Evaluation of the Effect of Zycotherm on Moisture Susceptibility of Warm Mix Asphalt Containing Crumb Rubber

Document Type : Research Article


1 Associate Professor

2 Msc. student

3 Ph.d Student of Road & Transportation Engineering,Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University ofTechnology


Reducing the temperature of asphalt mixture production is one of the essential benefits of using warm mix asphalt, but this advantage also causes some pavement problems. One of the most critical issues is creating a higher moisture potential in road pavement due to asphalt mixtures’ lower production temperatures. Subsequently, some of the aggregate moisture does not evaporate. This study aims to evaluate the effect of zycotherm on the moisture reduction of warm mix asphalt. Besides, Waste crumbs replaced some of the fine-grained aggregates. Materials include different percentages of Zycotherm (0.1, 0.15, and 0.2% by total weight of bitumen) and crumb rubber (0, 10, and 20% by total weight of the fine aggregate) bitumen 60/70 and granite sum make nine mix designs. Experiments include Boiling Water Test, Indirect Tensile Test; And Resilient Modulus (MR) Test evaluated the asphalt mixture’s moisture sensitivity. The boiling water test results showed that the increase in Zycotherm improves moisture susceptibility. However, the crude rubber does not significantly affect boiling water tests because of the Crumb rubber’s lower density of aggregates, despite the apparent improvement in the bitumen adhesion to the sum. Resilient modulus, a model for predicting tensile strength ratio (TSR), was made based on the experimental results using one-way ANOVA. The minimum required percentage of Zycotherm for replacing 10% of the crumb rubber was 0.128%. For 20% of the crumb rubber, it is equal to 0.149%. According to the resilient modulus results, the addition of a Zycotherm increases MR, while the crumb rubber’s substitution causes a slight increase in MR


