Optimum condition determination of adsorption capacity and adsorption percentage of cyanide ions using activated red mud

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


In this study, removal of ferrocyanide and ferricyanide ions from synthetic wastewater with activated red mud was studied. Two activation methods by ammonia (ABA) and cationic surfactant of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (ABC) were used. In order to evaluate the process of cyanide ion adsorption and its effective parameters, 44 experiments were designed with seven variable factors using DX8 software by the response surface method. The results showed that the optimum conditions for achieving the highest adsorption capacity with ABC adsorbent were obtained as follows: pH=7.1, adsorbent dosage of 0.57 g, ferricyanide concentration of 126 ppm, contact time of 96.66 min, agitated speed of 120 rpm and ion strength of 0.24 M. In optimum conditions, the absorption capacity of 19.5 mg/g and the absorption percentage of 99.3% were obtained. The results showed that the use of ABC adsorbent has a higher efficiency in the removal of cyanide ions from the synthetic wastewater. Thermodynamic studies were carried out in optimal conditions. The results showed that the negative value of ΔG◦ parameters at different temperatures indicates the spontaneity of the cyanide complex adsorption process on adsorbents of ABA and ABC. The spontaneity of process increased with increasing the temperature.


Main Subjects

[1] C. Young, T. Jordan, Cyanide remediation: current and past technologies, in: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference on Hazardous Waste Research, Kansas State University: Manhattan, KS, 1995, pp. 104-129.
[2] R.R. Dash, A. Gaur, C. Balomajumder, Cyanide in industrial wastewaters and its removal: a review on biotreatment, J Hazard Mater, 163(1) (2009) 1-11.
[3] G.M. Ritcey, Tailings management in gold plants, Hydrometallurgy, 78(1) (2005) 3-20.
[4] D. Kaušpėdienė, A. Gefenienė, R. Ragauskas, V. Pakštas, Comparative investigation of plain and silver impregnated activated carbons for the removal of cyanide from basic aqueous solutions in the batch process, Chemical Engineering Communications, 204(11) (2017) 1258-1269.
[5] H. Uppal, S.S. Tripathy, S. Chawla, B. Sharma, M. Dalai, S. Singh, S. Singh, N. Singh, Study of cyanide removal from contaminated water using zinc peroxide nanomaterial, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 55 (2017) 76-85.
[6] Y. Zhou, X. Fang, K. Wang, Y. Hu, K. Chen, J. Lu, Improving cyanide removal from coke plant wastewaters by optimizing the operation conditions of an ammonia still tower, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 39(5) (2017) 491-496.
[7] G. Moussavi, R. Khosravi, Removal of cyanide from wastewater by adsorption onto pistachio hull wastes: Parametric experiments, kinetics and equilibrium analysis, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 183(1) (2010) 724-730.
[8] D.A. Dzombak, R.S. Ghosh, G.M. Wong-Chong, Cyanide in water and soil: chemistry, risk, and management, CRC press, 2010.
[9] T. Mudder, M. Botz, Cyanide and society: a critical review, ejmp & ep (European Journal of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection), 4(1) (2004) 62-74.
[10] N. Kuyucak, A. Akcil, Cyanide and removal options from effluents in gold mining and metallurgical processes, Minerals Engineering, 50 (2013) 13-29.
[11] N.S. Shifrin, B.D. Beck, T.D. Gauthier, S.D. Chapnick, G. Goodman, Chemistry, toxicology, and human health risk of cyanide compounds in soils at former manufactured gas plant sites, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 23(2) (1996) 106-116.
[12] G. Asgari, A. Dayari, Experimental dataset on acid treated eggshell for removing cyanide ions from synthetic and industrial wastewaters, Data in brief, (2017).
[13] Q. Liu, G. Zhang, J. Ding, H. Zou, H. Shi, C. Huang, Evalu ation of the Removal of Potassium Cyanide and its Toxicity in Green Algae (Chlorella vulgaris), Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, (2017) 1-6.
