Amirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Modeling and Estimating the Uplift Force of Gravity Dams Using Finite Element and Artificial Neural Network Whale Optimization Algorithm MethodsModeling and Estimating the Uplift Force of Gravity Dams Using Finite Element and Artificial Neural Network Whale Optimization Algorithm Methods15951608329310.22060/ceej.2019.15532.5939FABahramNouranicandidated phdFarzinSalmasi0000-0002-1627-8598Mohammad AliGhorbaniDepartment of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture0000-0002-0333-2559Journal Article20181229The correct identification of the uplift force plays an important role in the stability analysis of gravity dams. Therefore, it is very important to estimate it accurately. For this purpose, a numerical model of the foundation of a gravity dam of the Guangzhao, China was made using finite element method. After simulation, the uplift force values were obtained in different positions of drainage. Require experience, the timing of calculations and the accurate determination of the boundary conditions in numerical models, have caused to the development of the tendency to use intelligent models. For this purpose, in addition to the Artificial Neural Network model (ANN) with three-layer that consists of 4 input neurons, 1 hidden layer (with 8 neurons), and 1 output neurons, a new hybrid model of Artificial Neural Network-Whale Optimization Algorithm (ANN-WOA), was developed. The ratio of the parameters of the distance of the drain row from upstream dam, the distance from the center to center of drains, the drain diameter and the water surface upstream of the reservoir dam respect to the width of the dam foundation as input and relative uplift force were considered as output. The values of R2 , RMSE and RE% for the ANN-WOA model, were 0.998, 0.021 and 3.3%, respectively, and for the ANN model were 0.995, 0.261 and 4.67% respectively, that indicate the higher accuracy of the ANN-WOA model in the estimation of the uplift force than the ANN. In addition, the density plot box and the violin plot indicate that the point density and the probability distribution estimated data with the ANN-WOA model is very similar to that the data obtained from the numerical simulation compared with the ANN model.The correct identification of the uplift force plays an important role in the stability analysis of gravity dams. Therefore, it is very important to estimate it accurately. For this purpose, a numerical model of the foundation of a gravity dam of the Guangzhao, China was made using finite element method. After simulation, the uplift force values were obtained in different positions of drainage. Require experience, the timing of calculations and the accurate determination of the boundary conditions in numerical models, have caused to the development of the tendency to use intelligent models. For this purpose, in addition to the Artificial Neural Network model (ANN) with three-layer that consists of 4 input neurons, 1 hidden layer (with 8 neurons), and 1 output neurons, a new hybrid model of Artificial Neural Network-Whale Optimization Algorithm (ANN-WOA), was developed. The ratio of the parameters of the distance of the drain row from upstream dam, the distance from the center to center of drains, the drain diameter and the water surface upstream of the reservoir dam respect to the width of the dam foundation as input and relative uplift force were considered as output. The values of R2 , RMSE and RE% for the ANN-WOA model, were 0.998, 0.021 and 3.3%, respectively, and for the ANN model were 0.995, 0.261 and 4.67% respectively, that indicate the higher accuracy of the ANN-WOA model in the estimation of the uplift force than the ANN. In addition, the density plot box and the violin plot indicate that the point density and the probability distribution estimated data with the ANN-WOA model is very similar to that the data obtained from the numerical simulation compared with the ANN model.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3293_3b676825686cf6f59d1d5f2a40b4d29b.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Bed’s Coarse Grain Sediments on the Critical Shear Stress for Deposition of Suspended SedimentsExperimental Investigation of the Effect of Bed’s Coarse Grain Sediments on the Critical Shear Stress for Deposition of Suspended Sediments16091620331010.22060/ceej.2019.15541.5942FAMiladKhastar BoroujeniWater Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad/ Mashhad, IranSaeed RezaKhodashenasWater Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad0000-0003-3247-9653HosseinSamadi-Boroujeniدانشگاه شهرکردJournal Article20181230The importance of sediments studies for safety design of hydraulic structures has been drawn attention by river engineers. Determining the critical shear stress for suspended sediment is of highly significant in sediment hydraulics. Therefore in this research, the deposition process of suspended sediment in the presence of bed sediment has been investigated. Deposition experiments were carried out in the circular flume for three values of shear stress, six types of beds (smooth bed and five coarse[1]grained sediments) with initial concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 g/l. The results showed that, for the same initial concentration and equal velocity of flume rotation, the deposition of suspended sediments in the bed containing sediments is higher than that of the smooth bed. However, for specific flume rotation velocity, the bed coarse-grained increased the average of flow shear stresses. It was also found that bed sediments generally increased the critical shear stress for all deposition relative to the smooth bed. Accordingly, it can be explained that in the bed with coarse grain sediments, in the flow with bigger turbulence, full deposition conditions for suspended sediments still exist. The results of this study showed for threshold critical shear stress in a smooth bed, for shear stress of less than 1.28 N/m2, sediments are in the state of the deposition threshold, but for bed containing coarse grain sediment was observed in which the suspended sediments was deposited in each flow shear stress and trapped among bed sediments. Also, it can be stated that due to the phenomenon of trapping suspended sediments in the bed containing coarse grain sediments, cannot be considered threshold critical shear stress for deposition of suspended sediments.The importance of sediments studies for safety design of hydraulic structures has been drawn attention by river engineers. Determining the critical shear stress for suspended sediment is of highly significant in sediment hydraulics. Therefore in this research, the deposition process of suspended sediment in the presence of bed sediment has been investigated. Deposition experiments were carried out in the circular flume for three values of shear stress, six types of beds (smooth bed and five coarse[1]grained sediments) with initial concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 g/l. The results showed that, for the same initial concentration and equal velocity of flume rotation, the deposition of suspended sediments in the bed containing sediments is higher than that of the smooth bed. However, for specific flume rotation velocity, the bed coarse-grained increased the average of flow shear stresses. It was also found that bed sediments generally increased the critical shear stress for all deposition relative to the smooth bed. Accordingly, it can be explained that in the bed with coarse grain sediments, in the flow with bigger turbulence, full deposition conditions for suspended sediments still exist. The results of this study showed for threshold critical shear stress in a smooth bed, for shear stress of less than 1.28 N/m2, sediments are in the state of the deposition threshold, but for bed containing coarse grain sediment was observed in which the suspended sediments was deposited in each flow shear stress and trapped among bed sediments. Also, it can be stated that due to the phenomenon of trapping suspended sediments in the bed containing coarse grain sediments, cannot be considered threshold critical shear stress for deposition of suspended sediments.