ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Analysis of construction industry in Iran and giving recommendations for improving its competitiveness
The construction industry is one of the most important industries in Iran that, unfortunately, In spite of its potentials to increase new business information and GDP, couldn't be worked out its domestic and international missions, so that it has only a little international market share. This share is not in proportion to its capabilities and potentials in existence, and the special geographic region. Therefore, it is necessary to identify all dimensions and sectors of the construction industry and analyze its performance in Iran. In this article, first, we identify the construction cluster in Iran by use of cluster approach and Delphi method, and then evaluate its competitiveness. At the end, expert's opinion and other countries' experiences have been used to give recommendations for improving the level of construction industry in Iran.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_622_317731b45b27e8e02973af24a65c0b03.pdf
2016-08-22
111
120
10.22060/ceej.2016.622
Construction industry
cluster identification
Delphi method
competitiveness
porter's diamond model
Mohammad Hasan
Sebt
sebt@aut.ac.ir
1
Professor, Dep. of Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
mahmood
mokhtariani
m.mokhtariani@gmail.com
2
Ph.D. Candidate, Dep. of Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
AUTHOR
[1] ایران نژاد، ژیلا؛ رضوی، محمدرضا؛ خوش ههای صنعتی، انتشارات نشر نو، تهران، ویرایش اول، 1381 .
1
[2] مجیدی، جهانگیر؛ کلاستر یا خوش ههای صنعتی، انتشارات سازمان صنایع کوچک و شهر کهای صنعتی، تهران، 1381 .
2
[3] مختاریانی، محمود؛ تعیین اجزای خوشه صنعتی در صنعت ساخت و ساز و بررسی ارتباط میان آ نها در ایران، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران، 1388 .
3
[4] De Valence, G.; "Comparison of Traditional and Cluster Model of Construction Industry Structure",Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building,University of Technology, Sydney, 2000.
4
[5] Porter, M. E.; "On Competition: A Harvard Business Review Book", Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 1990.
5
[6] Anderson, G.; "Industry Clustering for Economic Development", Economic Development Review, Vol.
6
12, pp. 26–33, 1994.
7
[7] Porter, M. E.; "The Competitive Advantage of Nations", New York, Basic Books, 1990.
8
[8] AEGIS; "Mapping the Building and Construction Product System in Australia", Department of Industry,
9
Science and Resources, Canberra, 1999.
10
[9] Vock, P.; "An Anatomy of the Swiss Construction Cluster", OECD Proceedings, OECD Publications,
11
pp. 229–247, 2001.
12
[10] Modernizing Construction Group; "Scottish Construction Industry Plan 2007-2012", 2005, http://www.scottishconstructionforum.com/Scottish_Construction_Industry_Plan_2007-2012.pdf.
13
[11] Katsarakis, Y.; and Sazak, E.; "Turkey and The Construction Services Cluster", harward business
14
school, 2007.
15
[12] Budiwibowo, A.; and Trigunarsyah, B;"Competitiveness of the Indonesian Construction Industry", Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 51-68, 2009.
16
[13] Bergman, M.; and Feser, J.; "Industrial and Regional Clusters: Concepts and Comparative Applications",
17
1999, http://www.rri.wvu.edu/WebBook/Bergman-Feser/contents.htm, Accessed September 2004.
18
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Partial Penetration of Vertical Drains on the Consolidation Process, Case Study: Preloading of Sarbandar Decanter Units in Khoozestan
The most important factor in soil preloading is the consolidation time. In any cases, if installation depth of the vertical drain is less than the design depth (which is equal to the thickness of the compressible layer), a delay of the consolidation process will occur. In this paper, effect of this parameter on consolidation time is determined by numerical modeling and then a case study (soil preloading project of Sarbandar decanter units in Khoozestan) is studied. In some areas in this project, the penetrating depth of vertical drains is less than the expected design depth. Comparison has been made between numerical modeling and data from field instrumentation could be done. It is concluded that if the penetrating depth of vertical drains is more than 80% of the compressible layer thickness, the delay in the consolidation process seems to be negligible.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_650_392fc006e1d197678fc7fa9236cb27b7.pdf
2016-08-22
121
128
10.22060/ceej.2016.650
Preloading
Penetrating length of vertical drain
Numerical modeling
Soil consolidation
Kazem
Fakharian
kfakhari@aut.ac.ir
1
Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
Seyed Mohammad Ali
Tasalloti
tasaloti02@yahoo.com
2
Former MSc student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
AUTHOR
[1]گزارش مرحله اول پروژه پیش بارگذاری مخازن و واحد تصفیه خانه سربندر، شرکت مهندسین مشاور ژئومحیط پارس، 1388 .
1
[2] Moseley, M. P.; "Ground Improvement, Blackie Academic and Professional", An Imprint of Chapman
2
and Hall, 2000.
3
[3] Indraratna, B.; and Rujikiatkamjorn, C.; "Effects of Partially Penetrating Prefabricated Vertical Drains
4
and Loading Patterns on Vacuum Consolidation",GeoCongress 2008, New Orleans, ASCE Special Publication 178 (Geosustainability and Geohazard Mitigation, Eds: K. R Reddy, M. V. Khire, A. N.Alshawabkeh), pp. 596-603, 2008.
5
[4] Hibbit; Karlsson; and Sorenson; "ABAQUS Standard User’s Manual", Published by HKS Inc., 2004.
6
[5] Barron, R. A.; "Consolidation of Fine-Grained Soils by Drain Wells", Trans. ASCE No. 2346, pp. 718-754,
7
[6] Carillo, N.; "Simple Two-and Three Dimensional Cases in the Theory of Consolidation of Soils",
8
Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 21, No. 1,pp. 1-5, 1942.
