ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
A high resolution finite volume scheme with a voronoi mesh for dam break simulation
A high resolution finite volume method for solving the shallow water equations with voronoi mesh is developed applying MATLAB software in this paper. The scheme is formally uniformly second order accurate and satisfies maximum principles. The model is verified by comparing the model output with condition of anti-symmetric and circular dam break with documented results. For more investigation we utilized SPSS statistical software. Very good agreement has been achieved in the verification phase. It can be considered as an efficient implement for the computation of shallow water problems, especially concerning those having discontinuities. A simple example of the collapse of water supply reservoir in a valley is used to demonstrate the capability of the model. The presented model is able to resolving shocks, handling, complex geometry, including the influence of steep bed slopes.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_397_85bf1299391b744bdb66ae8a2140524e.pdf
2015-02-20
1
9
10.22060/ceej.2015.397
Finite volume method
voronoi mesh
dam break
high resolution Local Lax–Friedrich scheme
Hamid Reza
Vosoughifar
vosoughifar@gmail.com
1
استادیار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران جنوب
LEAD_AUTHOR
hamidreza
jalalpour barfroush
hamidrezajalalpour@yahoo.com
2
Ph.D. Studnet, Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
seyedeh mona
tabandeh
mona.tabandeh98@yahoo.com
3
Ph.D. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Aureli, F., Mignosa, P., Tomirotti, “Numerical simulation and experimental verification of Dam-Break flows with shocks” , Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 38 , No. 3, pp. 197- 206, 2000.
1
[2] Chaudhry, M. H,, “Open-Channel Flow Prentice-Hall”, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1993.
2
[3] Zoppou, C., Roberts, S., “Numerical solution of the two dimensional unsteady dam break”, International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics, 8, pp.1– 14, 2000.
3
[4] Drysdale. S, Voronoi Diagram, Lecture 4, 1996.
4
[5] Eleuterio F. Toro, “HLLC Riemann solver”, Laboratory Of Applied Mathematics University of Trento, Italy, 2010.
5
[6] Fennena, R.J., Chaudhry, M.H., “Explicit Numerical Schemes for Unsteady Free-Surface Flows with Shocks”, Water Resources Research, Vol22, n13, 1986.
6
[7] Fletcher, C.A.J., “Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics”, vol. 2, seconded. Springer, Berlin, 1991.
7
[8] G. Steinebach, R. Weiner, “ Peer methods for the one-dimensional shallow water equations with CWENO space Discretization ”, internet, 2009.
8
[9] Garcia-Navarro, P.,Brufau, P. “One-Dimensional Dam Break Flow Modeling: Some Results”, 1992.
9
[10] Hans De SterckوPaul Ullrich, “ Introduction To Computational PDES”, Course Notes for AMATH 442 / CM 452, Fall, 2009.
10
[11] M. ALIPARAST, “Two-dimensional finite volume method for dam-break flow simulation”, international Journal of Sediment Research 24, 99– 107, 2009.
11
[12] Murthy Jayathi Y, “Numerical Methods in Heat, Mass, and Momentum Transfer”, 2002.
12
[13] Patankar. S. V, “Numerical heat transfer and fluid flow”, MC Graw-Hill, New York, 1980.
13
[14] Prickett, T.A, “Modeling Techniques for groundwater Evaluation”, In: V.T. Chow (editor), Advances in Hydro science, Vol. 10. Academic Press, New York, 1975.
14
[15] R. Bernetti, “Exact solution of the Riemann problem for the shallow water equations with discontinuous bottom Geometry”, University of Trento presently at: Polytechnic, 2008.
15
[16] Randall J. Leveque, “Finite Volume Methods for Hyperbolic Problems”, 2004.
16
[17] Robert Eymard, Thierry Gallaudet and Raphael Herbin, “Finite Volume Methods”, January ,This manuscript is An update of the preprint n0, pp. 97-19 du LATP, 2003.
17
[18] Sugihara. K., Iri. M., “Construction of the Voronoi diagram for ‘one million’ sites in single- recession arithmetic”, Proc. IEEE, Vol. 80, No. 9, pp. 1471-1484, 1992.