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3310_116301d7ea82ce4700b564b5e941aeef.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Estimation of Minimum Ecological Water Level of GooriGol Wetland Using a Multi Objective Programming ModelEstimation of Minimum Ecological Water Level of GooriGol Wetland Using a Multi Objective Programming Model16211636334010.22060/ceej.2019.15563.5951FARahmanEskandariPh.D. student of applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematic Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IranJavadParsaTabriz University0000-0002-4993-4475RashedKhanjani ShirazAssociate Professor, Faculty of Mathematic Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IranJournal Article20181231Estimation of the ecological level of water bodies is crucial to protect aquatic ecosystems and has become a major issue in sustainable water resources planning. In recent decades, several methods are utilized to estimate the minimum ecological flow in rivers and the minimum ecological level in lakes and wetlands. In this research, a multi-objective programming model is used to determine the ecological level of the GooriGol wetland. The proposed model has two objective functions with two indices of water and ecosystem indicators. The wetland water level has been selected as a water index and three species of important ducks of the wetland have been chosen as the ecosystem indices. The first objective function is to minimize the wetland water level, so that more water is provided to meet the needs of human societies, while the second objective function ensures the maximum ecosystem indices, so that more habitats are provided for aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this model is to provide circumstances for the largest ecological services with the least amount of water. The used data in the multi-objective programming model are the storage water volume, wetland surface water area and water levels from 2003 to 2017 and the number of three important species of ducks from 2003 to 2017 as well. In order to solve this multi-objective optimization model, the sum of weighting technique is used and Benson method is used to verify the obtained results for situation in which white-head duck is chosen as the ecosystem indicator. The results indicated that the minimum ecological water level of GooriGol wetland is 1912.6 meter and the corresponding water storage volume of wetland is 503000 cubic meters. The field observations during the recent decade are in agreement with the obtained result of this research and indicates the decreasing the water level from 1912.6 m causes considerable declining in the ecological performance of the wetland.Estimation of the ecological level of water bodies is crucial to protect aquatic ecosystems and has become a major issue in sustainable water resources planning. In recent decades, several methods are utilized to estimate the minimum ecological flow in rivers and the minimum ecological level in lakes and wetlands. In this research, a multi-objective programming model is used to determine the ecological level of the GooriGol wetland. The proposed model has two objective functions with two indices of water and ecosystem indicators. The wetland water level has been selected as a water index and three species of important ducks of the wetland have been chosen as the ecosystem indices. The first objective function is to minimize the wetland water level, so that more water is provided to meet the needs of human societies, while the second objective function ensures the maximum ecosystem indices, so that more habitats are provided for aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this model is to provide circumstances for the largest ecological services with the least amount of water. The used data in the multi-objective programming model are the storage water volume, wetland surface water area and water levels from 2003 to 2017 and the number of three important species of ducks from 2003 to 2017 as well. In order to solve this multi-objective optimization model, the sum of weighting technique is used and Benson method is used to verify the obtained results for situation in which white-head duck is chosen as the ecosystem indicator. The results indicated that the minimum ecological water level of GooriGol wetland is 1912.6 meter and the corresponding water storage volume of wetland is 503000 cubic meters. The field observations during the recent decade are in agreement with the obtained result of this research and indicates the decreasing the water level from 1912.6 m causes considerable declining in the ecological performance of the wetland.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3340_8835350fe19bdfc173029d0ef7da5fc7.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Evaluation and Comparison of the Slots and Collars Performance in Reducing Scouring around Bridge AbutmentsEvaluation and Comparison of the Slots and Collars Performance in Reducing Scouring around Bridge Abutments16371650332610.22060/ceej.2019.15565.5953FAMahdiOsrushdepartment of civil engineering, science and research branch, Islamic Azad universitySeyed AbbasHosseiniDepartment of civil engineering, Science and research branch, Islamic azad University, Tehran , Iran0000-0001-8850-3543Amir AbbasKamanbedastagricultural department, Islamic azad University, Ahvaz BranchJournal Article20190101The bridge failure caused by the local scouring phenomenon around its piers or abutments is a common phenomenon. Therefore, some methods should be used to prevent the destruction of these structures. Slots and collars are among the tools that can be used for this purpose. Therefore, by conducting 49 tests in this research, we will examine and compare the performance of these two tools with new approaches around bridge abutments using an experimental model in different flow conditions. The results show that although the most effective slot model can reduce the dimensions and depth of scour hole by 61%, it cannot postpone the start of the scouring phenomenon and take the scour hole away from the abutment surroundings. However, for the most effective collar and highest Froude number, the scour hole reaches the base point after 120 minutes from the start of the test. In this collar model, the maximum depth of scour hole is shifted to a more distant point from the abutment, and the percentage of reduction in the depth of scour hole at the base point and erodible bed is 96% and 56%, respectively.The bridge failure caused by the local scouring phenomenon around its piers or abutments is a common phenomenon. Therefore, some methods should be used to prevent the destruction of these structures. Slots and collars are among the tools that can be used for this purpose. Therefore, by conducting 49 tests in this research, we will examine and compare the performance of these two tools with new approaches around bridge abutments using an experimental model in different flow conditions. The results show that although the most effective slot model can reduce the dimensions and depth of scour hole by 61%, it cannot postpone the start of the scouring phenomenon and take the scour hole away from the abutment surroundings. However, for the most effective collar and highest Froude number, the scour hole reaches the base point after 120 minutes from the start of the test. In this collar model, the maximum depth of scour hole is shifted to a more distant point from the abutment, and the percentage of reduction in the depth of scour hole at the base point and erodible bed is 96% and 56%, respectively.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3326_5328e45a6cc11fe292533d8be9d6b076.