9
[7] Roscoe, K. H.; Schofield, A. N.; and Worth, C. P.; "On the Yielding of Soils", Geotechnique 8, pp. 22-53,
10
[8] Rixner J. J.; Kraemer S. R.; and Smith A. D.;"Prefabricated Vertical Drains", Vol. 1-3: Summary
11
of Research Report: Final Report, Federal Highway Administration, Washington DC, Report No. FHWARD-
12
86/169, 1986..
13
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Lateral Strength of Confined Masonry Walls
Unreinforced masonry system was a conventional form of construction in rural areas in worldwide countries in last decades. The main advantage of using this system is that it is cheaper than other building systems such as reinforced concrete or steel. Iranian seismic code proposes masonry walls confined by reinforce concrete or wooden ties. This building type called confined masonry is very common in Iranian construction but code provisions regarding this have not improved during recent years and are very similar to the old provisions proposed for unconfined masonry buildings. In this study, the specifications of confined masonry buildings are described. Then some equations proposed by different codes to estimate the lateral resistance of masonry walls are reviewed. An equation is proposed to estimate the lateral strength of confined masonry walls designed and built according to the Iranian codes. The proposed equation then is validated with the results of the tests the authors conducted on seven confined masonry walls.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_651_5b28860eb74769989876a3025e97f4b7.pdf
2016-08-22
129
138
10.22060/ceej.2016.651
Confined Masonry Buildings
Lateral Strength
Seismic behavior
Sassan
Eshghi
s.eshghi@iiees.ac.ir
1
Associate Professor, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES)
LEAD_AUTHOR
Behrang
Sarrafi
bsarrafi@yahoo.com
2
PhD in Earthquake Engineering, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES)
AUTHOR
[1] Blondet, M.; "Construction and Maintenance of Masonry Houses–For Masons and Craftsmen",Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Lima, Peru,2005.
1
[2] Schacher, T.; "Confined Masonry an Illustrated Guide for Masons", SDC, Swiss, 2007.
2
[3] عشقی، ساسان؛ زارع، مهدی؛ ناصر اسدی، کیارش؛ سیدرزاقی، مهران؛ نورعلی آهاری، مسعود؛ معتمدی، مهرتاش؛ گزارش مقدماتی شناسایی زلزله 5 دی ماه 1382 ، پژوهشگاه بی نالمللی زلزل هشناسی و مهندسی زلزله، تهران 1382 .
3
[4] Moroni, M. O.; Astroza, M.; and Acevedo, C.;"Performance and Seismic Vulnerability of Masonry Housing Types Used in Chile", Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, ASCE, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp.173-179, 2004.
4
[5] Lieping, Ye; Xinzheng, Lu; Zhe, Qu; and Peng,Feng; "Analysis on Building Seismic Damage in the Wenchuan Earthquake", Proc. 14th World Conf.Earthquake Engng., 2008.
5
[6] Brzev, S.; Astroza M.; and Moroni, M. O.;"Performance of Confined Masonry Buildings in the February 27, 2010 Chile Earthquake", EERI.
6
[7] وزارت مسکن و شهرسازی، دفتر تدوین و ترویج مقررات ملی ساختمان، مبحث هشتم؛ طرح و اجرای ساختما نهای با مصالح بنایی، نشر توسعه ایران، تهران، 1384 .
7
[8] تسنیمی، عباسعلی؛ رفتار دیوارهای آجری مندرج در استاندارد 2800 )نشریه شماره گ- 404 (، انتشارات مرکز تحقیقات ساختمان ومسکن، تهران، 1383 .
8
[9] Kazemi, M. T.; Hoseinzadeh Asl, M.; Bakhshi, A.;and Rahimzadeh Rofooei, F.; "Shaking Table Study of
9
a Full-Scale Single Storey Confined Brick MasonryBuilding", Scientia Iranica Transaction A: Civil Engineering, 17(3), pp. 184-193, 2011.
10
[10] عشقی، ساسان؛ پورآذین، خشایار؛ بررسی رفتار لرز های ساختما نهای آجری با کلاف ساخته شده براساس ضوابط آئین نامه زلزله ایران )ویرایش سوم استاندارد 2800 (، پروژه پژوهشی، پژوهشگاه بی نالمللی زلزل هشناسی و مهندسی زلزله، 1387 .
11
[11] Pourazin, K.; and Eshghi, S.; "In-Plane Behavior of a Confined Masonry Wall", TMS Journal, Vol. 27, No.
12
[12] Khanmohammadi, M.; Nahvinia, M. A.; Marefat, M. S.; and Behnam, H.; "Experimental Investigation of
13
Cyclic Behavior of Confined Masonry Walls with Weak Shear Strength", Proc. of 6th International Conference
14
on Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (SEE6),2011.
15
[13] عشقی، ساسان؛ صرافی، بهرنگ؛ مطالعه تحلیلی و آزمایشگاهی ساختما نهای آجری کلافدار، پایان نامه دکترا، پژوهشگاه بی نالمللی زلزل هشناسی و مهندسی زلزله، 1391 .
16
[14] Sarrafi, B.; and Eshghi, S.; "Behavior of Clay Brick Confined Masonry Walls under Cyclic Loads", TMS
17
Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2012.
18
[15] Witte, F. C.; and Kikstra, W. P.; "DIANA-Finite Element Analysis, User's Manual release 9-Material
19
Library", TNO DIANA BV, 2005.
20
[14] عشقی، ساسان؛ صرافی، بهرنگ؛ مدلسازی اجزای محدود دیوارهای آجری کلافدار ساخت هشده بر اساس آیین نامه زلزله ایران، مجله علمی و پژوهشی شریف، در نوبت چاپ.
