The Effect of Waste Leachate on the Strength Parameters of Clay with High and Low Plasticity

Document Type : Research Article


Civil Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran


The leachate may cause negative effects on the mechanical behavior of contaminated soil. The objective of this research was to study this effect through performing consolidation and shearing experiments. The samples with different pollution contents underwent direct shear and consolidation tests in bot long-term short-term conditions. The shear strength and oedometric behavior of contaminated specimens was compared with non-contaminated specimens. In order to study the effect of pollution duration, and the length of soil exposure to leachate, the experiments were conducted at certain time intervals after contaminations of specimens. The samples were kept at barred packages and then tested at the required time. The result show that permeation of leachate into the soil pores leads to decrease in shear strength and increase in settlement. The result also shows that long term exposure of specimens by leachate with low concentration shows the same results observed for specimens exposed to high concentrated leachate in a short period of time. In other words, leachate even in small concentrations have major long-term drawbacks on shear strength and compressibility of soil. Therefore, the leachate will affect the performance of structures relied on such soils.


Main Subjects

[1]  G. Athanasopoulos, Grizi, A., Zekkos, D., Founta, P., and Zisimatou, E., Municipal solid waste as a reinforced soil: Investigation using synthetic waste, in: ASCE-Geoinstitute Geocongress, Geotechnics of Waste Management and Remediation, New Orleans, 2008, pp. 168-175.
[2] M. Fadel, Findikakis, N., Environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling, Environment management, 50 (1997) 1-25.
[3] J. Surmacz-Gorska, Degradation of organic compounds in municipal landfill leachate, in: Environmental Engineering Committee of Polish Academy of Science, Lublin, 2001.
[4] H. Timur, Ozturk, I, Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treatment of landfill leachate, in: Fenton process Water Research, 1999, pp. 3225-3230.
[5] W.K. Yun, Kyung, Y.H, Effect of reaction conditions on the oxidation efficiency in: Water Research, 2000, pp. 2786-2790.
[6] S. Wang, Wu, X., Wang, Y., Li, Q., Tao, M, Removal of organic matter and ammonia nitrogen from landfill leachate by ultrasound, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 15 (2008) 933-937.
[7] D.E. Foreman, Daniel D.E, n of compacted clay with organic chemicals, Geotechnical Engineering, 112 (1986) 669-681.
[8] M.D. Gidigasu, Laterite Soil Engineering Pedogenesis and Engineering Principles, in: E.S. Pub (Ed.), Amsterdam, 1976.
[9] N. Gnanapragasam, Lewis, B.G., Finno, R.J, Microstructural changes in sand-bentonite soils when exposed to aniline, Geotechnical Engineering, 121 (1995) 119-125.
[10] M. Kamon, Ying, C., Katsumi, T, Effect of acid rain on lime and cement stabilized soils, Japanese Geotechnical Society, 36 (1996) 91-96.
[11] A.K. Khan, Pise, P.J, Effect of liquid wastes on the physico chemical properties of lateritic soils, in: Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference, Warangal, 1994, pp. 189-194.
[12] B. Kirov, Influence of waste water on soil deformation, in: Proc. of 12th ICSMFE, Brazil, 1989, pp. 1881-1882.
[13] B.M. Sunil, Shrihari, S., Nayak, S, Shear strength characteristics and chemical characteristics of Leachate contaminated lateritic soils, Engineering Geology, 106 (2009) 20-25.
[14] C. Vadillo, Andreo, Garcia de Torres, Bosch, Chemical composition of landfill leachate in a karst area with a Mediterranean climate (Marbella,southern Spain), Environmental Geology, 37(4) (1999) 326-332.
[15] M. Pming, Hussain, M., Nyodu, M., Shivan, D, A Study on the Chemical Properties of Leachate its Effect on the Geotechnical Properties of Soil, International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research, 3(7) (2016).
[16] J. Dutta, Mishra., A.K, Consolidation behaviour of bentonites in the presence of salt solutions, Applied Clay Science, 3(7) (2016) 61-69.
[17] B.M.S. Sitaram Nayak., S. Shrihari P. V., Sivapullaiah, Interactions Between Soils and Laboratory Simulated Electrolyte Solution, Geotech Geol Eng, 28 (2010) 899-906.
[18] S. Arasan, G. Y 2lmaz, R.K. Akbulut and T. Yetimoglu, Engineering Properties of Compacted Clay Liners Contaminated by Salt Solution, in: 2 Geotechnical Symposium, Adana, Turkey, 2007, pp. 415-425.
