Evaluation of Constitutive Soil Models in Soil Nail Wall Using Centrifuge Model

Document Type : Research Article


1 Associate professor, Imam Hossein University/ Department of Civil Engineer

2 Department of Civil Engineer, Science and Technology University


Numerical modeling is a strong tool for soil deformation in deep excavations. There is some kind of methods such as finite element, finite difference and etc. Finite element method helps to select the appropriate constitutive soil model with high accuracy. The controversy between simplicity and accuracy is an important issue always has been interested in by the researchers. By using physical modeling, the accuracy of each constitutive soil modeling could be an asset. In this paper, four models of geotechnical centrifuges were used to investigate the effect of the overburden distance from the edge of the excavation and the results of various constitutive soil modeled in the soil nailing wall. The results showed that the overburden distance from the edge of the wall was so effective on the value and pattern of wall deformation. By increasing the overburden distance from the edge of the excavation, the greatest amount of horizontal deformation of the wall led to the bottom of the excavation. However, the basis of the numerical solution, without the overburden distance from the edge of the excavations, this deformation always occurs in the top of the excavation. Also, based on the comparison of the results of centrifuge models and the results obtained from different behavioral models, in order to predict the vertical deformation of the top of the excavation, the result of hardening soil small strain model (HSS) was closer to reality than other investigated constitutive soil model.


Main Subjects

[1]    K. Dan, R. Sahu, Ground Movement Prediction For Braced Excavation in Soft Clay,  (2010).
[2]    Y.-G. Tang, G.T.-C. Kung, Investigating the effect of soil models on deformations caused by braced excavations through an inverse-analysis technique, Computers and Geotechnics, 37(6) (2010) 769-780.
[3]    G.T. Kung, E.C. Hsiao, M. Schuster, C.H. Juang, A neural network approach to estimating deflection of diaphragm walls caused by excavation in clays, Computers and Geotechnics, 34(5) (2007) 385-396.
[4]    J.G. Zornberg, N. Sitar, J.K. Mitchell, Performance of geosynthetic reinforced slopes at failure, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 124(8) (1998) 670-683.
[5]    Y. Hu, G. Zhang, J.-M. Zhang, C. Lee, Centrifuge modeling of geotextile-reinforced cohesive slopes, Geotextiles and geomembranes, 28(1) (2010) 12-22.
[6]    L. Wang, G. Zhang, J.-M. Zhang, Centrifuge model tests of geotextile-reinforced soil embankments during an earthquake, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 29(3) (2011) 222-232.
[7]    A.I. Mana, G.W. Clough, Prediction of movements for braced cuts in clay, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 107(ASCE 16312 Proceeding) (1981).
[8]    A.J. Whittle, Y.M. Hashash, R.V. Whitman, Analysis of deep excavation in Boston, Journal of geotechnical engineering, 119(1) (1993) 69-90.
[9]    R.B. Brinkgreve, Selection of soil models and parameters for geotechnical engineering application, in:  Soil constitutive models: Evaluation, selection, and calibration, 2005, pp. 69-98.
[10] R.F. Obrzud, G.C. Eng, On the use of the Hardening Soil Small Strain model in geotechnical practice, Numerics in Geotechnics and Structures,  (2010).
[11] A. Lim, C.-Y. Ou, P.-G. Hsieh, Evaluation of clay constitutive models for analysis of deep excavation under undrained conditions, Journal of GeoEngineering, 5(1) (2010) 9-20.
[12] P. Teo, K. Wong, Application of the Hardening Soil model in deep excavation analysis, The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering, 5(3) (2012) 152-165.
[13] S. Likitlersuang, C. Surarak, D. Wanatowski, E. Oh, A. Balasubramaniam, Finite element analysis of a deep excavation: A case study from the Bangkok MRT, Soils and Foundations, 53(5) (2013) 756-773.
[14] B.-C.B. Hsiung, S.-D. Dao, Evaluation of Constitutive Soil Models for Predicting Movements Caused by a Deep Excavation in Sands,  (2014).
[15] M. Afifipour, P. Marefvand, M.G. Estahbani, Investigation of Unreasonable Expansion in Numerical Modeling of  Excavation Problems, in:  9th International Congress of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 2012.
[16] I. Rahmani, A. Golpazir, Evaluating the Effect of Selecting Constitutive Models on Prediction of the Ground Movement Adjacent to Deep Excavations JR_ROAD,  (2012).
[17] E. Zolqadr, S.S. Yasrobi, M. Norouz Olyaei, Analysis of soil nail walls performance-Case study, Geomechanics and Geoengineering, 11(1) (2016) 1-12.
[18] T. Bhatkar, D. Barman, A. Mandal, A. Usmani, Prediction of behaviour of a deep excavation in soft soil: a case study, International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 11(1) (2017) 10-19.
[19] R.B. Peck, Deep excavations and tunneling in soft ground, Proc. 7th ICSMFE, 1969,  (1969) 225-290.
[20] G.W. Clough, T.D. O'Rourke, Construction induced movements of insitu walls, in:  Design and Performance of Earth Retaining Structures:, ASCE, 1990, pp. 439-470.
[21] P.-G. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ou, Shape of ground surface settlement profiles caused by excavation, Canadian geotechnical journal, 35(6) (1998) 1004-1017.
[22] M. Long, Database for retaining wall and ground movements due to deep excavations, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 127(3) (2001) 203-224.
[23] J. Wang, Z. Xu, W. Wang, Wall and ground movements due to deep excavations in Shanghai soft soils, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 136(7) (2009) 985-994.
[24] P. V8, Material Models Manual, Delft University of Technology & PLAXIS bv, The Netherlands,  (2008) 48.
[25] T. Benz, Small-strain stiffness of soils and its numerical consequences, Univ. Stuttgart, Inst. f. Geotechnik, 2007.
[26] F. Ahimoghadam, Investigating the factors affecting the behavior of nailing walls using centrifuges machine Master's thesis, Faculty of Civil Engineering(University of Science and Technology) (2014).
[27] D.M. Wood, Geotechnical modelling, CRC press, 2003.
[28] A. Aysen, Soil mechanics: basic concepts and engineering applications, CRC Press, 2002.