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Fluid-structure interaction due to water-hammer in a pressurized pipeline considering geometrical non-linear behavior of the pipe wallFluid-structure interaction due to water-hammer in a pressurized pipeline considering geometrical non-linear behavior of the pipe wall16511670333810.22060/ceej.2019.15464.5962FAMohammad AliMashakDepartment of Hydraulics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Gondi Shapour, Dezful, IranAlirezaKeramatHydraulics, Civil Engneering, Gondi Shapur, Dezful, IranJournal Article20190107The research investigates a fluid filled pipeline that is connected to a tank at its upstream and to a valve in the downstream and undergoes forces of water hammer due to sudden closure of the valve. The aim is to study the possibility of instability in this pipeline when there are large lateral displacements with small strains. As conventional dynamic analysis models of beams which are based on the infinitesimal strain theory (ε=∂u⁄∂x) cannot reflect the effect of large lateral displacements, in this study axial stresses are modeled as linear stresses and strains are modeled by so called von Karman nonlinear strains. The resulting partial differential equations are solved in the time domain by the finite elements method. The linearized equation of lateral vibration is made dimensionless and then it is solved in the frequency domain so as to plot dimensionless frequencies versus the dimensionless fluid velocities which represent the stability of the pipeline. The results provides useful diagrams to anticipate possible pipeline instability induced by fluid velocity.The research investigates a fluid filled pipeline that is connected to a tank at its upstream and to a valve in the downstream and undergoes forces of water hammer due to sudden closure of the valve. The aim is to study the possibility of instability in this pipeline when there are large lateral displacements with small strains. As conventional dynamic analysis models of beams which are based on the infinitesimal strain theory (ε=∂u⁄∂x) cannot reflect the effect of large lateral displacements, in this study axial stresses are modeled as linear stresses and strains are modeled by so called von Karman nonlinear strains. The resulting partial differential equations are solved in the time domain by the finite elements method. The linearized equation of lateral vibration is made dimensionless and then it is solved in the frequency domain so as to plot dimensionless frequencies versus the dimensionless fluid velocities which represent the stability of the pipeline. The results provides useful diagrams to anticipate possible pipeline instability induced by fluid velocity.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3338_4a58036f77e1f55888f72ded821969bb.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Experimental study of piano key side weir with oblique keysExperimental study of piano key side weir with oblique keys16711684326810.22060/ceej.2019.15599.5970FAMahmoudKarimiPh.D. Student, Dept. of Civil, Water, and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti Univ., Evin, TehranMohammadrezaJalili-GhazizadehAssistant Professor, Faculty of Civil, Water, and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti UniversityMojtabaSaneieAssociate Professor, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.JalalAttariAssociate Professor, Dept. of Civil, Water, and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti Univ., TehranJournal Article20190108Side weirs have many applications in water distribution and regulation in irrigation and flood control. For a constant opening length, weir crest can be design as labyrinth or piano key shape to increase the developed length and discharge coefficient. Another way to increase the side weir efficiency is the oblique design, which make the weir crest aligned with the diverted flow. Combining the two noted approachs leads to design a side weir with longer developed crest length and aligned with flow which has high performance. In this study, piano key side weirs with different key angles were studied. Flow characteristic including deflection angle and streamlines and also discharge coefficient were studied. Results show that angled keys aligned with the flow direction, increases performance of the piano key side weir up to 12 percent in high Froude numbers. Oblique keys can reduce the disturbances usually occurs in symmetric piano key side weir and results in higher discharge coefficient. The obtained results can be used to design a side weir which applied in conditions with high Froude numbers such as flood control.Side weirs have many applications in water distribution and regulation in irrigation and flood control. For a constant opening length, weir crest can be design as labyrinth or piano key shape to increase the developed length and discharge coefficient. Another way to increase the side weir efficiency is the oblique design, which make the weir crest aligned with the diverted flow. Combining the two noted approachs leads to design a side weir with longer developed crest length and aligned with flow which has high performance. In this study, piano key side weirs with different key angles were studied. Flow characteristic including deflection angle and streamlines and also discharge coefficient were studied. Results show that angled keys aligned with the flow direction, increases performance of the piano key side weir up to 12 percent in high Froude numbers. Oblique keys can reduce the disturbances usually occurs in symmetric piano key side weir and results in higher discharge coefficient. The obtained results can be used to design a side weir which applied in conditions with high Froude numbers such as flood control.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3268_7d388c8b4b5a5b848b53b277233f8160.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Spectral analysis of structures using wavelet theory and concept of time of strong ground motionSpectral analysis of structures using wavelet theory and concept of time of strong ground motion16851704345810.22060/ceej.2019.15626.5973FANoorollahMajidiFaculty of Engineering, Shahrekord UniversityAliHeidariAssociate Professor of Civil Engineering, Shahrekord University0000-0001-8229-4978Journal Article20190111In this paper, for the first time, the simultaneous analysis of wavelet transformation and the concept of the time of strong ground motion in spectral analysis of structures has been used. The purpose of this research is to optimize the calculations related to the main earthquake spectrum. Accordingly, the earthquake is filtered up to 5 steps. At each stage, the filter provides two waves of approximations and details. Because the wave of approximations is closer to the original earthquake, this wave is used for calculations. For this reason, at each stage of the filter, the number of earthquake records is half past. Subsequently, based on the concept of the time of strong ground motion in the wave of the main earthquake and the wave obtained from the wavelet filter, part of the earthquake that has a strong movement is separated. So at this stage, there was a reduction in earthquake records. After that, the spectrum of each of the waveforms is plotted. At the end, a two-dimensional 10-story structure and a three-dimensional five-story structure with each spectrum obtained from two discrete wavelet concepts and the duration of a strong ground motion are analyzed. The results show that by reducing the computation of the spectrum by more than 93%, the structure can be analyzed with an error less than 4%. It can be said that the proposed technique is one of the best techniques presented in the optimization of calculations related to spectral analysis of structures.In this paper, for the first time, the simultaneous analysis of wavelet transformation and the concept of the time of strong ground motion in spectral analysis of structures has been used. The purpose of this research is to optimize the calculations related to the main earthquake spectrum. Accordingly, the earthquake is filtered up to 5 steps. At each stage, the filter provides two waves of approximations and details. Because the wave of approximations is closer to the original earthquake, this wave is used for calculations. For this reason, at each stage of the filter, the number of earthquake records is half past. Subsequently, based on the concept of the time of strong ground motion in the wave of the main earthquake and the wave obtained from the wavelet filter, part of the earthquake that has a strong movement is separated. So at this stage, there was a reduction in earthquake records. After that, the spectrum of each of the waveforms is plotted. At the end, a two-dimensional 10-story structure and a three-dimensional five-story structure with each spectrum obtained from two discrete wavelet concepts and the duration of a strong ground motion are analyzed. The results show that by reducing the computation of the spectrum by more than 93%, the structure can be analyzed with an error less than 4%. It can be said that the proposed technique is one of the best techniques presented in the optimization of calculations related to spectral analysis of structures.