[14] A. Bhatnagar, V.J. Vilar, C.M. Botelho, R.A. Boaventura, A review of the use of red mud as adsorbent for the removal of toxic pollutants from water and wastewater, Environmental technology, 32(3) (2011) 231-249.
[15] D.J. Cooling, Improving the sustainability of residue management practices-Alcoa World Alumina Australia, Paste and Thickened Tailings: A Guide, (2007) 3-16.
[16] S. Wang, H. Ang, M. Tadé, Novel applications of red mud as coagulant, adsorbent and catalyst for environmentally benign processes, Chemosphere, 72(11) (2008) 1621-1635.
[17] J. Pradhan, S.N. Das, R.S. Thakur, Adsorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by using activated red mud, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 217(1) (1999) 137-141.
[18] H.S. Altundoğan, F. Tümen, Removal of phosphates from aqueous solutions by using bauxite. I: Effect of pH on the adsorption of various phosphates, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 77(1) (2002) 77-85.
[19] Y. Çengeloğlu, E. Kır, M. Ersöz, Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by using red mud, Separation and Purification Technology, 28(1) (2002) 81-86.
[20] D. Cao, X. Jin, L. Gan, T. Wang, Z. Chen, Removal of phosphate using iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by eucalyptus leaf extract in the presence of CTAB surfactant, Chemosphere, 159 (2016) 23-31.
[21] H.-j. Hong, H. Kim, K. Baek, J.-W. Yang, Removal of arsenate, chromate and ferricyanide by cationic surfactant modified powdered activated carbon, Desalination, 223(1-3) (2008) 221-228.
[22] A.R. Zimmerman, D.-H. Kang, M.-Y. Ahn, S. Hyun, M.K. Banks, Influence of a soil enzyme on iron-cyanide complex speciation and mineral adsorption, Chemosphere, 70(6) (2008) 1044-1051.
[23] C. Hanahan, D. McConchie, J. Pohl, R. Creelman, M. Clark, C. Stocksiek, Chemistry of seawater neutralization of bauxite refinery residues (red mud), Environmental Engineering Science, 21(2) (2004) 125-138.
[24] N. Menzies, I. Fulton, W. Morrell, Seawater neutralization of alkaline bauxite residue and implications for revegetation, Journal of Environmental Quality, 33(5) (2004) 1877-1884.
[25] S.J. Palmer, R.L. Frost, Characterisation of bauxite and seawater neutralised bauxite residue using XRD and vibrational spectroscopic techniques, Journal of materials science, 44(1) (2009) 55-63.
[26] Y. Cengeloglu, A. Tor, G. Arslan, M. Ersoz, S. Gezgin, Removal of boron from aqueous solution by using neutralized red mud, Journal of hazardous materials, 142(1) (2007) 412-417.
[27] V. Grudić, S. Brašanac, V. Vukašinović-Pešić, N. Blagojević, Sorption of cadmium from water using neutralized red mud and activated neutralized red mud, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 8(11) (2006) 933-943.
[28] H. Genç-Fuhrman, J.C. Tjell, D. McConchie, Increasing the arsenate adsorption capacity of neutralized red mud (Bauxsol), Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 271(2) (2004) 313-320.
[29] H. Genç-Fuhrman, J.C. Tjell, D. McConchie, Adsorption of arsenic from water using activated neutralized red mud, Environmental science & technology, 38(8) (2004) 2428-2434.
[30] Y.-Y. Luo, Z.-P. Du, Y.-H. Lu, B.-X. Liu, Adsorption of CTAB on Zeolite A Detected by Surfactant Ion-selective Electrode, Tenside Surfactants Detergents, 46(3) (2009) 175-178.
[31] L.T. Eriksson, P.M. Claesson, J.C. Eriksson, V.V. Yaminsky, Equilibrium wetting studies of cationic surfactant adsorption on mica: 1. Mono-and bilayer adsorption of CTAB, Journal of colloid and interface science, 181(2) (1996) 476-489.
[32] C. Paola, S. Margherita, G. Giovanni, D. Salvatore, Influence of the pH on the accumulation of phosphate by red mud, J. of Hazardous Materials, 182(4) (2010) 266-272.
[33] J. Jamis, A. Drljaca, L. Spiccia, T.D. Smith, FTIR spectroscopic study of the adsorption of hydrogen cyanide by metal-oxide pillared clays, Chemistry of materials, 7(11) (1995) 2078-2085.
[34] S. Naeem, U. Zafar, Adsorption studies of cyanide (CN)− on alumina, Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem, 10 (2009) 83-87.
[35] C. Huang, W. Cheng, Thermodynamic Parameters of Iron-Cyanide Adsorption onto γ-Al 2 O 3, Journal of colloid and interface science, 188(2) (1997) 270-274.