18
[19] Sung-Uk Choi and Joongcheol Paik, “Performance Test of High Resolution Schemes for ID Dam Break Problem”, KSCE Journal Of Civil Engineering, Vol 5, No~ 3, September, pp. 23- 280, 2001.
19
[20] Tseng, M.H, Chia R. Chu, “The simulation of dam break flows by an improved predictor-corrector T.V.D scheme”, Advances in Water Resources, Vol. 23 , pp. 637- 643, 2000.
20
[21] Loukili, Y. and Soulaımani, A., “Numeric
21
University of Marche Department of Mechanical Tracking of Shallow Water Waves by the Unstructured Finite Volume WAF
22
Approximation”, 2007.
23
[22] Yuling L.,Wenli W “High Resolution Mathematical Model for Simulating 2D Dam Break flow Wave”, XXXI IAHR Congress, 2005.
24
[23] Wang J.W Liu R.X., “A Comparative Study of Finite Volume Methods on Unstructured Meshes for Simulation of 2D Shallow Water Wave problems”. Mathematic and computers in simulation 2000.
25
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of Four Iranian Natural Pozzolans on Concrete Durability Against Sulfate Attack
Sulfate attack is one of the most important problems concerning the durability of concrete structures. Natural pozzolans are the natural mineral admixtures which can improve concrete durability against sulfate attack. In this paper, the sulfate resistance of concrete and mortar samples made from ordinary Portland cement containing three different portions of four types of natural pozzolans (Eskandan Pumice, Khash Pumice, Abyek Tuff and Jajrood Trass) was studied. Strength reductions and mass changes of the concrete samples, immersed in sodium sulfate solution, as well as the expansion of mortar prisms, immersed in sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions, were monitored. It was observed that the resistance of mixtures containing natural pozzolans was higher against both sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate attacks compared to the reference cement.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_396_2b8602fecd8824975a1d483cf5bce8ad.pdf
2015-02-20
11
17
10.22060/ceej.2015.396
Sulfate Attack
Natural Pozzolan
Compressive Strength
Mortar Expansion
Aliakbar
Ramezanianpour
aaramce@aut.ac.ir
1
Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
AUTHOR
Seyyed Sajjad
Mirvalad
2
M.Sc. Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
AUTHOR
Ehsan
Aramoun
3
M.Sc. Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
AUTHOR
Mansour
Peydayesh
peydyesh@aut.ac.ir
4
Lecturer, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
AUTHOR
[1] رمضانیانپور، علی اکبر؛ پرهیزکار، طیبه؛ قدوسی،پرویز؛ پورخورشیدی، علیرضا، ”توصیه هایی برای پایایی بتن در سواحل جنوبی کشور )نشریه شماره 396 ) ، مرکز تحقیقات ساختمان و مسکن، تهران، 1383 ، ایران.
1
[2] ASTM Standard C150, “Standard specification for Portland cement”, vol 04.01 ASTM Publication, United States, 1995.
2
[3] Irassar, F.; Gonzalez, M.; Rahhal, V.; “Sulfate resistance of type V cements with limestone filler and Natural Pozzolan”, Cement and Concrete Composites, pp. 361- 802, 2000.
3
[4] محمدی منش، مجتبی، ”بررسی خواص مکانیکی و دوام بتن های ساخته شده با پوزولان طبیعی پومیس “، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران، 1383 ، ایران.
4
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Study of Stiffened Central Panel Between Two Openings in Steel Plate Shear Walls with Stiffeners
The performance of central panel in dual-opening steel shear walls has been studied using the simple beam model, which its behavior depends on "height to width" ratio.Central panel has been made of bilateral stiffeners on both sides of the web plate. Now the central panel together with extreme stiffeners is comparable to a steel shear wall by itself. It is necessary for the cross-sectional area of the stiffeners to meet minimum requirements to force the ideal shear yielding of the central panel rather than flexural yielding of side stiffeners.Obviously, the "height to width" ratio of the central panel has been studied as a major factor in predicting its behavior. ABAQUS is the analytical tool used in the paper. It has also been concluded that the proper ratio selected for the central panel would result it to behave in a dominant shear mode.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_381_b93fc777a38cbde64abe23cb630d91f4.pdf
2015-02-20
19
28
10.22060/ceej.2015.381
Steel Plate Shear Walls
Stiffener
Rectangular Openings
Stiffened Central Panel
Saeid
Sabouri
sabouri@kntu.ac.ir
1
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
Elnaz
Ahouri
elnaz_ahouri@yahoo.com
2
M.Sc. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] صبوری قمی، سعید؛ ’’ سیستمهای مقاوم در برابر بارهای جانبی: مقدمهای بر دیوارهای برشی فولادی ‘‘ ،انتشارات انگیزه، تهران، 1380.