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3458_61b4b8e376e9f9f506e7dff48c578ceb.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922The importance of accidental design eccentricity in seismic design of steel buildings with dual system under the effect of far- and near-fault ground motionsThe importance of accidental design eccentricity in seismic design of steel buildings with dual system under the effect of far- and near-fault ground motions17051728346610.22060/ceej.2019.15618.5975FAMohammad RezaVafidsarkariSahand University of TechnologyMehdiPourshaSahand University of TechnologyJournal Article20190112Seismic responses of buildings are amplified due to torsion. To account for the effects that cause torsion and are not considered in the design process of buildings, the seismic codes introduce “accidental design eccentricity (ADE)”. In this study, the adequacy of the Iranian Standard No. 2800 provisions about the design eccentricity was investigated. To this end, the 5-story torsionally-stiff and torsionally-flexible buildings with dual lateral load resisting system were studied. The mass eccentricity in plan-asymmetric buildings was assumed to be equal to 0.10b and 0.20b where b is the plan dimension. Nonlinear time history analyses were performed using far-field (FF), non-pulse (NP) and pulse-like (FD) near-field records for the models in two cases. In the first case, the effect of the ADE on the seismic demands of symmetric and asymmetric-plan buildings was investigated. Finally, to consider what happens when an actual accidental mass eccentricity (AME) is introduced in an already designed building, the mass center of the buildings was shifted by ±0.05b (b is the dimension of the building perpendicular to the earthquake direction) simultaneously in both directions and the buildings (with and without ADE) were analyzed for the earthquake sets described above. For the buildings investigated in this research, the results indicate that the provision related to the accidental design eccentricity has little influence (less than 10%) on the inelastic seismic responses for torsionally-stiff buildings and can be ignored. Also, the accidental mass eccentricity has more influence (maximum 38%) on the inelastic seismic responses of torsionally-flexible buildings but the accidental design eccentricity has less influence on the reduction of seismic responses. Therefore, it seems that the accidental design eccentricity needs to be modified for torsionally-flexible buildings.Seismic responses of buildings are amplified due to torsion. To account for the effects that cause torsion and are not considered in the design process of buildings, the seismic codes introduce “accidental design eccentricity (ADE)”. In this study, the adequacy of the Iranian Standard No. 2800 provisions about the design eccentricity was investigated. To this end, the 5-story torsionally-stiff and torsionally-flexible buildings with dual lateral load resisting system were studied. The mass eccentricity in plan-asymmetric buildings was assumed to be equal to 0.10b and 0.20b where b is the plan dimension. Nonlinear time history analyses were performed using far-field (FF), non-pulse (NP) and pulse-like (FD) near-field records for the models in two cases. In the first case, the effect of the ADE on the seismic demands of symmetric and asymmetric-plan buildings was investigated. Finally, to consider what happens when an actual accidental mass eccentricity (AME) is introduced in an already designed building, the mass center of the buildings was shifted by ±0.05b (b is the dimension of the building perpendicular to the earthquake direction) simultaneously in both directions and the buildings (with and without ADE) were analyzed for the earthquake sets described above. For the buildings investigated in this research, the results indicate that the provision related to the accidental design eccentricity has little influence (less than 10%) on the inelastic seismic responses for torsionally-stiff buildings and can be ignored. Also, the accidental mass eccentricity has more influence (maximum 38%) on the inelastic seismic responses of torsionally-flexible buildings but the accidental design eccentricity has less influence on the reduction of seismic responses. Therefore, it seems that the accidental design eccentricity needs to be modified for torsionally-flexible buildings.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3466_1062ca3f6e49f862713cf6a0c6c2b328.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Performance Comparison of Fe2+ Activated Persulfate and Electro-Persulfate Process in Acid Blue 25 Removal from Aqueous Solution: Operating Conditions and Reaction VelocityPerformance Comparison of Fe2+ Activated Persulfate and Electro-Persulfate Process in Acid Blue 25 Removal from Aqueous Solution: Operating Conditions and Reaction Velocity17291742341210.22060/ceej.2019.15641.5979FAZeinabGhorbaniEnvironmental Engineering Department, Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty,
Tarbiat Modares UniversityBitaAyatiEnvironmental Engineering Department, Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty,
Tarbiat Modares University0000-0001-7720-9863Journal Article20190114The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of Fe2+ activated persulfate and electro-persulfate process in Acid Blue 25 removal from aqueous solution. For this reason, the effects of different parameters including pH, dye, sodium persulfate and ferrous sulfate concentrations were investigated. The removal efficiency of 92% at the time of 60 minute was obtained at pH= 3, dye concentration= 50 mg/L, sodium persulfate concentration= 500 mg/L and Fe (II) sulfate concentration= 100 mg/L for Fe2+ activated persulfate system and the removal efficiency of 95% at pH= 5, dye concentration = 200 mg/L, sodium persulfate concentration = 500 mg/L and ferrous sulfate concentration = 100 mg/L for electro-persulfate system by means of graphite materials as the neutral electrodes. COD removal efficiency in Fe2+ activated persulfate and electro-persulfate in the mentioned conditions were 90% and 89% in 180 minutes, respectively. Moreover, the result of process kinetics showed that using electrochemical process improved the reaction velocity from 0.0016 to 0.0487 mg/L/ min. The comparison between these two-process showed that using electrochemical process improved dye removal efficiency by 4 times.The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of Fe2+ activated persulfate and electro-persulfate process in Acid Blue 25 removal from aqueous solution. For this reason, the effects of different parameters including pH, dye, sodium persulfate and ferrous sulfate concentrations were investigated. The removal efficiency of 92% at the time of 60 minute was obtained at pH= 3, dye concentration= 50 mg/L, sodium persulfate concentration= 500 mg/L and Fe (II) sulfate concentration= 100 mg/L for Fe2+ activated persulfate system and the removal efficiency of 95% at pH= 5, dye concentration = 200 mg/L, sodium persulfate concentration = 500 mg/L and ferrous sulfate concentration = 100 mg/L for electro-persulfate system by means of graphite materials as the neutral electrodes. COD removal efficiency in Fe2+ activated persulfate and electro-persulfate in the mentioned conditions were 90% and 89% in 180 minutes, respectively. Moreover, the result of process kinetics showed that using electrochemical process improved the reaction velocity from 0.0016 to 0.0487 mg/L/ min. The comparison between these two-process showed that using electrochemical process improved dye removal efficiency by 4 times.