle-Pool bed form structures

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD Student/Water and Soil Department, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources,Gorgan, Iran

2 Water Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

3 Researcher, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ), Department of Hydrogeology, Leipzig, Germany

4 Researcher/Department of Hydrogeology, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany

5 Associate Professor/Water and Soil Department, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources,Gorgan, Iran


Exchanges of water and solute between stream flow and flow through river bed porous media are known as hyporheic exchanges. Hyporheic exchanges transfer water and nutrient to the organism lived in the hyporheic zone, so affect ecological conditions and food cycle. One of the important driving factors of these exchanges are pressure gradients along the bed form. Riffle-pools are geomorphic features of river beds which induce strong pressure gradient along the streambed, which control hyporheic exchanges and are therefore considered in river restoration projects. The goal of this study is to compare the hyporheic flux and residence time of flow within sediment bed underneath 2D and 3D riffle-pool structures. For reaching this goal, in a first step, the surface water flow is simulated by the CFD-software OpenFAOM, resulting in a detailed pressure distribution at the stream bed. In a second step, these pressure fields are then set as a top boundary condition of a groundwater model (MODFLOW software), for simulating the flow in porous media. The results show that, by increasing bed form amplitude, hyporheic exchanges flux increases by 26 % for both 2D and 3D models, and residence time decreases by 36 %for 2D and 41 % for 3D structures. Also, comparison of 3D riffle-pool with equal 2D model shows that hyporheic exchange flux and residence time increase by 2.9 % and 3.67 %, respectively.


Main Subjects

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