1
[2] صبوری قمی، سعید؛ ’’ سیستمهای مقاوم در برابر بارهای جانبی: طرح اندیشه استفاده از فولاد نرم ‘‘ ،انتشارات انگیزه، تهران، 1383.
2
[3] Sabouri-Ghomi, S., Ventura, C.E. and Kharrazi, M.H.K., ‘‘Shear Analysis and Design of Ductile Steel Plate Walls’’, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 131(6): pp.
3
878- 889, 2005.
4
[4] Sabouri-Ghomi, S., ‘‘Discussion of Plastic Analysis and Design of Steel Plate Shear Walls’’, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 131 (4): pp. 695- 697, 2005.
5
[5] Sabouri-Ghomi, S. and Roberts, T.M., ‘‘Hysteretic Characteristics of Unstiffened Plate Shear Panels’’, Journal of Thin-Walled Structures, 12: pp. 145- 162, 1991.
6
[6] Sabouri-Ghomi, S. and Roberts, T.M., ‘‘Hysteretic Characteristics of Unstiffened Perforated Plate Shear Panels’’, Journal of Thin-Walled Structures, 14: pp. 139- 151, 1992.
7
[7] اخوان لیل آبادی، محمدرضا؛ طاحونی، شاپور؛ ’’ تحلیل سازه ها )روش کلاسیک و ماتریس( ‘‘ ، انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی صنعتی امیر کبیر، تهران، 1381.
8
[8] صبوری، قمی، سعید؛ یحیایی، محمود؛ اسعد سجادی، رامین؛ ’’ بررسی رفتار دیوارهای برشی فولادی با بازشو ‘‘ ، رساله دکتری، دانشگاه صنعتی خواجه نصیر الدین طوسی، 1388 .
9
[9] صبوری، قمی، سعید؛ اسعد سجادی، رامین؛ ’’ بررسی آزمایشگاهی ضریب رفتار و جذب انرژی دیوارهای برشی فولادی شکلپذیر با سختکننده و بدون سختکننده ‘‘ ، مجله علمی پژوهشی سازه و فولاد، سال چهارم، شماره -3، تابستان 1387 .
10
[10] Sabouri-Ghomi, S., Kharrazi, M.H.K., Mam-Azizi, S., and Asad-Sajadi, R., ‘‘Buckling Behavior Improvement of Steel Plate Shear Wall Systems’’, Journal of the Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, Vol. 17: pp. 823- 837, 2008.
11
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Investigating effect of the preprocessing of the data on the accuracy of the modeling solid waste generation through ANNs
Waste generation in today industries is a serious problem. Waste generation from the production stage to the final disposal is an inevitable issue. Development of the cities and the industrialization causes the everyday increasing in solid waste generation. Therefore, knowing the waste values is an essential tool for solid waste management systems. In this research, artificial neural network is used as a financial tool for modeling solid waste generation in Mashhad. For this purpose, first, some pre-processing on the dependent and independent variables are done and the effect of this procedure on the accuracy of the model is investigated. Research findings clearly indicate that by using some preprocessing on the input data accurate results can be obtained. Three different conditions have been evaluated and the best one is selected which contains logarithm, trend removing and standardizing. The selected network has two hidden layers with five neurons in each one. Network performance parameters are MAPE, MSE and R2 that equals to 0.06, 0.46 and 0.86 respectively.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_382_607843f19e889ddbc6f2f31df4524858.pdf
2015-02-20
29
37
10.22060/ceej.2015.382
Municipal solid waste
artificial neural network
preprocessing
Mashhad
maliheh
falahnezhad
m_falahnezhad@yahoo.com
1
Ph.D. Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tehran University
AUTHOR
Mohammad Ali
Abdoli
mabdoli@ut.ac.ir
2
Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tehran University
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] عبدلی،م . ع، " مدیریت مواد زائد جامد شهری"، انتشارات سازمان شهرداری های کشور، جلد اول، 1379
1
[2] Beigl,P.; Wassermann,G.; Schneider,F., and Salhofer,S. “Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in major European cities”, In:Pahl Wostl, C., Schmidt, S.,Jakeman, T.(Eds.), iEMSs 2004 International Congress: Complexity and Integrated Resources Management. Osnabrueck, Germany, 2004.
