Ranking the Rework Causes in Iran's Construction Projects and Investigating the Effect of Lean Construction Techniques

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

Civil Engineering Dept., Ferdowsi Univ. of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Rework is one of the common problems in the construction industry. Despite the many studies that have taken place in the world, the lack of a comprehensive examination of the rework causes in Iran is evident. In addition, there is a need to provide an efficient and effective way to improve the rework issues. Therefore, in this study, using the survey method through the questionnaire, the main factors of rework in Iran were identified and ranked according to the criteria of cost, time, quality, safety, and satisfaction of the project team by the Fuzzy-TOPSIS method. Then, lean construction techniques were considered as a strategy to prevent rework, and the impact of these techniques on the importance of the rework factors was tested. The results of 52 questionnaires showed that the factors related to the client, the construction phase, and the design phase were the three main factors of the rework in Iran. Factors for insufficient turnover and commissioning resourcing, late client changes, delaying financing and contract delivery, insufficient skill levels, and ineffective management of project team are also the most important sub-factors, respectively. On the other hand, the lean construction measuring of the projects was examined through the Lean Project Rating System (LPRS) with 14 factors. The results showed that some of the lean construction factors considered in this study (including a focus on communication and collaboration status, the use of IT and RFI) significantly alter rework and the importance of its causes.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] H. Abdul-Rahman, The Cost of Non-Conformance During a Highway Project: A Case Study, Construction Management and Economics, 13(1) (1995) 23-32.
[2] B.-G. Hwang, S.R. Thomas, C.T. Haas, C.H. Caldas, Measuring the Impact of Rework on Construction Cost Performance, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 135(3) (2009) 187-198.
[3] P.E. Love, Influence of Project Type and Procurement Method on Rework Costs in Building Construction Projects, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 128(1) (2002) 18-29.
[4] P.E. Love, D.J. Edwards, Determinants of Rework in Building Construction Projects, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 11(4) (2004) 259-274.
[5] P.E. Love, D.J. Edwards, H. Watson, P. Davis, Rework in Civil Infrastructure Projects: Determination of Cost Predictors, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136(3) (2010) 275-282.
[6] G. Ye, Z. Jin, B. Xia, M. Skitmore, Analyzing Causes for Reworks in Construction Projects in China, Journal of Management in Engineering, 31(6) (2014).
[7] J.L. Burati Jr, J.J. Farrington, W.B. Ledbetter, Causes of Quality Deviations in Design and Construction, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 118(1) (1992) 34-49.
[8] P.-E. Josephson, Y. Hammarlund, The Causes and Costs of Defects in Construction: A Study of Seven Building Projects, Automation in Construction, 8(6) (1999) 681-687.
[9] P. Barber, A. Graves, M. Hall, D. Sheath, C. Tomkins, Quality Failure Costs in Civil Engineering Projects, International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 17(4/5) (2000) 479-492.
[10] J.L. Ashford, The Management of Quality in Construction, E&F Spon, London, 1992.
[11] Construction-Industry-Development-Agency(CIDA), Measuring up or Muddling through: Best Practice in the Australian Non-Residential Construction Industry, Sydney, Australia, 1995.
[12] P.E. Love, H. Li, Quantifying the Causes and Costs of Rework in Construction, Construction Management & Economics, 18(4) (2000) 479-490.
[13] Construction-Industry-Institute(CII), The Field Rework Index: Early Warning for Field Rework and Cost Growth, The Univ. of Texas at Austin, 2001.
[14] A.R. Fayek, M. Dissanayake, O. Campero, Measuring and Classifying Construction Field Rework: A Pilot Study, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Alberta, Construction Owners Association of Alberta (COAA) Field Rework Committee, 2003.
[15] The-Australian-Procurement-and-Construction-Council, Construct Australia: Building a Better Construction Industry in Australia, Deakin West, ACT, Australia, 1997.