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3412_0d7121afbb0068ae958b2c8759fd563f.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Physical Simulation of Discharge Flow from Deep Conduit in Dense Reservoir (In Terms of Use in the Gotvand Dam Deep Pipe)Physical Simulation of Discharge Flow from Deep Conduit in Dense Reservoir (In Terms of Use in the Gotvand Dam Deep Pipe)17431764334110.22060/ceej.2019.15645.5982FAShervinFaghihiradAcademic Staff, Hydro- Environment Department, Water Research InstituteHosseinArdalanSenior Researcher, Hydro- Environment Department, Water Research InstituteArashNikkhahSenior Researcher, Hydro- Environment Department, Water Research InstituteAmirEsfandiarnejadSenior Researcher, Hydro- Environment Department, Water Research InstituteJournal Article20190115The stratified reservoirs are forming due to natural phenomena such as sediment current or a significant change in water quality parameters in terms of salinity, dissolved oxygen, heavy metals, etc. Today, research of the dense reservoir in different conditions is needed for better management. Understanding the outflow pattern and its interactions in stratified reservoir according to different discharges from the deep conduit and application for the operation of its system in Gotvand Dam using by a physical model is the main goals of this research. An undistorted physical model with a 1:40 scale from the deep duct structure with the details was established. This scale is calculated based on the Richardson number and the same density conditions in the model and prototype. Laboratory scenarios of the physical model were designed and implemented in two sections to allow changes water level in the reservoir and maintain it. These two categories were designed for simulating short and long term effects of saline layer evacuation in the reservoir. The results of experiments with different outflow rates (maximum up to 800 liter per second) revealed that salinity of the layer in front of the deep conduit plays an important role in the salinity of the depleted stream, and other layers in different level of the reservoir have not affect in changing this amount. Also, the pattern of the streamline formed towards the output is under very stable conditions without expanding to other layers. The experimental results revealed that the fluid below the offtake remaining unaffected by the outflow and the fluid above the outlet vertically to make up the volume lost through the outflow but preserving the horizontal isopycnals. This issue was clearly recorded in addition to measuring by imaging from the model. To ensure the necessary turbulence and increase Reynolds number in the physical model, outflow was reached more than twice (up to 1677.5 liter per second) but flow pattern towards offtake still was in very stable condition and streamlines did not expand to above and below of outlet layer. Any significant amount of vertical diffusion among dense layers was not observed.The stratified reservoirs are forming due to natural phenomena such as sediment current or a significant change in water quality parameters in terms of salinity, dissolved oxygen, heavy metals, etc. Today, research of the dense reservoir in different conditions is needed for better management. Understanding the outflow pattern and its interactions in stratified reservoir according to different discharges from the deep conduit and application for the operation of its system in Gotvand Dam using by a physical model is the main goals of this research. An undistorted physical model with a 1:40 scale from the deep duct structure with the details was established. This scale is calculated based on the Richardson number and the same density conditions in the model and prototype. Laboratory scenarios of the physical model were designed and implemented in two sections to allow changes water level in the reservoir and maintain it. These two categories were designed for simulating short and long term effects of saline layer evacuation in the reservoir. The results of experiments with different outflow rates (maximum up to 800 liter per second) revealed that salinity of the layer in front of the deep conduit plays an important role in the salinity of the depleted stream, and other layers in different level of the reservoir have not affect in changing this amount. Also, the pattern of the streamline formed towards the output is under very stable conditions without expanding to other layers. The experimental results revealed that the fluid below the offtake remaining unaffected by the outflow and the fluid above the outlet vertically to make up the volume lost through the outflow but preserving the horizontal isopycnals. This issue was clearly recorded in addition to measuring by imaging from the model. To ensure the necessary turbulence and increase Reynolds number in the physical model, outflow was reached more than twice (up to 1677.5 liter per second) but flow pattern towards offtake still was in very stable condition and streamlines did not expand to above and below of outlet layer. Any significant amount of vertical diffusion among dense layers was not observed.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3341_9de33ee7750544d999c3ff74b8e548f4.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Experimental investigating effect of Froude number on hydraulic parameters of vertical drop with supercritical flow upstreamExperimental investigating effect of Froude number on hydraulic parameters of vertical drop with supercritical flow upstream17651782331810.22060/ceej.2019.15655.5985FARasoulDaneshfarazDepartment of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Maragheh, Iran.0000-0003-1012-8342SinaSadeghfamCivil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran.0000-0002-9018-547XVadoudHasanniaGraduate Student, Maraghe University, Maragheh, IranJournal Article20190117The supercritical flow as the inflow at upstream of the vertical drops can produce a considerable impact, destruction and erosion at the downstream of drops influence by fall and collision. Therefore in this study, with the aim of evaluation and prediction of the general behavior of hydraulic parameters in vertical drops with the supercritical flow at upstream, 55 experiments were carried out with various discharges and Froude numbers. The experimental results indicated that in the supercritical flows, by increasing the relative critical depth and Froude numbers, the relative length of drop, the relative length of splashing and the relative total length of the drop were increased. However, by increasing the relative critical depth and Froude number, the relative depth of the pool initially increases and then decreases, and the relative energy loss is initially reduced and then increased. By increasing the Froude number at a constant relative critical depth, the relative length of the drop, the relative length of splashing, the relative total length of drop and the relative energy loss increases, and relative depth of the pool decreases. Also, in a constant Froude number, by increasing the relative critical depth, the relative length of drop, the relative length of splashing, the relative total length of the drop and relative depth of the pool increase, and the relative energy loss decreases. Meanwhile, the results of the present study with the larger range of Froude number were compared with the previous studies and were studied the reasons for the agreement or disagreement.The supercritical flow as the inflow at upstream of the vertical drops can produce a considerable impact, destruction and erosion at the downstream of drops influence by fall and collision. Therefore in