Reliability Analysis of Water Leakage Tunnels with Cracked and Uncracked Concrete Using Monte Carlo Simulation

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Construction Engineering and Management, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran


Water leakage from concrete tunnel structures is one of the phenomena which can affect their serviceability with certain problems. In this paper, the limit states of water leakage from cracked and uncracked concrete elements have been introduced whilst uncertainty of governing parameters is modelled as random variables. Using Monte Carlo simulation, failure probability and corresponding reliability index of tunnel sections with cracked concrete have been calculated in three modes, namely constant crack width, self-healing and expanding. The results of this analysis showed that concrete selfhealing does not have signifcant role in reduction of leakage probability. On the other hand, since crack width spreads during the service life of structure, an appropriate crack width increase model with time is necessary in order to determine the remaining life of tunnels. Moreover, for uncracked sections and sections that must be necessarily sealed, probability of leakage initiation has been computed during the service life of tunnel. For such structures, this reliability analysis can be utilized to determine the remaining life corresponding to the acceptable failure risk or in designing the minimum required
thickness of element and determining the properties of mix design and permeability of concrete.


Main Subjects

[1] M.o.R.U. Development, Railways technical maintenance and maintenance guide, Ministry of Roads, Department of Transportation, Tehran, 2012. [In Persian].
[2] T.D.T.W. Life, Report on the Damaging Effects of Water on Tunnels During Their Working Life, (1999) 11-76.
[3] C. Edvardsen, Water permeability and autogenous healing of cracks in concrete, Materials Journal, 96(4) (1999) 448-454.
[4] C.-Q. Li, S. Yang, Prediction of concrete crack width under combined reinforcement corrosion and applied load, Journal of engineering mechanics, 137(11) (2011) 722-731.
[5] C. Qian, B. Huang, Y. Wang, M. Wu, Water seepage flow in concrete, Construction and building materials, 35 (2012)491-496
[6] S.-S. Park, S.-J. Kwon, S.H. Jung, S.-W. Lee, Modeling of water permeability in early aged concrete with cracks based on micro pore structure, Construction and Building Materials, 27(1) (2012) 597-604.
[7] J. Murata, Y. Ogihara, S. Koshikawa, Y. Itoh, Study on watertightness of concrete, Materials Journal, 101(2) (2004) 107-116.
[8] R.E. Melchers, A.T. Beck, Structural reliability analysis and prediction, John Wiley & Sons, 2018.
[9] A.S. Nowak, K.R. Collins, Reliability of structures, CRC Press, 2012.
[10] S.H. Ghasemi, Target reliability analysis for structures, 2015. [In Persian].
[11] A. Haack, Water leakages in subsurface facilities: Required watertightess, contractual matters, and methods of redevelopment, Tunnelling and underground space technology, 6(3) (1991) 273-282.
[12] R. Breitenbücher, C. Gehlen, P. Schiessl, J. Van Den Hoonaard, T. Siemes, Service life design for the Western Scheldt Tunnel, in: Proc. 8th CANMET/ACI Intl. Conf. Durability of Building Materials and Components, CANMET Vancouver, 1999, pp. 3-15.
[13] J.-H. Shin, S.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Shin, Long-term mechanical and hydraulic interaction and leakage evaluation of segmented tunnels, Soils and Foundations, 52(1) (2012) 38-48.
[14] B.A. Olumide, Numerical coupling of stress and seepage in the design of pressure tunnel under to high internal water pressure, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3(3) (2013) 235-244.
[15] R.P. Chapuis, Numerical modeling of reservoirs or pipes in groundwater seepage, Computers and Geotechnics, 36(5) (2009) 895-901.
[16] C.-M. Aldea, S.P. Shah, A. Karr, Permeability of cracked concrete, Materials and structures, 32(5) (1999) 370-376.
[17] H.-S. Lee, Y.-J. Lee, S.-W. Seo, Y.-C. Hwang, A study on the treatment of external water pressure for the water pressure tunnel at the structural analysis of concrete lining, Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, 17(6) (2015) 653-664.
[18] J. Shin, D. Potts, L. Zdravkovic, The effect of porewater pressure on NATM tunnel linings in decomposed granite soil, Canadian geotechnical journal, 42(6) (2005) 1585-1599.
[19] E. Basler, Untersuchungen über den Sicherheitsbegriff von Bauwerken, ETH Zurich, 1960.
[20] C.A. Cornell, A probability-based structural code, in: Journal Proceedings, 1969, pp. 974-985.
[21] X. Chun-lei, G. Bo, S. Chuan-yi, Z. Yu, Analysis of External Water Pressure on the Support and Lining of Deep Mountain Tunnels below High Water Tables, , 8(1) (2013) 61-66.
[22] Q. Pan, D. Dias, The effect of pore water pressure on tunnel face stability, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 40(15) (2016) 2123-2136.