2
[3] Bach, H.; Mild, A.; Natter, M.; Weber, A. “Combining socio-demographic and logistic factors to explain the generation and collection of waste paper”, Resources Conservation and Recycling, vol.41, pp. 65– 73, 2004.
3
[4] Chung, s. “Projecting municipal solid waste: The case of domestic waste in HongKong special administration region”, Environmental enginerring science, vol. 27, pp. 13- 20, 2010.
4
[5] Chung.s. “Projection of trends in solid waste generation:The case of HongKong SAR”. Resource, conservation and recycling. Vol. 54, pp.759- 768, 2010.
5
[6] Daskalopoulos, E.; Badr, O., and Probert. S.D. “Municipal solidwaste: A prediction methodology for the generation rate and composition in the European Union countries and the United States of America”, Resources, Conservationand Recycling, vol.24, pp.155– 166, 1998.
6
[7] Dyson, B.; Chang, N. “Forecasting municipal solidwaste generation in a fast-growin Urban region with system dynamics modeling”, WasteManagement, vol. 25, pp. 669– 679, 2005.
7
[8] Iffat, A.; Leslie, S. “A Neural Network Approach to Time Series Forecasting”, proceeding of the world congress on engineering,vol.2,july, pp. 1-3,London,uk, 2009.
8
[9] Ojeda Benítez, S. “Mathematical modeling to predict residential solid waste generation”, Waste Management, vol. 28, pp. S7– S13, 2008.
9
[10] Noori,R.;Abdoli, M.; Jalili Ghazizade, M.; Samieifard,R. “Comparison of Neural Network and Principal Component-Regression Analysis to Predict the Solid Waste Generation in Tehran”, Iranian J Publ Health, Vol.38, pp. 74- 84, 2009.
10
[11] Noori, R., Abdoli, M.A.; AmeriGhasrodashti, A., JaliliGhazizade, M. “Prediction of Municipal Solid Waste Generation with Combination of Support Vector Machine and Principal Component Analysis: A Case Study of Mashhad”, Environmental Progress &Sustainable Energy, vol.28, pp. 249- 258, 2008.
11
[12] okka,L., Antikainen,R., Kauppi, P; “Municipal solid waste production and composition in Finland Changes in the period 1960– 2002 and prospects until 2020”, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 50, pp. 475– 488, 2007.
12
[13] Tawfiq, A.; Ibrahim El, Amin., “Artificial neural networks as applied to long-term demand forecasting”, Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, vol.13, pp. 189– 197, 2009.
13
[14] Zhang, G. “Timeseries forecasting using a hybrid ARIMA and neural network model”, Neurocomputing, vol. 50, pp. 159– 175, 2003.