this study, with the aim of evaluation and prediction of the general behavior of hydraulic parameters in vertical drops with the supercritical flow at upstream, 55 experiments were carried out with various discharges and Froude numbers. The experimental results indicated that in the supercritical flows, by increasing the relative critical depth and Froude numbers, the relative length of drop, the relative length of splashing and the relative total length of the drop were increased. However, by increasing the relative critical depth and Froude number, the relative depth of the pool initially increases and then decreases, and the relative energy loss is initially reduced and then increased. By increasing the Froude number at a constant relative critical depth, the relative length of the drop, the relative length of splashing, the relative total length of drop and the relative energy loss increases, and relative depth of the pool decreases. Also, in a constant Froude number, by increasing the relative critical depth, the relative length of drop, the relative length of splashing, the relative total length of the drop and relative depth of the pool increase, and the relative energy loss decreases. Meanwhile, the results of the present study with the larger range of Froude number were compared with the previous studies and were studied the reasons for the agreement or disagreement.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3318_afedc51234a264604d36391ab294d9fd.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Projection of seepage and piezometric pressure in earth dams using soft computational modelsProjection of seepage and piezometric pressure in earth dams using soft computational models17831796333710.22060/ceej.2019.15667.5990FAMohammadNajafzadehDepartment of Water Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Surveying Engineering, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman0000-0002-4100-9699Journal Article20190119Earth dams are always one of the main components of water conservation projects. Nowadays, accurate estimation of piezometric pressure and seepage discharge in earth dams using numerical models and artificial intelligence (AI) approaches is one of the fundamental steps in their design studies. In this research, soft computing models including gene-expression programming (GEP), M5 algorithm and group method of data handling (GMDH) have been used to predict the piezometric pressure in the core and the seepage discharge through the body of Shahid Kazemi Boukan Earth Dam. For this purpose, the information recorded in the last 94 months has been used. The results showed that all of the applied models have permissible level of accuracy in the prediction of seepage discharge and piezometric pressure. The best performance in the piezometric pressure estimation is related to the M5 algorithm with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.95 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.86. The GMDH by considering the two units (months) delay time and with R2= 0.92 and RMSE=1.541 modeled and predicted the seepage discharge, which was more accurate than other models. In general, increasing the time delay in the input information of models generally increases the performance of proposed models.Earth dams are always one of the main components of water conservation projects. Nowadays, accurate estimation of piezometric pressure and seepage discharge in earth dams using numerical models and artificial intelligence (AI) approaches is one of the fundamental steps in their design studies. In this research, soft computing models including gene-expression programming (GEP), M5 algorithm and group method of data handling (GMDH) have been used to predict the piezometric pressure in the core and the seepage discharge through the body of Shahid Kazemi Boukan Earth Dam. For this purpose, the information recorded in the last 94 months has been used. The results showed that all of the applied models have permissible level of accuracy in the prediction of seepage discharge and piezometric pressure. The best performance in the piezometric pressure estimation is related to the M5 algorithm with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.95 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.86. The GMDH by considering the two units (months) delay time and with R2= 0.92 and RMSE=1.541 modeled and predicted the seepage discharge, which was more accurate than other models. In general, increasing the time delay in the input information of models generally increases the performance of proposed models.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3337_a271bdb2f76439f678e32b3a3ecf15ae.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Experimental and Numerical Studies on Load-Carrying Capacity of Single Floating Aggregate Piers Reinforced with Vertical Steel BarsExperimental and Numerical Studies on Load-Carrying Capacity of Single Floating Aggregate Piers Reinforced with Vertical Steel Bars17971816331610.22060/ceej.2019.15640.5991FAMehdiMohammad RezaeiDepartment of Civil Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, IranSeyed HamidLAJEVARDIDepartment of Civil Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, IranHamid RezaSabaCollege of Civil Engineering, Tafresh University, Tafresh , Iran0000-0001-9331-185XAbasGhalandarzadehSchool of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, IranEhsanollahZeighamieDepartment of Civil Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, IranJournal Article20190119The load-carrying capacity of the aggregate piers increases by circumferential confinement created by the surrounding soil. In soft clay soils, the amount of confinement is usually not sufficient to develop a load-carrying capacity. Because of that, it is practical to use geosynthetic reinforced aggregate piers in this type of soils. This paper intends to evaluate the use of vertical steel bars as an alternative for geosynthetics. In this study, some small-scale laboratory tests were performed on floating aggregate piers with diameters of 80 and 100 mm and a length of 400 and 500 mm, respectively reinforced with vertical steel bars. Moreover, two-dimensional numerical modeling using the Plaxis software was conducted. The results show that using bars with more stiffness leads to more increase in load-carrying capacity. Reinforcing the full length of the aggregate piers, compared to half-length, will further improve the load-carrying capacity of the aggregate piers. In the early stages, by applying the load, the stone aggregates tend to compress, so load-carrying capacity increases and by continuing this process, the tendency to the occurrence of lateral bulging is seen and due to the low resistance of kaolin clay to the bulging, the increase of load-carrying capacity is negligible. Also, numerical modeling results show that the floating aggregate pier penetrated into soft clay soil in the full-length case, and the failure state changed from bulging to slip.The load-carrying capacity of the aggregate piers increases by circumferential confinement created by the surrounding soil. In soft clay soils, the amount of confinement is usually not sufficient to develop a load-carrying capacity. Because of that, it is practical to use geosynthetic reinforced aggregate piers in this type of soils. This paper intends to evaluate the use of vertical steel bars as an alternative for geosynthetics. In this study, some small-scale laboratory tests were performed on floating aggregate piers with diameters of 80 and 100 mm and a length of 400 and 500 mm, respectively reinforced with vertical steel bars. Moreover, two-dimensional numerical modeling using the Plaxis software was conducted. The results show that using bars with more stiffness leads to more increase in load-carrying capacity. Reinforcing the full length of the aggregate piers, compared to half-length, will further improve the load-carrying capacity of the aggregate piers. In the early stages, by applying the load, the stone aggregates tend to compress, so load-carrying capacity increases and by continuing this process, the tendency to the occurrence of lateral bulging is seen and due to the low resistance of kaolin clay to the bulging, the increase of load-carrying capacity is negligible. Also, numerical modeling results show that the floating aggregate pier penetrated into soft clay soil in the full-length case, and the failure state changed from bulging to slip.