21
[17] Flores, L. E.; and Alcocer, S. M.; "Calculated Response of Confined Masonry Structures", Proc. 11th World Conf. Earthquake Engng., paper No.1830, 1996.
22
[18] Turnsek, V.; amd Cacovic, F.; "Some Experimental Results on the Strength of Brick Masonry Walls", Proc.
23
2nd Int. Brick Masonry Conf., pp. 149-156, 1970.
24
[19] Tomazevic, M.; and Klemenc, I.; "Seismic Behavior of Confined Masonry Walls", Earthquake Engineering
25
and Structural Dynamics, 26, pp. 1059-1071, 1997.
26
[20] Riahi, Z.; Elwood, K. J.; and Alcocer, S. M.;"Backbone Model for Confined Masonry Walls for Performance-Based Seismic Design", Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 135, No. 6, pp.644-654, 2009.
27
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
On the Influence of Pure sliding Bases, Considering Variable Frictional Coefficient and Vertical Earthquake
Abstract The effect of vertical earthquake component is studied here on the behavior of sliding foundations. Regarding complication of the problem and in order to focus well on the main subject, the superstructure is considered as a rigid block, which can be a representative of low masonry buildings. Recent researches show that coefficient of friction is not constant, but depends on instantaneous frequency and amplitude of the vertical vibration which normally change during the earthquakes. These instantaneous parameters can be calculated by WAVELET transforms. Both horizontal and vertical components of earthquake as well as the variation of frictional coefficient are considered in the analyses of this study. The results for five different earthquake records show that the applied acceleration of the block rises by considering the vertical earthquake, however variable frictional coefficient, compared with the constant one, decreases the acceleration. Both vertical earthquake and variation in frictional coefficient raise the sliding of the block in most cases.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_652_c5a7b52fb3b4752dafeb06cee10369ad.pdf
2016-08-22
139
150
10.22060/ceej.2016.652
Coefficient of Friction
pure Sliding base
Vertical earthquake
Wavelet transform
Majid
Mohammadi
ghazimahalleh@gmail.com
1
Assistant Professor, Structural Research Center, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology
LEAD_AUTHOR
Ali
Darvishzadeh
ali_darvishzadeh@yahoo.com
2
MSc, Structural Research Center, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology
AUTHOR
[1] Mostaghel, X.and Tanbakuchi, J. ‘‘Response of Sliding Structures to Earthquake Support Motion’’,Earthquke Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 11,pp. 729-748 (1983)
1
[2] Fan, F.G, Ahmadi, G.and Tadjbakhs, I.G. ‘‘ Base Isolation of a Multistory Building under Harmonic Ground motion –a Comparison of Performances of Various Systems’’, Tech. Report NCEER-88-0010,National Center for Earthquake Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo (1988)
2
[3] Jangid, R. ‘‘Seismic Response of Sliding Structures to Bi-Direction Earthquake Excitation’’, Earthquake
3
Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 25, pp. 1301-1306 (1996)
4
[4] Shakib, H.and Fuladgar, A. ‘‘Response of Pure-Friction Sliding Structures to Three Components of Earthquake Excitation’’ ,Computers and Structures,81, pp.189-196(2003)
5
[5] Liaw, T.C, Tian, Q.L. and Cheung, Y.K. ‘‘Structures on Sliding Base Subjected to Horizontal and Vertical
6
Motion’’, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,114, PP. 2119-2129 (1988).
7
[6] Lin, B.C. and Tadjbakhsh, I.G. ‘‘Effect of Vertical Motion on Friction Driven System’’, Earthquake
8
Engineering and Structural Dynamic, 14, pp. 609-622 (1986).
9
[7] Takahashi, Y., Iemura, H., Yanagawa, S. and Hibi,M. ‘‘Shaking table Test for Frictional Isolator’’,Proceeding of 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, Canada (2204)
10
[8] Iemura, H., Taghikhany, T., Takahashi, Y. and Jain,S. ‘‘Effect of Variation of Normal Force on Seismic
11
Performance of Resilient Sliding Isolation Systems in Highway Bridges’’, Earthquake Engineering and
12
Structral Dynamic, 34, pp.1777-1797 (2005).
13
[9] Mokha, A.,S., Constantinou, M.C.and Reinhorn,A.M. ‘‘Vertification of Friction Model of Teflon Bearings under Triaxial Load’’ , Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 119, pp.240-261 (1993).
14
[10] Dowson D. History of tribology. 2nd ed. London:Professional Engineerin Publishers, 1998
15
[11] Amontons, G. De la resistance caus’ee dans les machines, Mem. l’Acad. Roy. A 1699; 257–82.
16
[12] Coulomb CA. Theorie des machines simples, en ayant egard au frottement de leurs parties, et la roideur des
17
cordages. Mem MathPhys Paris 1785; pp:161–342.
18
[13] M Asaduzzaman Chowdhury , Md. Maksud Helali "The effect of amplitude of vibration on the coefficient
19
of friction for different materials" , Tribology International 41 (2008) 307–314
20
[14] M Asaduzzaman Chowdhury , Md. Maksud Helali " The frictional behavior of materials under vertical
21
vibration" Industrial Lubrication and Tribology 61/3 (2009) 154–160
22
[15] Burrus, C. S., Gopinath, R. A. and Guo, H. (1998) Introduction to Wavelets and Wavelets Transforms.