14
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Vertical expanding of landfill with considering its component
Shear strength of landfill municipal solid waste (MSW) is a more important topic in landfill stability investigation. Impressibility of this material from the temperature and humidity regarding to its early component cause that this material suffering much change in its shape. This variation with filling condition such as prime compression and soil increasing for daily and monthly cover change structure of MSW; so the fresh samples or primary component have not enough indication to define the problem. In this paper, large-scale direct shear tests were performed on the real samples with different age and different percent of soil obtained from Alborz landfill in Qom city to investigate shear strength of materials in existing landfill and to expand the landfill. Other parameters such as overconsolidation and plastic content have analyzed. The results shows that shear strength have decreased with increasing in waste age and plastic content. In addition, with changing in soil amount to optimum percent shear resistance increased and then decreased. Overconsolidation without changing in compaction effort has mutated the mobilization of shear strength.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_383_1be48af71d8ed6648991225848d44ebd.pdf
2015-02-20
39
46
10.22060/ceej.2015.383
Shear Strength
Waste age
Landfill
Soil content
Plastic content
Nader
Shariatmadari
shariatmadari@iust.ac.ir
1
Professor, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Hamid Reza
Razeghi
razegi@iust.ac.ir
2
Assistant Professor, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Ahmad
Nayebi
ahmadnayebi@civileng.iust.ac.ir
3
Assistant Professor, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Mohammad Hossein
Hamzeie Tehrani
mhh_tehrani@civileng.iust.ac.ir
4
M.Sc. Student, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] جعفری کلاریجانی ح،”ارزیابی اثر درصد الیاف و راستای جهتگیری الیاف در پارامترهای مقاومت برشی پسماندهای شهری به کمک آزمایش های برش مستقیم )مطالعه موردی : مرکز دفن کهریزک( “ ، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه علم و صنعت تهران، دانشکده عمران، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، 1389 .
1
[2] کرامتی م، ” بررسی اثر افزایش سن زباله های جامد شهری در پارامتر های مقاومت برشی آن )مطالعه موردی:مرکزدفن کهریزک(، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران ، دانشکده عمران، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، 1389 .
2
[3] Gabr, M.A. and Valero, S.N. , “Geotechnical properties of municipal solidwaste”, Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 18, pp. 241- 254, 1995.
3
[4] Gabr, M. A., Hossain, M. S. and Barlaz, M. A. , “Shear strength parameters ofmunicipal solid waste with leachate recirculation”, Journal of Geotechnical andGeoenvironmental engineering, 133(4): pp.478- 484, 2007.
4
[5] Karimpour-Fard, M., Machado, S. L., Shariatmadari, N. and Noorzad, A. , “Alaboratory study on the MSW mechanical behavior in triaxial apparatus”, Submittedto Journal of Waste Management, Elsevier series, 2010.
5
[6] Kavazanjian, E.Jr, “Seismic design of solid waste containment facilities”, Proceedings of the Eigth Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering,Vancouver, BC, June, pp. 51- 89, 1999.
6
[7] Kölsch, F., “Material values for some mechanical properties of domesticwaste”, Proc. of the 5th International Landfill Symposium in Sardinia, pp. 711- 729, 1995.
7
[8] Kölsch, F., “Shear strength of waste”, Third International Workshop, Hydro-Physico-Mechanics of Landfills, Braunschweig, Germany, pp. 10 - 13 March , 2009.
8
[9] Landva, A.O., Clark, J. I., Weisner, W.R. and Burwash, W.J , “Geotechnicalengineering and refuse landfill, 6th National Conference on waste management inCanada, Vancouver, British Colombia”, pp. 1986.
9
[10] Machado, S.L , Carvalho, M.F. and Vilar, O.M. ,“Constitutive model formunicipal solid waste. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering”,Vol. 128, No. 11, pp. 940- 951, 2002.
10
[11] Nayebi, A, Shariatmadari, N, Hamzeie Tehrani, M. H Oskouie , P. and Karimpour Fard, M; International Conference on Advances in Geotechnical Engineering. pp. 7- 9 NOVember PERTH, Australia, 2011.
11
[12] Reddy, K. R., Hettiarachchi, H., Parakalla, N. S., Gangathulasi, J., and Bogner, J.E., a ,“Geotechnical properties of fresh municipal solid waste at Orchard HillsLandfill”, USA. Waste Management, 29(2), pp. 952– 959, 2009.
12
[13] Reddy, K. R., Gangathulasi, J., Parakalla, N. S., Hettiarachchi, H., Bogner, J. E.and Lagier, T. ,“Compressibility and shear strength of municipal solid wasteunder short-term leachate recirculation operations. Waste Management &Research”, 27(6), pp. 578– 587, 2009.
13
[14] Shariatmadari, N., Machado, S. L., Noorzad, A., and Karimpour-Fard, M. ,“Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis”, Waste Management, 29(12), pp. 2918- 2930, 2009.