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3316_008d89ee123642c87ec2637123563779.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Overturning response analysis of free-standing intake tower subjected to seismic pulsesOverturning response analysis of free-standing intake tower subjected to seismic pulses18171836339110.22060/ceej.2019.15670.5992FARamtinHajirezaeiTarbiat Modares UniversityMohammadAlembagheriJournal Article20190119In this paper, dynamic response of free-standing intake tower is investigated by using the Abaqus software. Briones intake tower is selected and it is modeled in two free-standing and anchored conditions that in the former state, three different frictional conditions are considered between the tower and its foundation. The friction coefficients include: 1)μ=0.58; 2)μ=1.73; 3)μ=∞. The intake towers are modeled 3D in three dry, submerged and semi-submerged states and water-structure interaction is considered by Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. In order to validate the models, the numerical responses of rigid and flexible blocks under seismic load are compared with the obtained results by other researchers. The tower overturning responses include: tower’s top relative displacement, sliding, tower’s base opening, which are extracted and analyzed under seismic pulses of sinus type, with three time periods of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 seconds, and intensities of 0.2g to 1.0g. It is shown that the presence of water around the intake tower has a significant effect on overturning responses. Also, the tensile stress in the free-standing state decreased by more than 70% compared to the anchored one.In this paper, dynamic response of free-standing intake tower is investigated by using the Abaqus software. Briones intake tower is selected and it is modeled in two free-standing and anchored conditions that in the former state, three different frictional conditions are considered between the tower and its foundation. The friction coefficients include: 1)μ=0.58; 2)μ=1.73; 3)μ=∞. The intake towers are modeled 3D in three dry, submerged and semi-submerged states and water-structure interaction is considered by Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. In order to validate the models, the numerical responses of rigid and flexible blocks under seismic load are compared with the obtained results by other researchers. The tower overturning responses include: tower’s top relative displacement, sliding, tower’s base opening, which are extracted and analyzed under seismic pulses of sinus type, with three time periods of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 seconds, and intensities of 0.2g to 1.0g. It is shown that the presence of water around the intake tower has a significant effect on overturning responses. Also, the tensile stress in the free-standing state decreased by more than 70% compared to the anchored one.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3391_39405bd509910c84e4b31416d51a4e56.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Identifying and Investigating Usage Barriers of Agile Project Management in Road Construction ProjectsIdentifying and Investigating Usage Barriers of Agile Project Management in Road Construction Projects18371852342210.22060/ceej.2019.15677.5996FAMojtabaPourshafie ArdestaniCivil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, IranHadiSarvariAssistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran0000-0001-7621-1603Journal Article20190121 In order to complete the project on time and to accurately advance the construction and operation plans, the use of agile project management methodology in road construction projects, as the main communication networks, is essential. In this regard, the present study aims to investigate the barriers and ways of using the agility management project in road construction projects. The population consists of all project managers, specialists, experts, consultants and contractors of road and urban planning department of Isfahan province who are 150 persons. Nomber of 108 persons are selected as the statistical samples by the Cochran sample size formula and convenience sampling. The used questionnaire is a researcher-made questionnaire of agile project management obstacles, which is compiled by the following 6 dimensions (managerial-organizational, skill and competence, knowledge management, human resources, cost, project complexity) and 30 items based on the 5-point Likert scale. The face, content and construct validity of the questionnaires are confirmed. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire is estimated (0.891). The findings of the research indicate that the number of obstacles identified in the use of agile project management in road construction projects are in the higher level than mean and the studied factors are identified as relatively strong barriers of using agile project management in road construction projects. In addition, ranking of identified obstacles as barriers of using agile project management in road construction projects is as following: knowledge management dimension with the mean rank of (4.02) if the first, human resources dimension with the mean rank of (3.69) is the second, the project complexity with the mean rank of (3.50) is the third, the managerial-organizational dimension and the cost with the mean rank of (3.37) is the fourth, and the skill and competence dimension with the mean rank of (3.06) is the fifth rank. Finally, some strategies are presented to solve the problems of using agile project management. In order to complete the project on time and to accurately advance the construction and operation plans, the use of agile project management methodology in road construction projects, as the main communication networks, is essential. In this regard, the present study aims to investigate the barriers and ways of using the agility management project in road construction projects. The population consists of all project managers, specialists, experts, consultants and contractors of road and urban planning department of Isfahan province who are 150 persons. Nomber of 108 persons are selected as the statistical samples by the Cochran sample size formula and convenience sampling. The used questionnaire is a researcher-made questionnaire of agile project management obstacles, which is compiled by the following 6 dimensions (managerial-organizational, skill and competence, knowledge management, human resources, cost, project complexity) and 30 items based on the 5-point Likert scale. The face, content and construct validity of the questionnaires are confirmed. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire is estimated (0.891). The findings of the research indicate that the number of obstacles identified in the use of agile project management in road construction projects are in the higher level than mean and the studied factors are identified as relatively strong barriers of using agile project management in road construction projects. In addition, ranking of identified obstacles as barriers of using agile project management in road construction projects is as following: knowledge management dimension with the mean rank of (4.02) if the first, human resources dimension with the mean rank of (3.69) is the second, the project complexity with the mean rank of (3.50) is the third, the managerial-organizational dimension and the cost with the mean rank of (3.37) is the fourth, and the skill and competence dimension with the mean rank of (3.06) is the fifth rank. Finally, some strategies are presented to solve the problems of using agile project management.