23
Prentice– Hall
24
[16] Todoroska, M.I(2001) ‘‘Estimation of Instantaneous Frequency of Signals Using The Continuous wavelet
25
Transform’’, Los Angeles, California
26
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Determination of the suitable shape of pillars in the stope and pillar metod using numerical modeling, Case study: Faryab Chromite mine
One of the most important factors in the extraction of minerals obtains the maximum benefit. The extraction of minerals is benefit when the more minerals extracted with considering of the technical conditions. In this study, using Flac3D and strain plasticity model, the shape of pillars in Faryab Chromite mine is optimized. In this regard, the pillar of the cylindrical shape was modeled and then the diameter of the cylinder in the middle of the pillar was decreased. The most suitable shape of pillars was obtained with a diameter of the middle 8.6 m and the diameter of the upper and lower 8.8 m.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_607_a87c57fb027cf54af8b18c2a5c2c5e74.pdf
2016-08-22
151
160
10.22060/ceej.2016.607
Numerical modeling
Pillar design
Model strain plasticity
Flac3D Software
S.M. Esmaeil
Jalali
jalalisme@shahroodut.ac.ir
1
Faculty of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics, Shahrood University of Technology
AUTHOR
nematolah
askarnezhgad
nemat_askar@yahoo.com
2
کارشناس ارشد طراحی شرکت مهندسی کوشا معدن
AUTHOR
zahra
bahri
zahra.bahri@yahoo.com
3
PhD Candidate, Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] ارشدنژاد ش، پارسایی ح، پشتوان ح؛ ''تعیین ابعاد بهینه پایه های سنگی بوسیله روش های تجربی و عددی بر اساس منحنی عکس العمل زمین- مطالعه موردی، معدن نمک زیرزمینی سلطان آباد''،) 1385 ( هفتمین کنفرانس تونل ایران.
1
[2] هدایت زاده، م، ابراهیم آبادی؛ ''طراحی بهینه پایه در روش استخراج اتاق و پایه برای لایه C1 معدن زغالسنگ پروده طبس''، 1386 سومین کنفرانس مکانی کسنگ ایران.
2
[3] شعبانی مشکول م، همتی شعبانی ع، مرتضوی ع؛ ''تحلیل عددی مقاومت پای ههای سنگی با استفاده از پارامت رهای تغییر یافته معیارهوک و براون''، 1385 نشریه دانشکده فنی تهران، دوره: ۴۰،شماره: ۱.
3
[4] Jeremic M. L “Ground mechanics in hard rock mining” Latin Book of Rock mechanics Publisher A.
4
A. Balkema 537p, 1987.
5
[5] Maybee G. w “Pillar design in hard brittle rocks”Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requiretnent for the degree of Master of Applied
6
[6] Shabani-Mashkol M “Numerical analsis of rock pillar failure mechanism in underground opening” first
7
report of MSC graduate in amirkabir university of technology, 2006 (in Persian).
8
[7] Zipf, R. K “Pillar design to prevent collapse of room-and-pillar mines”. Ch. in Underground Mining Methods Handbook, W. Hustrulid and R. L. Bullock,eds., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Littleton,CO, 1996.
9
[8] Badr S. A, PhD Thesis “Numerical analysis of coal yield pillars at deep long wall mines”, Department of
10
Mining Engineering Colorado School of mine. 250p,2004.
11
[9] Mortazavi A., Hassani F.P., Shabani M “A numerical investigation of rock pillar failure mechanism in
12
underground openings”. Journal of Computers and Geotechnics 2008.
13
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental study on the effect of non-uniform sediment particle on the Delta progression in reservoir
The coarser particles deposit gradually and form a delta at the upstream of the reservoir that extends further downstream towards the dam. In this research the effect of non-uniform sediment particles has been studied experimentally on the Delta progression in the reservoir. 10 types of grading curves were used. All of the curves were the same in mean diameter and they have normal distribution. In this research, the effect of non-uniform particles on delta progression was investigated using a physical model. In this model the river is connected to the reservoir by a gradual transition. Based on the experimental observations, in the range of this study velocity of Delta progression decreased with increasing of non-uniform particle and time of progression increased. In the range of geometric standard deviation 1 to 2 the effect of non-uniform particle was not tangible but with increasing of geometric standard deviation the effect of non-uniform particle on Delta progression observed. Based on the experimental observations, slope of foreset decreased with increasing of non-uniform particle.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_653_a653a6a9b31ba17bf3a09ffdb992ec77.pdf
2016-08-22
161
168
10.22060/ceej.2016.653
Experimental study
Delta Progression
Non-Uniform Sediment Particle
mehdi
sedighkia
m_kia59@yahoo.com
1
PhD Student, Water Structures Department, Tarbiat Modares Univeristy
AUTHOR
Seyed Ali
Ayyoubzadeh
ayyoub@modares.ac.ir
2
Associate Professor, Water Structures Department, Tarbiat Modares Univeristy
LEAD_AUTHOR
Morteza
Heidari
heydari_m1365@yahoo.com
3
3-MSc, Water Structures Department, Tarbiat Modares Univeristy
AUTHOR
Jafar
Mamizadeh
jafar_mami@yahoo.com
4
Assistant Professor, Irrigation Engineering Department, Ilam Univeristy
AUTHOR
Elham
Jafarzadeh
ielhamj@yahoo.com
5
MSc, Water Structures Department, Tarbiat Modares Univeristy
AUTHOR
[1] Toniolo, H.; and Parker, G.; "1D Numerical Modeling of Reservoir Sedimentation", Proceeding,IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 457-468, 2003.
1
[2] چگن یزاده، ا؛ بررسی آزمایشگاهی رسوب گذاری در مخازن سدها و تشکیل دلتا، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد عمران آب، دانشکده فنی،دانشگاه تهران، 1384 .
