Estimation of Minimum Ecological Water Level of GooriGol Wetland Using a Multi Objective Programming Model

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D. student of applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematic Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Tabriz University

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Mathematic Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


Estimation of the ecological level of water bodies is crucial to protect aquatic ecosystems and has become a major issue in sustainable water resources planning. In recent decades, several methods are utilized to estimate the minimum ecological flow in rivers and the minimum ecological level in lakes and wetlands. In this research, a multi-objective programming model is used to determine the ecological level of the GooriGol wetland. The proposed model has two objective functions with two indices of water and ecosystem indicators. The wetland water level has been selected as a water index and three species of important ducks of the wetland have been chosen as the ecosystem indices. The first objective function is to minimize the wetland water level, so that more water is provided to meet the needs of human societies, while the second objective function ensures the maximum ecosystem indices, so that more habitats are provided for aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this model is to provide circumstances for the largest ecological services with the least amount of water. The used data in the multi-objective programming model are the storage water volume, wetland surface water area and water levels from 2003 to 2017 and the number of three important species of ducks from 2003 to 2017 as well. In order to solve this multi-objective optimization model, the sum of weighting technique is used and Benson method is used to verify the obtained results for situation in which white-head duck is chosen as the ecosystem indicator. The results indicated that the minimum ecological water level of GooriGol wetland is 1912.6 meter and the corresponding water storage volume of wetland is 503000 cubic meters. The field observations during the recent decade are in agreement with the obtained result of this research and indicates the decreasing the water level from 1912.6 m causes considerable declining in the ecological performance of the wetland.


