Failure Mechanism Evaluation of Plate Anchor Retaining Walls containing Crumb Rubbers by using PIV Technique

Document Type : Research Article


1 Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 1 Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

3 School Of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


Traditional techniques such as burning leads to some highly durable non-degradable synthetic materials that cause unrepairable environmental damages by releasing heavy metals such as arsenic, chromium, lead, manganese, and nickel. Today, scrap tires are used as lightweight alternative materials in many applications such as retaining wall backfilling. In the present study, several laboratory models were carried out to evaluate the stability of retaining walls reinforced with plate anchors. Then, the effect of adding different contents (10 and 20 wt.%) of crumb rubber to fill of a mechanically stabilized retaining wall with plate anchors were investigated including its effect on bearing capacity and wall horizontal displacements during static loading. To visualize the critical slip surface of the wall, particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique was employed. The results showed that the circular anchor plates provide a higher bearing capacity and wall stability in comparison to square plates. Also, it was found that the backfill with 10 wt.% crumb rubber provides the wall with the maximum bearing capacity. In addition, increasing the weight percentage of crumb rubber to 20 wt.% resulted in a significant reduction in bearing capacity and horizontal displacement of the wall, which occurred due to a decrease in lateral pressure against the whole walls. Moreover, an increase in weight percent of crumb rubber results in a decrease in failure wedge formation and expansion of wall slip surface while the failure wedge is not formed in mix of sand-20 wt.% crumb rubber.


Main Subjects

[1] R. Merifield, S. Sloan, The ultimate pullout capacity of anchors in frictional soils, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 43(8) (2006) 852-868.
[2] B.M. Das, S.K. Shukla, Earth anchors, J. Ross Publishing, 2013.
[3] M. Randolph, M. Cassidy, S. Gourvenec, C. Erbrich, Challenges of offshore geotechnical engineering, in: Proceedings of the international conference on soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering, AA Balkema Publishers, 2005, pp. 123.
[4] M. Randolph, S. Gourvenec, D. White, M. Cassidy, Offshore geotechnical engineering, Spon Press New York, 2011.
[5] R.L. Copstead, D.D. Studier, An earth anchor system: installation and design guide, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-257. Portland, OR: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 35 p, 257 (1990).
[6] D. Humphrey, Civil engineering applications using tire derived aggregate (TDA), CIWMB, Sacramento, (2003).
[7] A. Edinçliler, G. Baykal, A. Saygılı, Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction, Waste Management, 30(6) (2010) 1073-1080.
[8] T.B. Edil, P.J. Bosscher, Engineering properties of tire chips and soil mixtures, Geotechnical testing journal, 17(4) (1994) 453-464.
[9] J.G. Zornberg, A.R. Cabral, C. Viratjandr, Behaviour of tire shred sand mixtures, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 41(2) (2004) 227-241.
[10] M.F. Attom, The use of shredded waste tires to improve the geotechnical engineering properties of sands, Environmental Geology, 49(4) (2006) 497-503.
[11] M. Ghazavi, M.A. Sakhi, Influence of optimized tire shreds on shear strength parameters of sand, International Journal of Geomechanics, 5(1) (2005) 58-65.
[12] S. Moghaddas Tafreshi, O. Khalaj, A. Dawson, Pilot-scale load tests of a combined multilayered geocell and rubber-reinforced foundation, Geosynthetics International, 20(3) (2013) 143-161.
[13] A. Srivastava, S. Pandey, J. Rana, Use of shredded tyre waste in improving the geotechnical properties of expansive black cotton soil, Geomechanics and Geoengineering, 9(4) (2014) 303-311.
[14] S. Bali Reddy, D. Pradeep Kumar, A. Murali Krishna, Evaluation of the optimum mixing ratio of a sand-tire chips mixture for geoengineering applications, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 28(2) (2015) 06015007.
[15] Z. Karabash, A.F. Cabalar, Effect of tire crumb and cement addition on triaxial shear behavior of sandy soils, Geomechanics and Engineering, 8(1) (2015) 1-15.
[16] T. Zhang, G. Cai, S. Liu, W. Duan, Laboratory observation of engineering properties and deformation mechanisms of cemented rubber-sand mixtures, Construction and Building Materials, 120 (2016) 514-523.
[17] M.M. Disfani, H.-H. Tsang, A. Arulrajah, E. Yaghoubi, Shear and compression characteristics of recycled glass-tire mixtures, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 29(6) (2017) 06017003.
[18] P. Barman, B. Singh, Influence of Tyre Buffings and Cement on Strength Behaviour of Soil-Fly Ash Mixes, International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering, 3(1) (2017) 10.
[19] S.N. Moghaddas Tafreshi, N. Joz Darabi, G. Tavakoli Mehrjardi, A. Dawson, Experimental and numerical investigation of footing behaviour on multi-layered rubber-reinforced soil, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, (2016) 1-24.
[20] D. White, W. Take, M. Bolton, Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry, Geotechnique, 53(7) (2003) 619-631.
[21] D.M. Wood, Geotechnical modelling, CRC Press, 2014.