[16] H. Abdul-Rahman, The Management and Cost of Quality for Civil Engineering Projects, Univ. of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), Manchester, U.K., 1993.
[17] G. Burroughs, Concrete Quality Assurance: The Contractors Role, Concrete Institute of Australia, Melbourne, Australia, 1993.
[18] P.E. Love, J. Smith, Benchmarking, Benchaction, and Benchlearning: Rework Mitigation in Projects, Journal of Management in Engineering, 19(4) (2003) 147-159.
[19] J. Gardiner, Management of Design Documentation: Where Do We Go from Here?, in:  Proceedings of the National Construction and Management Conference, Institution of Engineers, Australia, Sydney, Australia, 1994, pp. 441.
[20] F.A. Stasiowski, D. Burstein, Total Quality Project Management for the Design Firm: How to Improve Quality, Increase Sales, and Reduce Costs, John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
[21] B. Richardson, Marketing for Architects and Engineers: A New Approach, Taylor & Francis, 2003.
[22] H. Li, P.E. Love, Visualization of Building Interior Design to Reduce Rework, in:  Information Visualization, IEEE, 1998, pp. 187-191.
[23] P. Love, A. Wyatt, Communication and Rework: Case Studies of Construction Projects, CSIRO, DBCE DOC, 97 (1997) 38.
[24] D. Walker, Investigation into Factors that Determine Building Construction Time Performance, Royal Melbourne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia., 1994.
[25] C.T. Jahren, A.M. Ashe, Predictors of Cost-Overrun Rates, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 116(3) (1990) 548-552.
[26] N. Forcada, A.P. Alvarez, P.E. Love, D.J. Edwards, Rework in Urban Renewal Projects in Colombia, Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 23(2) (2016) 04016034.
[27] H. Katayama, D. Bennett, Lean Production in a Changing Competitive World: A Japanese Perspective, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 16(2) (1996) 8-23.
[28] J.P. Womack, D.T. Jones, Lean Thinking—Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation, Simon and Schuster, 1996.
[29] T. Ohno, Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production, crc Press, 1988.
[30] C.M. Eastman, C. Eastman, P. Teicholz, R. Sacks, BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Contractors, John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
[31] L. Koskela, Application of the New Production Philosophy to Construction, Stanford university Stanford, CA, 1992.
[32] L. Koskela, An Exploration Towards a Production Theory and Its Application to Construction, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2000.
[33] L. Koskela, G. Howell, The Theory of Project Management: Explanation to Novel Methods, in:  Proceedings IGLC, 2002, pp. 1-11.
[34] Construction-Industry-Institute(CII), Lean Principles in Construction Project Team, in, www.construction-institute.org, 2018-March.
[35] Lean-Construction-Institute(LCI), in, https://www.leanconstruction.org/, 2018-March.
[36] M.E. Hassan, Assessing the Impact of Lean/Integrated Project Delivery System on Final Project Success, George Mason University, 2013.
[37] O. Salem, J. Solomon, A. Genaidy, I. Minkarah, Lean construction: From theory to implementation, Journal of management in engineering, 22(4) (2006) 168-175.
[38] I. Nahmens, L.H. Ikuma, D. Khot, Kaizen and Job Satisfaction-A Case Study in Industrialized Homebuilding, Lean Construction Journal,  (2012).
[39] D. Kung, D.P. Alex, M. Al-Hussein, S. Fernando, Application of lean thinking to improve the productivity of water and sewer service installations, Canadian journal of civil engineering, 35(4) (2008) 418-430.
[40] J.E. Diekmann, M. Krewedl, J. Balonick, T. Stewart, S. Won, Application of lean manufacturing principles to construction, Boulder, CO, Construction Industry Institute, 191 (2004).
[41] S. Cho, G. Ballard, Last Planner and Integrated Project Delivery, Lean Construction Journal,  (2011).
[42] G. Ballard, The last planner system of production control, University of Birmingham, 2000.
