Determination of Bearing Capacity of Steel Pipe Piles in Sandy Soil using Static Compressive Load Test

Document Type : Research Article


1 Faculty of civil engineering,Babol Noshirvani University of Technology

2 MSc. in Geotechnical Engineering, Pardisan University, Fereydunkenar

3 PhD. student in Geotechnical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology


Piles are relatively long structural foundation members that are used to transmit loads from soil layers with low bearing capacity (or high settlement) to deep soil layers with high bearing capacity. In foundation design, determination of pile bearing capacity is considered as a complex issue. In this paper, the bearing capacity of steel pipe piles in sandy soil is studied using the results of static compressive load test. Piles were installed in soil using the jacking method. In this method, at first, a hydraulic jack was applied for installing piles and then, it was used for applying the compressive load required in the static load test. After recording data, the values of bearing capacity of the piles were compared with the values calculated from analytical methods. Then, the values of the friction capacity of piles were evaluated using the results of the tension test. The results showed that due to the effects of soil plug on the bearing capacity of piles and installing piles using the jacking method, the obtained values of bearing capacity of the piles are much than their analytical ones. Moreover, the results indicate the effect of frictional resistance on the ultimate bearing capacity of the piles.


Main Subjects

[1]  B. Lehane, K.G. Gavin, Base resistance of jacked pipe piles in sand, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 123(10) (2001) 473–480.
[2]  M.W. O’Neill, Side resistance in piles and drilled shafts, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 127(1) (2001) 3-16.
[3] B.M. Lehane, R.J. Jardine, A.J. Bond, R. Frank,  Mechanisms of shaft friction in sand from instrumented pile tests, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 119(1) (1993)19–35.
[4]  C. Moormann,  J. Labenski, J. Aschrafi, Simulation of soil plug effects in open steel pipe piles considering the complex soil-structure-interaction during installation, Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference on Deep Foundations, Oakland, California, USA, (2015).
[5]  K.H. Paik, R. Salgado, Determination of bearing capacity of open-ended piles in sand, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 129(46) (2003) 46–57.
[6]  M.W. O’Neill, R.D. Raines, Load transfer for pipe piles in highly pressured dense sand, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 117(8) (1991) 1208–1226.
[7]  S.R. Gudavalli, O. Safaqah, H. Seo, Effect of soil plugging on axial capacity of open-ended pipe piles in sands, Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris, (2013)1487–1490.
[8]  F. Yu, J. Yang, Base capacity of open-ended steel pipe piles in sand, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 138(9) (2012)1116– 1128.
[9]  K.H. Paik, S.R. Lee, Behavior of soil plugs in openended model piles driven into sands, Marine Georesources Geotechnology, 11(4) (1993) 353–373.
[10] S. Henke, Untersuchungen zur pfropfenbildung infolge der installation offener profile in granularen boden habilitation, Veroffentlichungen des Instituts für Geotechnik und Baubetrieb der TU Hamburg- Harburg, Heft 29, (2013).
[11] M. Fattah, W. Al-Soudani, Bearing capacity of openended pipe piles with restricted soil plug, Ships and Offshore Structures, 11(5) (2016) 501-516.
[12] M. Fattah, W. Al-Soudani, Bearing capacity of closed and open ended pipe piles installed in loose sand with emphasis on soil plug, Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, 45(5) (2016) 703-724.
[13] Y. Guo, X.B. Yu, Design and analyses of open-ended pipe piles in cohesionless soils, Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 10(1) (2016) 22–29.
[14] A.S. Vesic, Design of pile foundations, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis of Practice No.42, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., (1977).
[15] N. Janbu, Static bearing capacity of friction piles, In Proceedings of the 6th  European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vienna,
[16] Austria, 1.2 (1976) 479 – 488.
[17]  H.M. Coyle, R.R. Castello, New design correlations for piles in sand, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 107(7) (1981) 965-986.
[18]  G.G. Meyerhof, Bearing capacity and settlement of pile foundations, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 102(3) (1976) 195-228.
[19] ASTM-D1143, Standard test method for piles under static axial compressive load, American Society for Testing and Materials. USA, (1981).
[20] China’s Ministry of Construction, Technical code for building pile foundations, Beijing, JG J94, (2008).
[21] N. Parthipan, M. Kumar, Experimental study on uplift load carrying capacity of steel pile in sand, International Journal of Science and Research, 6(5) (2017) 2682-2684.
[22] A. Sharifi, A study on the frictional resistance of steel pipe piles under tension in sandy soil, MSc. thesis, Pardisan University, (2016) (in Persian).
[23] M.W. O’Neill, L.C. Reese, Drilled shafts: construction procedures and design methods, Vol. II, Publication No. FHWA-IF-99-025, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Washington, DC, (1999).