2
[3] Raudkivi, A. J.; "Hydraulic Structure Design Manual, Sedimentation, Exclusion and Removal of Sediment
3
from Diversion Water", IAHR, p. 164, 1993.
4
[4] Fan, J.; and Morris, G.; "Reservoir Sedimentation.I: Delta and Density Current Deposits", Journal of
5
Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 118, pp. 354-369, 1992.
6
[5] Swenson, J. B.; Voller, V. R.; Paola, C.; Parker G.;and Marr J. G.; "Fluvio-Deltaic Sedimentation: A
7
Generalized Stefan Problem", Euro. J. of App. Math.,Vol. 11, pp. 433-452, 2000.
8
[6] Voller, V. R.; Swenson, J. B.; Kim, W.; and Paola, C.; "A Fixed-grid Method for Moving Boundary
9
Problems on the Earth Surface", European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and
10
Engineering, ECCOMAS 2004, Jyvaskyla , 28 July 2004.
11
[7] Kostic, S.; and Parker, G.; "Progradational Sand-Mud Deltas in Lakes and Reservoirs-Part 1", Theory and
12
Numerical Modeling, Journal of Hydraulic Research,Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 127-140, 2003.
13
[8] Jugovic, J.; Schuster, G.; and Nachtnebel, S.;"Aggradation of Reservoirs in Alpine Regions", International Symposium on Water Management and Hydraulic Engineering, Austria, pp. 275-280, 2005.
14
[9] مام یزاده، ج.؛ بررسی زاوبه واگرایی و مشخصات هیدرولیکی-رسوبی بر نحوه پیشروی دلتا در مخازن سدها، رساله دکتری، رشته ساز ههای آبی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، 1388 .
15
[10] صفیی یاری، ا.؛ بنی هاشمی، م؛ بررسی پیشروی زبانه رسوبی در مخزن، نشریه دانشکده فنی، دوره ٣، شماره ٤، صفحه ٣٨٣ تا 394، آبان 1388
16
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Computation of Discretization Error Using the Rule of Gradient Recovery and Adaptive Refinement of Elements
ABSTRACT Since the beginning of modeling physical events by computers, the finite element method has been firmly accepted as one of the most efficient general techniques the numerical solution of a variety of problems encountered in engineering. But no one has provided an answer to accurately determine the discretization error value in analyzing a structural problem using finite element method and there is almost no accessible tool to select suitable sizes for elements and proper types of solutions and the size of each element is selected based on experts’ judgments. The present paper is an attempt to present a closed-form solution for three-node triangular elements in order to estimate the discretization error in continuous domains by using the rule of gradient recovery and h-refinement adaptivity. Computing the discretization error and diagnosing the suitability of the elements size are possible by the closed-form solution presented.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_422_8f9ba932a64ba2473540085360636d16.pdf
2016-08-22
169
180
10.22060/ceej.2016.422
adaptive refinement
rule of gradient recovery
error norm
adaptive finite element method
error post-processor
discretization
Abazar
Asghari
a.asghari.69@gmail.com
1
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Boroomand, B. and Zienkiewicz, O. C., “Recovery by equilibrium in patches (REP)”, Int. J. Num. Meth.
1
Eng., Vol. 40, pp. 137- 164, 1997.
2
[2] Boroomand, B. and Zienkiewicz, O. C., “An improved REP recovery and the efectivity robustness test”, Int.
3
J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 40, pp. 2347- 3277, 1997.
4
[3] Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Zhu, J. Z., “A simple error estimator and adaptive procedure for practical engineering analysis”, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol.24, pp. 337- 357, 1987.
5
[4] Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Zhu, J. Z., “Error estimates and adaptive refinement for plate bending problems”,
6
Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 28, pp. 2839- 2853,1989.
7
[5] Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Zhu, J. Z. and Gong, N. G.,“Effective and practical h-p version adaptive analysis
8
procedures for the finite element method”, Int. J.Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 28, pp. 879- 891, 1989.
9
[6] Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Zhu, J. Z., “Adaptive and mesh generation”, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 32,
10
pp. 783- 810, 1991.
11
[7] Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Zhu, J. Z., “The superconvergent patch recovery and A- posteriori error estimates, Part 1: the recovery techniqueInt”, J.Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 33, pp. 1331- 1364, 1992.
12
[8] Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Zhu, J. Z., “The superconvergent patch recovery and A- posteriori error estimates, Part
13
2: error estimates and adaptivity”, Int. J. Num. Meth.Eng., Vol. 33, pp. 1365- 1382, 1992.
14
[9] Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Huang, G. C., “A note on localization phenomena and adaptive finite element
15
analysis in forming processes”, Commun. App1.Num. Meth., Vol. 6, pp. 71- 76, 1990.
16
[10] Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Zhu, J. Z., “The superconvergent patch recovery (SPR) and adaptive finite element refinement”, Comp. Meth. App1. Mech.Eng., Vol. 110, pp. 207- 224, 1992.
17
[11] Ainsworth, M. and Tisley Oden, J., “A-Posteriori error estimation in finite element analysis”, Comp.
18
Meth. App1. Mech. Eng., Vol. 142, pp. 1- 88, 1997.
19
[12] Ainsworth, M. and Zhu, J. Z. and Craig, A. W. and Zienkiewicz, O. C., “Analysis of the Zienkiewicz-Zhu
20
a-posteriori estimator in the finite element method”,Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 28, pp. 2161- 2174,1989.
21
[13] Asghari, A., “Determination of ultimate load and possible failure lines for continous media using adaptive finite element method”, Ph.D. Thesis, Tehran university, Tehran, Iran, 2001.
