Physical Simulation of Discharge Flow from Deep Conduit in Dense Reservoir (In Terms of Use in the Gotvand Dam Deep Pipe)

Document Type : Research Article


1 Academic Staff, Hydro- Environment Department, Water Research Institute

2 Senior Researcher, Hydro- Environment Department, Water Research Institute


The stratified reservoirs are forming due to natural phenomena such as sediment current or a significant change in water quality parameters in terms of salinity, dissolved oxygen, heavy metals, etc. Today, research of the dense reservoir in different conditions is needed for better management. Understanding the outflow pattern and its interactions in stratified reservoir according to different discharges from the deep conduit and application for the operation of its system in Gotvand Dam using by a physical model is the main goals of this research. An undistorted physical model with a 1:40 scale from the deep duct structure with the details was established. This scale is calculated based on the Richardson number and the same density conditions in the model and prototype. Laboratory scenarios of the physical model were designed and implemented in two sections to allow changes water level in the reservoir and maintain it. These two categories were designed for simulating short and long term effects of saline layer evacuation in the reservoir. The results of experiments with different outflow rates (maximum up to 800 liter per second) revealed that salinity of the layer in front of the deep conduit plays an important role in the salinity of the depleted stream, and other layers in different level of the reservoir have not affect in changing this amount. Also, the pattern of the streamline formed towards the output is under very stable conditions without expanding to other layers. The experimental results revealed that the fluid below the offtake remaining unaffected by the outflow and the fluid above the outlet vertically to make up the volume lost through the outflow but preserving the horizontal isopycnals. This issue was clearly recorded in addition to measuring by imaging from the model. To ensure the necessary turbulence and increase Reynolds number in the physical model, outflow was reached more than twice (up to 1677.5 liter per second) but flow pattern towards offtake still was in very stable condition and streamlines did not expand to above and below of outlet layer. Any significant amount of vertical diffusion among dense layers was not observed.


Main Subjects

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