Main Subjects

[1]    European Asphalt Pavement Association, “The Use of Warm Mix Asphalt”, EAPA position papere, 1-13, 2010.
[2]    Vaitkus, A., Ciegas, A., Laurinavicius, A., Perveneckas, Z., “Analysis and evaluation of possibilities for the use of warm mix asphalt in Lithuania”, The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 80-86, 2009.
[3]    You, Z., Goh, S.W., “Laboratory evaluation of warm mix asphalt: a preliminary study”, International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 34-40,2008 .
[4]    Zaumanis, M., “Warm mix asphalt Investigation”, PhD Thesis, Riga Technical University, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, 2010.
[5]    Emily D. Shrum, “Evaluation of moisture damage in warm mix asphalt containing recycled asphalt pavement”, a thesis presented for the Master of Science degree the University of Tennessee, Knoxvile, 2010.
[6]    Arakan Aksoy, Kurtulus Samlioglu, Sureyya Tayfur, Halit Ozen, “Effects of various additives on the moisture damage sensitivity of asphalt mixtures”, Construction and building materials, 11-18, 2005.
[7]    B. M. Kiggundu and F. L. Roberts, “Stripping in HMA mixture: state of the art and critical review of test methods”, NCAT, rep No 88-2, national center for asphalt technology, 1988.
[8]    C. W. Curtis, “A literature review liquid antistripping and tests for measruring stripping”, strategic highway research program, Washington D.C, rep SHARP-A/ UIR, 90-016, 1990.
[9]    Siddique R, Naik TR, “Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire crumb rubber–an overview”, Waste Management, 563-569, 2004.
[10] Weiguo Shen, Lai Shan, Tao Zhang, Hongkun Ma, Zhi Cai, Hua Shi, “Investigation on polymer–crumb rubber aggregate modified porous concrete”, Constr Build Mater, 667-674, 2013.
[11] Azevedo F, Pacheco-Torgal F, Jesus C, de Aguiar JB, Camões AF, “Properties and durability of HPC with tyre crumb rubber wastes”, Constr Build Mater, 186191, 2012.
[12] Cindy Estakhri, Joe Button, Alex E. Alvarez, “Field and laboratory investigation of warm mix asphalt in Texax”, FHWA/TX-10/0, 5597-5602, 2010.
[13] Graham C. Hurley, “Evaluation of new technologies for use in warm mix asphalt”, A Thesis submitted to the graduate faculty of auburn university in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science, 2006.
[14] D’Angelo, J., Harm, E., Bartoszek, J., Baumgardner, G., Corrigan, M., Cowsert, J., Harman, T., Jamshidi, M., Jones, W., Newcomb, D., Prowell, B., Sines, R., Yeaton, B., “Warm-Mix Asphalt: European Practice”, Report No. FHWA-PL-08-007. American Trade Initiatives, Alexandria, USA, 2008.
[15] Hicks G, Santucci L, Aschenbrener T, “Moisture sensitivity of asphalt pavements”, California Washington DC, Transportarion research board,2003.
[16] Kandhal P.S., “Moisture susceptibility of HMA mixes: identification of problem and recommended solutions”, National asphalt pavement association NCAT report 92-01, 1992.
[17] Copeland A.R, “Influence of moisture on bond strength of asphalt aggregate systems”, Vanderbilt University, Tennessee, 2007.
[18] Solaimanian M, Harvey J, Tahmoressi M, Tandon V, “Test methods to predict moisture sensitivity of hot mix asphalt pavements ” ,Transportarion research board national seminar,California,2003.
[19] Sebaaly P.E, “Comparison of lime and liquid additives on the moisture damage of hot mix asphalt mixtures”, National lime association, Virginia, 2007.
[20] Subrata K.D,“Evaluation of asphalt aggregate bond and strippng potential”,A thesis in civil engineering, texas tech university, Texas, USA, 2004.
[21] G.H. Hamedi, F.M. Nejad, K. Oveisi, “Estimating the moisture damage of asphalt mixture modified with nano zinc oxid”, Mater. Struct., 49 (4) (2015), pp. 1165-1174.
[22] Azarhoosh, A., Moghaddas Nejad, F., & Khodaii, A. (2016,September). Evaluation of the effect of nanoTiO2 on the adhesion between aggregate and asphalt binder in hot mix asphalt. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 8189, 1-16.
[23] G.H. Hamedi, Nejad F. Moghddas, “Use of aggregate nanocoating to decrease moisture damage of hot mix asphalt”, Pavement Des., 17 (1) (2015),pp. 32-51.
[24] Ashley buss, Mohamed Rashwan, Tamer Breakah. R. Chiristopher Williams, Andrea Kvasnak, “Investigation of warm mix asphalt performance using the mechanistic empirical pavement design guide”, Proceedings of the 2009 mid contient transportation research symposium, 2009.
[25] Iran Highway Asphalt Paving Code(2011).)in Persian)
[26] Graham C. Hurley, Brian D. Prowell, “Evaluation of aspha-min zeolite for use in warm mix asphalt”, NCAT report 05-04, 2005.
[27] Graham C. Hurley, Brian D. Prowell, “Evaluation of Sasobit for use in warm mix asphalt”, NCAT report 05-06, 2005.
[28] Fakhri, M., Vanaei, V., Rahi, M.,“Rheological evaluation of the effect of liquid nanomaterials on the properties and performance of bitumen”. In: Proceedings 8th National Congress of Civil Engineering,7-8 May, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology,Babol,Iran,1-7, 2014.(in Persian)
[29] Seraji M., “Investigation of the effect of polymer on the phenomenon of grooving in asphalts with Aggregate ossification and hot asphalt’’, A thesis presented for the Master of Science degree the University of Tehran, 2013. )in Persian)
[30] Almudaiheem J.A, Al-sugair F.H, “Effects of moisture on strength and permanent deformation of foamed asphalt mix incorporating RAP materials”, Construction and building materials, 30-40, 2008.
[31] National cooperative highway research program, “Compatibility of a test for moisture induced damage with superpave volumetric mix design”, NCHRP report 444, Transportation research board, National academic press Washington DC, 2000.
[32] Martin McCann, Peter E.Sebaaly, “Resilient modulus, tensile strength and simple shear test to evaluate moisture sensitivity and the performance of lime in hot mix asphalt mixtures”, Transportation research board, Annual meeting, 9-16, 2003.