22
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Damping in Space Structure with the MERO Jointing System with Respect to the Degree of Tightness of Bolts
One of the most common connecting systems that is used for the manufacture of space structure, is MERO connecting system. So a perfect knowledge of the behavior of this connection is the most essential problem for the engineers and designers. The results has shown that different parameters including the degree of tightness of the bolts affect on the static and dynamic characteristics on these kinds of jointings. Distinctly in this research the effect of the bolts tightness degree and the magnitude of the vibration on the dynamic characteristics of the MERO connecting system has been experimentally evaluated. Therefore a member made by this system in the form of a cantilever beam at different degree of bolt tightness and by the free vibration method and by making initial displacement was experimented in order to determine the quantity of dynamic system parameters including the damping ratio, damping coefficient and the natural frequency. The results obtained showed that, the magnitude of bolt tightness is directly proportional to the structure vibration. Also the maximum damping ratio and damping coefficient occurs at 60 Nm bolt tightness, and if the tightness degree is more or less than this quantity, the magnitude of damping ratio and damping coefficient would be less than that. Also the results showed that there is a direct relation between the initial displacement with the damping, it means that by increasing the vibration amplitude the damping will increase and vice versa.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_654_88ee10dea881dbe2871172aa9b2b5673.pdf
2016-08-22
181
190
10.22060/ceej.2016.654
MERO JOINTING SYSTEM
DEGREE OF TIGHTNESS
free vibration
DAMPING
SPACE STRUCTURE
mohammad reza
davoodi
davoodi@nit.ac.ir
1
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Eng., Babol Noshirvani University of Technology
AUTHOR
Javad
vaseghi amiri
vaseghi@nit.ac.ir
2
Professor, Department of Civil Eng., Babol Noshirvani University of Technology
AUTHOR
mostafa
habibi
ms_habibi2000@yahoo.com
3
M.Sc. in Civil Eng., Department of Civil Eng., Babol Noshirvani University of Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] سوامی، راما؛ کاوه، علی؛ کروبی، فرهاد؛ یکوانی، جعفر؛ تحلیل،طراحی و ساخت ساز ههای فضایی فولادی، مرکز تحقیقات ساختمان و مسکن، تهران، چاپ اول، 1383 .
1
[2] قاسمی، میثم؛ مطالعه تجربی رابطه نیرو-تغ ییر مکان سیستم اتصالی MERO و بررسی اثر آن در پاسخ ساز ههای فضاکار دولایه تخت، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه صنعتی بابل، 1387 .
2
[3] جیمین، هی؛ ژی فانگ، فو؛ ضیائ یراد، سعید؛ صالحی، مهدی؛ آنالیز مودال، انتشارات مؤسسه علمی دانش پژوهان برین، اصفهان، چاپ اول، 1384 .
3
[4] Lazan, B.; "Damping of Materials and Members in Structural Mechanics", Pergamon Press, p. 317, 1968.
4
[5] Chopra, A. K.; "Dynamics of Structures, Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering", 4th
5
Edition, Prentice Hall, 2011.
6
[6] Ebadi, M.; and Davoodi, M. R.; "Evaluate Axial Stiffness of the MERO Connection Under the Effect
7
of Hardening the Screw", International Journal Sci.Emerging Tech., Vol. 4, pp. 116-122, 2012.
8
[7] Souza, A.; Goncalves, R. M.; and Malite, M.;"Behaviour of Tubular Space Truss Connections with
9
Stamped End Bars", Journal of Space Structures, Vol.1, pp. 337-345, 2008.
10
[8] Fathelbab, F.; "The Effect of Joints on The Stability of Shallow Single Layer Lattice Domes", Ph.D. Thesis,
11
University of Cambridge, 270 pages, 1997.
12
[9] Caglayan, O.; and Yoksel, E.; "Experimental and Finite Element Investigation on The Collapse of
13
a MERO Space Truss Roof Structure", Journal of Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 458-470,2007.
14
[10] Androic, B.; "Deformations Observed On Systems Of long Span Space Trusses", International Journal of
15
Space Structures, Vol. 7, pp. 219-222, 2002.
16
[11] Davoodi, M. R.; Pashaei, M. H.; and Mostafavian, S. A.; "Experimental Study of the Effects of Bolt
17
Tightness on The Behaviour of MERO-Type Double Layer Grids", Journal of the International Association
18
for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS), Vol. 48, pp.45-52, 2007.
19
[12] Pashaei, M. H.; Davoodi, M. R.; and Noshin, H.;"Effects of Tightness of Bolts on The Damping of a MERO-Type Double Layer Grid", International Journal of Space Structures", Vol. 21, pp. 103-110,2006.
20
[13] Pashaei, M. H.; and Asoor, A. A.; "Experimentally Study on The Effects of Type of Joint On Damping",
21
World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 8, pp. 608-613,2010.
22
[14] Celebi, M.; "Comparison of Damping in Buildings Under Low-Amplitude and Strong Motion", Journal of
23
Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol.59, pp. 309-323, 1999.