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3422_48672d7f4b8d642b502a2604c3b23a9d.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922BIM-based approach for Estimating life cycle costs of building in conceptual design phase using Iran’s national price listBIM-based approach for Estimating life cycle costs of building in conceptual design phase using Iran’s national price list18531874350410.22060/ceej.2019.15688.6000FAMohammad AminHamedi RadMSc student, Department of Civil Engineering, Iran university of science and technologyAli AkbarShirzadi Javidassistant professor, school of civil engineering, iran university of science and technologyJournal Article20190123All costs within the life cycle of a building are known as its life-cycle costs. In the design process of a building, the use of a lower initial cost index to select an option among others with similar performance may not lead to an economically optimal choice during the lifecycle. Hence today, building designers and investors require a tool to estimate life cycle costs at the conceptual design phase to elect an economically efficient option. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework to estimate life cycle costs of a building at the conceptual design phase based on Building Information Modeling (BIM). For this purpose, the costs of the building’s life cycle, including initial costs (cost of supply and installation based on Iran’s national price list and shipping costs), repair and maintenance costs, operating costs (energy consumption) and salvage value at the end of the building’s useful life are regarded in the estimation of its life cycle costs. The application of the proposed framework was then evaluated and approved for designing a residential building in Tehran. The application of the proposed framework for designing a residential building in Tehran was assessed and validated on two models, and the results showed that by increasing the initial costs in the second model by 75%, its annual operating costs decreased by 54% and total life cycle costs have dropped by 8% after 18 years. In this way, building designers can estimate the life-cycle costs of a building at the incipient stages of design and improve its design.All costs within the life cycle of a building are known as its life-cycle costs. In the design process of a building, the use of a lower initial cost index to select an option among others with similar performance may not lead to an economically optimal choice during the lifecycle. Hence today, building designers and investors require a tool to estimate life cycle costs at the conceptual design phase to elect an economically efficient option. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework to estimate life cycle costs of a building at the conceptual design phase based on Building Information Modeling (BIM). For this purpose, the costs of the building’s life cycle, including initial costs (cost of supply and installation based on Iran’s national price list and shipping costs), repair and maintenance costs, operating costs (energy consumption) and salvage value at the end of the building’s useful life are regarded in the estimation of its life cycle costs. The application of the proposed framework was then evaluated and approved for designing a residential building in Tehran. The application of the proposed framework for designing a residential building in Tehran was assessed and validated on two models, and the results showed that by increasing the initial costs in the second model by 75%, its annual operating costs decreased by 54% and total life cycle costs have dropped by 8% after 18 years. In this way, building designers can estimate the life-cycle costs of a building at the incipient stages of design and improve its design.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3504_79ecc0c137d63350914f9085b5af8de4.pdfAmirkabir University of TechnologyAmirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering2588-297X52720200922Optimization of Non-level Pedestrian Crossings Using Genetic AlgorithmOptimization of Non-level Pedestrian Crossings Using Genetic Algorithm18751888350310.22060/ceej.2019.15691.6001FAAliAbdi KordaniLecturer in Imam Khomeini International UniversityHosseinIzadpanahHighway and Transportation Dept, Civil, Architecture and Art Faculty, Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IranMajidShadmanCivil Engineering-Transportation Dept, Faculty of Engineering, International University of Imam Khomeini, Qazvin, Iann0000-0002-4150-4032Journal Article20190123Today, a significant proportion of movements are available for distances below one kilometer is carried out with the feet. The separation of pedestrian traffic with traffic passing through highways and highways is one of the issues that, in addition to ensuring the safety of pedestrians, also covers the flow of traffic. One of the safe passageways of these pedestrian crossings is the construction of passageways of non-level pedestrians (overpasses or underpasses). Therefore, the mathematical model in this research was designed with the goal of the minimum total distance of pedestrians to the passage. Model inputs were prepared using the ArcGIS software, such as applying the population to applications and obtaining distances, then by solving this model, an optimal locating of non-level passes was performed using Genetic Algorithm. In order to optimize and optimize the management of project costs, the passageways were prioritized based on effective parameters. Thus, by identifying the effective parameters such as the size of the pedestrian and the volume and speed of the vehicles, using the ArcGIS software, the information layers of the parameters were created and applied to the layers using the required hierarchical weighting method and this method of prioritizing the non-level crossings of the pedestrian is done. The research method was carried out on a case study and non-level crossings of passageways were locally located in the area. The importance of effective parameters for prioritizing non-level passes, pedestrian accidents, and the volume of passing pedestrians from the street had the most important factor. Finally, 21 points for constructing of pedestrian crossing is determined that prioritized based on Genetic Algorithm.Today, a significant proportion of movements are available for distances below one kilometer is carried out with the feet. The separation of pedestrian traffic with traffic passing through highways and highways is one of the issues that, in addition to ensuring the safety of pedestrians, also covers the flow of traffic. One of the safe passageways of these pedestrian crossings is the construction of passageways of non-level pedestrians (overpasses or underpasses). Therefore, the mathematical model in this research was designed with the goal of the minimum total distance of pedestrians to the passage. Model inputs were prepared using the ArcGIS software, such as applying the population to applications and obtaining distances, then by solving this model, an optimal locating of non-level passes was performed using Genetic Algorithm. In order to optimize and optimize the management of project costs, the passageways were prioritized based on effective parameters. Thus, by identifying the effective parameters such as the size of the pedestrian and the volume and speed of the vehicles, using the ArcGIS software, the information layers of the parameters were created and applied to the layers using the required hierarchical weighting method and this method of prioritizing the non-level crossings of the pedestrian is done. The research method was carried out on a case study and non-level crossings of passageways were locally located in the area. The importance of effective parameters for prioritizing non-level passes, pedestrian accidents, and the volume of passing pedestrians from the street had the most important factor. Finally, 21 points for constructing of pedestrian crossing is determined that prioritized based on Genetic Algorithm.https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3503_1ae5098565547682681cd741d7ef5e14.pdf