Main Subjects

[1]D. P. Loucks, E. Van Beek, J. R. Stedinger, J. P. Dijkman, and M. T. Villars, Water resources systems planning and management: an introduction to methods, models and applications. Paris: Unesco, 2005.
[2]S. Shang, “A general multi-objective programming model for minimum ecological flow or water level of inland water bodies,” Journal of Arid Land vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 166-176, 2015.
[3]Y. Xu, Y. Wang, S. Li, G. Huang, and C. Dai, “Stochastic optimization model for water allocation on a watershed scale considering wetland’s ecological water requirement,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 92, pp.330-341,2018 .
[4]X. Sun, S. Xiong, X. Zhu, X. Zhu, Y. Li, and B. L. J. E.m. Li, “A new indices system for evaluating ecologicaleconomic-social performances of wetland restorations and its application to Taihu Lake Basin, China,” Ecological modelling, vol. 295, pp. 216-226, 2015.
[5]K. Dorau, H. Gelhausen, D. Esplör, and T. J. E. E. Mansfeldt, “Wetland restoration management under the aspect of climate change at a mesotrophic fen in Northern Germany,” Ecological Engineering, vol. 84, pp. 84-91, 2015.
[6]J. J. J. o. e. m. Garg, “Wetland assessment, monitoring and management in India using geospatial techniques,” Journal of environmental management, vol. 148, pp. 112123, 2015.
[7]K. Song, Wang, Z., Li, L., Tedesco, L., Li, F., Jin, C., & Du, J. , “Wetlands shrinkage, fragmentation and their links to agriculture in the Muleng–Xingkai Plain, China,” Journal of environmental management vol. 111, pp. 120132, 2012.
[8]S. Sajedipour, H. Zarei, and S. Oryan, “Estimation of environmental water requirements via an ecological approach: A case study of Bakhtegan Lake, Iran,” Ecological Engineering, vol. 100, pp. 246-255, 2017.
[9]J. Lu, “Estuary ecology,” ed: Beijing: Ocean Press, 2003.
[10]X. Liu, Z. Yang, S. Yuan, and H. X. Wang, “A novel methodology for the assessment of water level requirements in shallow lakes,” Ecological engineering, vol. 102, pp. 31-38, 2017.
[11]Beca, “Draft guidelines for the selection of methods to determine ecological flows and water levels,” R. p. b. B. I. L. f. M. f. t. Environment, Ed., ed: Ministry for the Environment Wellington, 2008, p. 145.
[12]D. L. J. Tennant, “Instream flow regimens for fish, wildlife, recreation and related environmental resources,” Fisheries, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 6-10, 1976.
[13]C. J. Gippel and M. J. Stewardson, “Use of wetted perimeter in defining minimum environmental flows,” International Journal Devoted to River Research Management, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 53-67, 1998.
[14]K. D. Bovee, “A guide to stream habitat analysis using the instream flow incremental methodology,” هn Instream Flow Information Paper 12. Washington D C: Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services., 1982.
[15]T. Waddle, “ PHABSIM for Windows: User’s Manual and Exercises: Fort Collins, CO,” US Geological Survey, vol. 2001, no. 340, 2001.
[16]J. King, D. Louw, and Management, “Instream flow assessments for regulated rivers in South Africa using the Building Block Methodology,” Aquatic Ecosystem Health, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 109-124, 1998.
[17]R. E. Tharme, “A global perspective on environmental flow assessment: emerging trends in the development and application of environmental flow methodologies for rivers,” River research, vol. 19, no. 5‐6, pp. 397-441, 2003.
[18]I. G. Jowett, “Instream flow methods: a comparison of approaches,” Regulated Rivers: Research & Management vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 115-127, 1997.
[19]D. Conway, “Extreme rainfall events and lake level changes in East Africa: recent events and historical precedents,” in The East African great lakes: limnology, palaeolimnology and biodiversity: Springer, 2002, pp. 63.29
[20]Z. Xu, M. Chen, and Z. Dong, “Researches on the calculation methods of the lowest ecological water level of lake,” Acta Ecologica Sinica, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 23242328, 2004.
[21]S. Shang, “Lake surface area method to define minimum ecological lake level from level-area-storage curves,” Journal of Arid Land, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 133-142, 2013.
[22]L. Li, J. Li, L. Liang, and Y. Liu, “Method for calculating ecological water storage and ecological water requirement of marsh,” Journal of Geographical Sciences, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 427-436, 2009.
[23]Y.-y. Tan, X. Wang, C.-h. Li, Y.-p. Cai, Z.-f. Yang, and Y.-l. Wang, “Estimation of ecological flow requirement in Zoige Alpine Wetland of southwest China,” Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 15251533, 2012.
[24]M. Ehrgott, Multicriteria optimization. Springer Science & Business Media, 2005.
[25]A. Abraham and L. Jain, “Evolutionary multiobjective optimization,” in Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization: Springer, 2005, pp. 1-6.
[26]G. Eichfelder, Adaptive scalarization methods in multiobjective optimization. Springer, 2008.
[27]S. Shang, «A multiple criteria decision‐making approach to estimate minimum environmental flows based on wetted perimeter,” River research applications, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 54-67, 2008.
[28]S.-h. Shang and X.-m. Mao, “Determination of minimum flood flow for regeneration of floodplain forest from inundated forest width-stage curve,” Water Science Engineering, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 257-268, 2010.
[29]S. Shang and S. Shang, “Simplified Lake Surface Area Method for the Minimum Ecological Water Level of Lakes and Wetlands,” Water Science Engineering, vol. 10, no. 8, p. 1056, 2018.
[30]s. Ramsar, “the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance,”, 2014.
[31]A. C. Company, “Manual for determining the water requirement of wetlands,” (in persian), pp. 75-85, 1392, Art. no. 22.
[32]M. Abbaspour and A. Nazaridoust, “Determination of environmental water requirements of Lake Urmia, Iran: an ecological approach,” International Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 161-169, 2007.
[33]G. m. R. Zolfaghari s., Habibnejad m.,Afkhami m., “Investigation and assessment of environmental flow by hydrological method (case study: Shadegan Wetland),” (in persian), vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 67-70, 2009.
[34]A. Castellarin, G. Galeati, L. Brandimarte, A. Montanari, and A. Brath, “Regional flow-duration curves: reliability for ungauged basins,” Advances in Water Resources, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 953-965, 2004.
[35] S. T. K. B. R. L. Taghavi, «Determination of environmental water requirement of Miankaleh wetland,” (in persian), Journal of environmental science and technology vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 101-109, 2014.
[36] m. sedighkia, S. A. Ayyoubzadeh, and M. Hajiesmaeli, "Investigation on the necessities of Instream Flow Needs assessment in the rivers using hydro-ecological methods (Case study: Delichai river in Tehran, Iran)," (in persian), Eco Hydrology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 289-300, 2015.
[37] J. Behmanesh, S. Mostafavi, and S. Z. Ghavidel, "Use of Soft Calculations at Estimation and Prediction of Environmental Flow Discharge (Case Study: Khorkhoreh Chay River)," (in persian), Civil And environmental Engineering, vol. 47, no. 88, pp. 9-22, 2017.
[38] F. Fatemeh, E. Kumars, and B. Sogand, "Determination of the Environmental Flow Requirements for the SefidRud River, IRAN," (in persian), Eco Hydrology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 753-762, 2018.
[39] C. W. Clark and M. Mangel, Dynamic state variable models in ecology: methods and applications. Oxford University Press on Demand, 2000.
[40] S. Shang, "System Analysis of Water Resources: Methods and Applications," ed: Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2006.
[41] J. Stoer and R. Bulirsch, Introduction to numerical analysis. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
[42]N. L. Poff, R. E. Tharme, and A. H. Arthington, "Evolution of environmental flows assessment science, principles, and methodologies," in Water for the environment: Elsevier, 2017, pp. 203-236.