24
[15] Fukuwa, N.; Nishizaka, R.; Yagi, S.; Tanaka, K.; and Tumura, Y.; "Field Measurement of Damping and
25
Natural Frequency of Actual Steel-Framed Building Over a Wide Range of Amplitudes", Journal of Wind
26
Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 59,pp. 325-347, 1999
27
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Assessment the Stability of Tunnels in Y Shaped Intersections with Regard to the Intersection Angles, Case Study: Penstock Tunnels of Rudbar Dam
Stress analysis and stability control in tunnel intersections is a very complicated issue due to stress concentration and three-dimensional situation. During tunnel construction, increase in load on support, extra tunnel deformations and disordering in rock around of intersection zone is unique and instability may be occur in this sections. In order to control extra deformation and stress, these sections need stronger support system than other sections. Extra deformations and stress values in Y shaped intersections influenced by tunnel intersection angle. The effect of intersection angle on length of extra support has been studied in this paper by three-dimensional modeling of penstock tunnel intersection of Rudbar Dam in FLAC3D. Numerical analysis results for three intersection angles of 60, 75 and 90 show an increase in length of extra support by decreasing in intersection angle.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_655_8e210c278e4753a80b83f00a6b3366b0.pdf
2016-08-22
191
198
10.22060/ceej.2016.655
Y Shape Intersection
Penstock Tunnel
Extra Support
FLAC3D
Morteza
Gharouni Nik
gharouni@doctor.com
1
Assistant professor, School of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
Ali
Farmahini Farahani
alifarahani@aut.ac.ir
2
MSc Student, School of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology
AUTHOR
[1] شرکت آب و نیرو، طرح سد و نیروگاه رودبار لرستان، گزارش زمی نشناسی مهندسی، مطالعات مرحله دوم، فروردین 1386 .
1
[2] Hsiao, F. Y.; Wang, C. L.; and Chern, J. C.; "Numerical Simulation of Rock Deformation for Support Design in Tunnel Intersection Area", Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 24, pp. 14-21,2009.
2
[3] Tsuchiyama, S.; Hayakawa, M.; Shinokawa, T.;and Konno, H.; "Deformation Behavior of the Tunnel under the Excavation of Crossingtunnel",In: Numerical Methods of Geomechanics. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 1591-1596, 1988.
3
[4] Pottler, R.; "Three Dimensional Modeling of Junctions at the Channel Tunnel Project", International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 16, pp. 683-695, 1992.
4
[5] Nonomura, S.; Kimura, H.; Nakamura, J.; and Tamura, S.; "Design and Construction of a Tunnel Intersection Area with Special Structure", Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, WTC 2004,G13, pp. 1-7, 2004.
5
[6] Hsiao, F. Y.; Yu, C. W.; and Chern, J. C.; "Modeling the Behavior of the Tunnel Intersection Area Adjacent
6
to the Ventilation Shaft in the Hsuehshan Tunnel",World Long Tunnel, pp. 81-90, 2005.
7
[7] Hoek, E.; and Brown, E. T.; "Underground Excavations in Rock", London, The Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 1980.
8
[8] Itasca Consulting Group Inc, "FLAC3D Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in 3 Dimensions",Ver 3.1, User's Manual, 2002.
9
[9] Sakurai, S.; "Direct Strain Evaluation Technique in Construction of Underground Opening", In Proc. 22,
10
U.S. Symp. Rock Mech. Boston. M. A. (Edit by: H. H.Enistein), pp. 278-282, 1993.
11
[10] Sakurai, S.; "Back Analysis in Rock Engineering", Comprehensive Rock Engineering, Chap. 19, 1993.
12
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Analytical and Numerical Solutions of Tunnel Lining Under Seismic Loading and Investigation of Its Affecting Parameters
Underground structures like tunnels are important elements of transportation, network, and service, which due to being surrounded by the ground and withstanding in situ stresses show different seismic behavior in comparison of surface structures. This paper presents analytical solutions for seismic and static loads in circular tunnels, and then they have been used to evaluate internal forces of lining for a section of Bangkok’s urban tunnel. The problem is solved using numerical analysis of finite difference for both horizontal and vertical acceleration coefficients and the results compared with analytical solutions results. According to the results by increasing the horizontal seismic acceleration, the axial force and bending moment increases. And with increasing the depth of tunnel, the forces of lining increases but vertical acceleration of earth has small effect on stresses. For the in- situ stress coefficient it has been seen that as the ratio is further more away from the number one, the created stress increases in the lining.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_419_19fc8d2f5c4027d58aba2a1da05e3d2d.pdf
2016-08-22
199
206
10.22060/ceej.2016.419
UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
THEORETICAL SOLUTION
Numerical Solution
HORIZONTAL ACCELERATION COEFFICIENT
IN- SITU STRESS RATIO
shabnam
valioskooyi
shabnam.valioskooyi@gmail.com
1
M.Sc. student, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Zanjan
LEAD_AUTHOR
Ali
Lakirouhani
rou001@znu.ac.ir
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Zanjan
AUTHOR
[1] Bobet, A; “Effect of Pore Water Pressure on Tunnel Support During Static and Seismic Loading”,Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 18,pp. 377- 393, 2003.
1
[2] Einstein, H.H. and Schwartz, C.W; “Simplified Analysis for Tunnel Supports”, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division ASCE 105,1979.
2
[3] Hashash, Y.M.A, Hook, J.J, Schmidt, B. and Yao,J.I.C; “Seismic Design and Analysis of Underground
3
Structures”, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 16, pp. 247- 293, 2001.
4
[4] Hashash, Y.M.A, Park, D. and Yao, J.I.C; “Ovaling Deformations of Circular Tunnels under Seismic
5
Loading: an update on seismic design and analysis of underground structures”, Tunnelling and Underground
6
Space Technology 20, pp. 435- 441, 2005.
7
[5] Kyung-Ho Park, Kullachai Tantayopin, Bituporn Tontavanich, Adisorn Owatsiriwong ; “Analytical
8
solution for seismic-induced ovaling of circular tunnel lining under no-slip interface conditions: A revisit”,
9
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 24,pp. 231–235, 2009.
10
[6] Kyung-Ho Park, Kullachai Tantayopin, Bituporn Tontavanich; “Analytical Solution for Seismic
11
Design of Tunnel Lining in Bangkok MRT Subway”,International Symposium on Underground Excavation
12
and Tunnelling, Bangkok, Thailand, 2006.
