An Integrated Photogrammetric and Spatial Database Management System for Producing Structured Data According to OGC Standard and Topological Relations

Document Type : Research Article



3D spatial data acquired using photogrammetric techniques, is one of the most accurate and economic spatial data sources for GIS and spatial analysis. But, there are still many problems about storing, structuring, and appropriate management of spatial data obtained using photogrammetric techniques. According to the abilities of spatial database management systems, it can be said that on-line integration of photogrammetric and spatial database management systems, saves time and cost of producing, structuring and updating map products. Also, by means of theses integrated systems that produce structured data based on defined standards and topological relations between features in real world at the time of feature digitizing process, a great development in the field of reel-time and on-line GIS can be occurred. In this paper, in addition to the evaluation of necessity and importance of integration of photogrammetric and spatial database management systems, and explaining different levels of the integration, design, implementation, and test of an integrated system is discussed. 


[1]Cameron, E. C. M., Hardy, P. G., 1998, Stereo Images with Active Objects-Integrating Photogrammetry with an Object Database for Map Production, ISPRS Commission II, Working Group II/2.
[2]Cui, Z., Cohn, A. G., Randell, D.A., 1993, Qualitative and Topological Relationships in Spatial Databases, in proceeding of the third symposium on large spatial databases, Singapore, Lecture note in Computer sciences n0 692, pp296-315.
[3]Ebadi, H., Farnood Ahmadi, F., Varshosaz, M., 2005, On-line Integration of Photogrammetric and CAD Based Systems with Emphasis on Logical Relations among Features, ISGIS, Malaysia.
[4]Ellul C., Haklay M., 2006, Requirements for Topology in 3D GIS, Review Paper, Transaction in GIS, ISSN:1361-1682, 10(2), 157-175.
[5]Egenhofer, M. J. , Herring, J. R., 1990, A Mathematical Framework for the Definition of Topological Relationships, in proceeding of the 4th international symposium on spatial data handling, Zurich, pp 803-813.
[6]Egenhofer, M. J., 1991, Reasoning about Binary Topological Relations, in proceeding of the second symposium on large spatial databases, Zurich, Lecture note in Computer sciences n0 525, pp 143-159.
[7]Green, D., Bossomaier, T., 2002, Online GIS and Spatial Metadata, Taylor and Francis Inc.
[8]Heipke Ch., 2004, Some Requirements for Geographic Information Systems: A Photogrammetric Point of View, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, ISSN: oo99-1112, Vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 185-195.
[9]Laurini, R., Milleret-Raffort, F., 1994, Topological Reorganization of inconsistent Geographic Databases,Computer and Graphics, ISSN: 0097-8493, Volume 18,Number 6, pp 803-813.
[10]Murray, Ch., 2002, Oracle Spatial User’s Guide and Reference, Oracle Corporation.
[11]Rigux, P., Scholl, M., Uoisard, A., 2000, Spatial Database with Application to GIS, ISBN:9781558605886.
[13]ESRI and Oracle-Solution for GIS and Spatial Data Management, An ESRI White Paper, 2000.
[14]The Importance of Going Open, Open GIS Consortium, 2003.