[19] S.a.T.Y. Arasan, . , Effect of Leachate Components on the Consistency Limits of Clay Liners, in: 11. National Soil Mechanic and Foundation Engineering Congress, Trabzon, Turkey, 2006, pp. 439-445.
[20] J. Park, C. Vipulanandan, J.W. Kim and M.H. Oh, Effects of surfactants and electrolyte solutions on the properties of soil
[21] P.V.a.M.a. Sivapullaiah, Kaolinite-alkali interaction and effects on basic properties, Geotech. Geol. Eng, 23 (2005) 601-614.
[22] M.V.a.A.L. Villar, Influence of temperature on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of acompacted bentonite, Appl. Clay Scince, 26 (2004) 337-350.
[23] M.V. Villar, P.L. Martin and J.M. Barcala, Modification of physical, mechanical and hydraulic properties of bentonite by thermo-hydraulic gradients, Eng. Geol, 81 (2005) 284-297.
[24] Z.N. Kurt, S. Arasan, U. Hamutcu and R.K. Akbulut, Effect of salt solution temperature on the liquid limit of clay liners in solid waste disposal landfills, in: Geotechnical SymposiumAdana, Turkey, 2007, pp. 383-390.
[25] U. Hamutcu, S. Arasan, R.K. Akbulut and Z.N. Kurt, Effect of salt solution temperature on the liquid limit of clay liners in solid waste disposal landfills", in: International Congress on Advances in Civil Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus, 2008, pp. 65-73.
[26] J.K. Mitchell, Fundamentals of Soil Behavior, in: 2nd Edn., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1993.
[27] J.D. Ruhl, Geosynthetic clay liners permeated with chemical solutions and leachates, J. Geotech. Geoenv. Eng, 123 (1997) 369-381..
[28] K. Kayabali, The influence of hazardous liquid waste on the permeability of earthen liners, Environ. Geol, 39 (2000) 201-210.
[29] H.Y. Shan, Effect of hydrating liquid on the hydraulic properties of geosynthetic clay liners, Geotext. Geomem, 20 (2002) 19-38.
[30] S. Nayak, Sunil, B.M., Shrihari, S, Hydraulic and compaction characteristics of leachate-contaminated lateritic soil, Engineering Geology, (2007) 137-144.
[31] N. Shariatmadari, Askari La, B., Eshghi Nezhad, H., Askari, B., Investigating the Stress– train and Failure Behavior of Soils Contaminated with Urban Solid Waste Leachate: A Case Study from the Landfill Area of Saravan, Int. J. Civ. Eng, (2016).
[32] EPA, Process Design Manual, Land Application of Municipal Sludge, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, in: U.G.P. Offices (Ed.) EPA-625/1-83-016, New York, 1983..
[33] D. Goswami, Choudhury., B.N, Chemical Characteristics of leachate contaminated lateritic soil, Engineering and Technology, 2(4) (2013).
[34] S.N. Harun, Ali Rahman, Z., Rahimi, S.A., Lihan, T. Idris, W.M.r, Effect of leachate on Geotechnical Characteristics of Sandy Clay Soil, in: AIP Conference Proceedings 2013.
[35] A.R. Estabrag, Betolahpour, I., Moradi, M., Javadi, A.A, Consolidation behavior of two finr-grained soils contaminated by glycerol and ethanol, Engineering Geology, 178 (2014) 102-108.
[36] V.R. Ohadi, Hamidi, S., Amiri, M, Impact of Heavy Metal Contaminants on Coefficient of Variations of Compression Index, Expansion Index and Permeability Coefficient of Bentonite from Micro-Structural Point of View, Journal of Civil an Environmental Engineering, 45 (1391(in persia)) .
[37] G.H. Bolt, . Physico-chemical analysis of the compressibility of pure clays, Geotechnique 6(1956) 86-93.
[38] H.A. Alawaji, Swell and compressibility characteristics of sand-bentonite mixtures inundated with liquids, Appl. Clay Scince, (1999) 411-430.
[39] T.C. Kenney, W.A. van Veen, M.A. Swallow and M.A. Sungaila, Hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite-sand mixtures, Can. Geotech. J, 29 (1992) 364-374.
[40] A. Tuncan, M. Tuncan, M. Yalcin and Y. Guney, in: Proceeding 3rd International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics, 1998, pp. 57-62..
[41] S. Oztoprak, Pisirici, B, Effects of micro structure changed on macro behavior of Istanbul(Turkey) clays exposed to landfill leachate, Engineering Geology, (2011) 110-112.
[42] P.F. Low, Hydrogen bonding and polywater in clay-water systems, Clays and Clay Minerals Journal, 18 (1969) 63-66.
[43] E.P. Johann Förster, Alvaro Magana, Alejandro Saenz, " Imaging of the umbrella motion and tunneling in the ammonia molecule by strong-field ionization, Phys. Rev, 94 (2016).
[44] P.E. Flathman, and Lanza, G.R.,, Phytoremediation: Current views on an emerging green technology, Journal of Soil Contamination, 4 (1998) 415-432.
[45] R. Malviya, and Chaudhary. R., Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/Stabilization: Review, Hazardous Material, 137 (2006) 267-276.