[43] D. Leonard, Building quality at veridian homes, Quality progress, 39(10) (2006) 49.
[44] G. Ballard, Lean Project Delivery System, White Paper No. 8, Lean Construction Institute, California.,  (2000).
[45] O. Matthews, G.A. Howell, Integrated Project Delivery an Example of Relational Contracting, Lean Construction Journal, 2(1) (2005) 46-61.
[46] M. Kenig, M. Allison, B. Black, L. Burdi, C. Colella, H. Davis, M. Williams, Integrated Project Delivery for Public and Private Owners, National Association of State Facilities Administrators (NASFA), Construction Owners Association of America (COAA), The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA), Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) and American Institute of Architects (AIA), 2010.
[47] C. Thomsen, J. Darrington, D. Dunne, W. Lichtig, Managing Integrated Project Delivery, Construction Management Association of America (CMAA), McLean, VA, 105 (2009).
[48] J.C. Cheng, J. Won, M. Das, Construction and Demolition Waste Management Using BIM Technology, in:  International Group for Lean Construction Conference (IGLC), Perth, Australia, 2015.
[49] M. Shahparvari, D. Fong, The Review of Rework Causes and Costs in Housing Construction Supply Chain, in:  26th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, Chennai, India, 2018, pp. 1375-1384.
[50] C.-T. Chen, Extensions of the TOPSIS for Group Decision-Making under Fuzzy Environment, Fuzzy sets and systems, 114(1) (2000) 1-9.
[51] M.J. Salganik, D.D. Heckathorn, Sampling and Estimation in Hidden Populations Using Respondent‚ÄźDriven Sampling, Sociological Methodology, 34(1) (2004) 193-240.
[52] E. Naderi, M. Seifnaraghi, Research Methods and How to Evaluate It in the Humanities, Badr Press, 1375. in Persian.
[53] P.L. Alreck, R.B. Settle, The Survey Research Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 1994.
[54] S.A. Afshani, Z. Hoseiniramshe, M. Nurian, M. Mahdavizafarghandi, SPSS20 Application Reference, Bishe Press, 1393. in Persian.
[55] L.J. Cronbach, Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests, Psychometrika, 16(3) (1951) 297-334.
[56] A. Oppenheim, Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement, London, 1992.
[57] M. Sabzehparvar, Project Management and Control, Terme Press, 1393. in Persian.
[58] P.E. Love, P. Teo, F. Ackermann, J. Smith, J. Alexander, E. Palaneeswaran, J. Morrison, Reduce Rework, Improve Safety: An Empirical Inquiry into the Precursors to Error in Construction, Production Planning & Control, 29(5) (2018) 353-366.
[59] R. Mendelsohn, The Constructibility Review Process: A Constructor's Perspective, Journal of Management in Engineering, 13(3) (1997) 17-19.
[60] J.K. Wong, J.X. Zhou, A.P. Chan, Exploring The Linkages Between The Adoption Of BIM And Design Error Reduction, Building Information Systems in the Construction Industry,  (2018) 113.
[61] M.H. Thyssen, S. Emmitt, S. Bonke, A. Kirk-Christoffersen, Facilitating Client Value Creation in the Conceptual Design Phase of Construction Projects: A Workshop Approach, Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 6(1) (2010) 18-30.
[62] B.-G. Hwang, X. Zhao, K.J. Goh, Investigating the Client-Related Rework in Building Projects: The Case of Singapore, International Journal of Project Management, 32(4) (2014) 698-708.
[63] A.C. Sidwell, A Critical Study of Project Team Organisational Forms within the Building Process, Aston University, 1982.
[64] M.D. Martínez-Aires, M. López-Alonso, M. Martínez-Rojas, Building Information Modeling and Safety Management: A Systematic Review, Safety Science, 101(2018) (2018) 11-18.
[65] A. Mossman, What is Lean Project Delivery, The Change Business Ldt. UK, 2008.