13
[7] Penzien, J. and Wu, C.L; “Stresses in Linings of Bored Tunnels”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural,
14
[8] Wang, J.N; “Seismic Design of Tunnels”, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc, NY, Monograph
15
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Slope Stability Optimization with Non-circular Slip Surface and using Firefly Algorithm, Simulated Annealing and Imperialistic Competitive Algorithm
Taking into account that the stability analysis of the earth slopes is a complicated geotechnical problem and conventional methods of analyses because of circular slip surface assumption, are incapable to estimate the location of the slip surface especially in non-homogeneous earth slopes.Therefore, the new methods for the study of these types of slopes are necessary. Nowadays, the methods based on optimization principles are developed and the main point in the application of these new methods is the evaluation of the capability of these methods. Therefore, optimizing these problems needs robust algorithms. In this research, three meta- heurestic algorithms were applied for the slope stability analyzing of three studied and selected cases from literature. For all three cases of study, a non-circular slip surface is considered. Factor of safety was computed and compared with the same cases analysed analytically. The obtained results indicated that ICA had the best performance and FA had the worst results for the cases studied in this research.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_656_7c33482cbfc0e648028536fd72e632fc.pdf
2016-08-22
207
216
10.22060/ceej.2016.656
optimization
Noncircular
slipe
Metaheurestic
ICA
ali
sanaeirad
a-sanaeirad@araku.ac.ir
1
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Engineering (Civil Engineering), Arak University
LEAD_AUTHOR
alireza
kashani
kashani.alireza@ymail.com
2
MSc Student of Soil Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University
AUTHOR
[1] Chen, Z.; and Shao, C; "Evaluation of Minimum Factor of Safety in Slope Stability Analysis", Can Geotech, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 735-48, 1983.
1
[2] Baker, R.; and Garber, M.; "Theoretical Analysis of Stability of Slopes", Geotechnique, Vol. 28, pp. 341-
2
[3] Nguyen, V. U; "Determination of Critical Slope Failure Surface", Geotech. Eng. ASCE, Vol. 111, pp.
3
238-50, 1985.
4
[4] Celestino, T. B.; and Duncan, J. M.; "Simplified Search for Non-Circular Slip Surface", Proceeding 10th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden, pp.
5
391-4, 1981.
6
[5] Greco, V. R.; "Efficient Monte Carlo Technique for Locating Critical Slip Surface", Geotech Eng. ASCE,
7
Vol. 122, pp. 512-25, 1996.
8
[6] Malkawi, A. I. H.; Hassan, W. F.; and Sarma, S. K.;"Global Search Method for Locating General Slip
9
Surface Using Monte Carlo Technique", Geotech Geoenviron Eng., Vol. 127, pp. 688-98, 2001.
10
[7] Bolton, H. P. J.; Heymann, G.; and Groenwold, A.;"Global Search for Critical Failure Surface in Slope
11
Stability Analysis", Eng. Optimize, Vol. 35, pp. 51-65,2003.
12
[8] Cheng, Y. M.; Liang, L.; Chi, S. C.; and Wei,W. B.; "Determination of Critical Slip Surface Using Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm", Geotech Geoenviron Eng. ASCE, Vol. 134, pp. 244-51, 2008.
13
[9] Zolfaghari, A. R.; Heath, A. C.; and McCombie, P. F.;"Simple Genetic Algorithm Search for Critical Non-
14
Circular Failure Surface in Slope Stability Analysis",Comput. Geotech, Vol. 32, pp. 139-52, 2005.
15
[10] Kang, F.; Li, J.; and Ma, Z.; "An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Locating the Critical Slip Surface in
16
Slope Stability Analysis", Engineering Optimization,2013.
17
[11] Hajiazizi, M.; and Sharifipour, M.; "A New Approach for Pseudostatic Analysis of Critical Line Segment
18
Slip Surface in Earth Slopes", GeoCongress, 2012.
19
[12] Mendjel, D.; and Messast, S.; "Development of Limit Equilibrium Method as Optimization in Slope Stability
20
Analysis", Structural Engineering and Mechanics,2012.
21
[13] Gandomi, A. H.; Kashani, A. R.; Mousavi, M.; and Jalalvandi, M.; "Slope Stability Analyzing Using
22
Recent Swarm Intelligence Techniques", International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in
23
GeoMechanics, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 295-309, 2015.
24
[14] Morgenstern, N. R.; and Price, V. E.; "The Analysis of the Stability of General Slip Surfaces", Geotechnique,
25
[15] Spencer, E.; "A Method of Analysis of the Stability of Embankments Assuming Parallel Interslice Forces",
26
Geotechnique, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 11-26, 1967.
27
[16] Yang, X. S.; "Firefly Algorithm, Levy Flights and Global Optimization", Research and Development in
28
Intelligent Systems, Vol. 25, pp. 209-218, 2010.
29
[17] Kirkpatrick, S.; Gelatt, C. D.; and Vecchi, M. P.; "Optimization by Simulated Annealing", Science,
30
[18] Atashpaz-Gargari, E.; and Lucas, C.; "Imperialist Competitive Algorithm: An Algorithm for Optimization Inspired by Imperialistic Competition",IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation,Singapore, 2008.
31
[19] Cheng, .Y. M.; Li, L.; and Ch., S. C.; "Performance Studies on Six Heuristic Global Optimization Methods
32
in the Location of Critical Failure Surface", Comput. Geotech, Vol. 34, pp. 462-484, 2007.
33
[20] SLOPE/W.; "An Engineering Methodology", Geo-Slope International, Calgary, Canada, 2007.
34