14
[15] Stoll, O.W. ,“Mechanical properties of milled refuse”, ASCE National WaterResources Engineering Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, pp. 11- 15,1971.
15
[16] Zekkos, D. P. ,“Evaluation of static and dynamic properties of municipal solidwaste”, A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for thedegree of Doctor of Philosophy in eotechnical Engineering– University ofCalifornia, Berekeley, 2005.
16
[17] Zekkos, D., Athanasopoulos, G. A., Bray, J .D., Theodoratos, A., and Grizi, A. ,“Large-scale direct shear testing of municipal solid waste”, WasteManagement Journal, 30 pp. 1544– 1555, 2010
17
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
برآورد مقاومت نهایی یک پل قوسی بتنی غیرمسلح بر پایه نتایج محدود از تست بارگذاری
آزمایش بارگذاری پل کیلومتر 23 راه آهن قدیم تهران – قم، مشخصات مهمی نظیر سختی اولیه، مقاومت تسلیم، و الگوی ترک خوردگی و مراحل اولیه پاسخ غیر خطی را به نمایش گذاشت. با وجود این، بدلیل محدودیت های میدانی، امکان بارگذاری پل تا حد نهایی میسر نگردید. در این مقاله سعی شده تا با استفاده از نتایج محدود تست میدانی و به کمک مدلسازی اجزای محدود، پاسخ غیر خطی پل تا بار نهایی پیش بینی شود. برای این کار، الگوی ترک ها به مدل عددی اعمال گردیده و منحنی نیرو - تغییر شکل با نتایج تست تطبیق داده شده است. براین اساس، مقاومت حداکثر تعیین شده و مکانیسم تخریب پل که شامل چهار ناحیه مفصل در قوس تحت بار است، به دست آمده است.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_384_cdfa3b6c09196577d0086bddf3ce2d9e.pdf
2015-02-20
47
56
10.22060/ceej.2015.384
Mohammad S.
Marefat
mmarefat@ut.ac.ir
1
Professor, School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mahdi
Yazdani
m.yazdani@ut.ac.ir
2
Ph.D. Student, School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Shervan
Ataei
ataei@iust.ac.ir
3
Assistant Professor, School of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Page, J.; Masonry Arch bridges, TRL stateof the art review, HMSO, 1993.
1
[2] Lourenco, P.B., “Analysis of historical construction: From thrust-line to advanced simulation”, Historical Construction, P.B Lourenco, P. Roca ,2001.
2
[3] Frunzio, G., Monaco, M., Gesualdo, A. “3D F.E.M analysis of a Roman arch bridge. Historical Construction”, P.B Lourenco, P. Roca , 2001.
3
[4] Fanning, P.J., Boothby, T.E., “Three- dimensional modeling and full-scale testing of stone arch bridges”, Computers and Structures, Vol. 79, pp. 2645 – 2662,2001.
4
[5] Frunzio, G., Monaco, M., Gesualdo, A., “3D F.E.M analysis of a Roman arch bridge. Historical Construction”, P.B Lourenco, P. Roca , 2001.
5
[6] Drosopoulos, G.A., Stavroulakis, G.E., Massalas, C.V., “Limit analysis of a single span Masonry Bridge with unilateral frictional contact interfaces”, Engineering Structures, vol. 28, pp. 1864 – 1873, 2006.
6
[7] Brencich, A., Sabia, D., “Experimental identification of a multi-span masonry bridge: The Tanaro Bridge”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 22, pp. 2087– 2099, 2008.
7
[8] Drosopoulos, G.A., Stavroulakis, G.E., Massalas, C.V., “Influence of geometry and the abutment movement on the collapse of stone arch bridges”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 22, pp. 200– 210, 2008.
8
[9] Marefat, M. S., Ghahremani-Gargary, E., Ataei, Sh., “Load test of a plain concrete arch railway bridge of 20-m span”, Construction and building materials, Vol.18, pp. 661– 667, 2004.
9
[10] Chen, W.F.; Plasticity In Reinforced Concrete, McGraw-Hill, 1982.
10
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental study of concrete hinge connections with usual details
Applying hinge connection in concrete building can sometimes decrease element sizes and improve seismic behavior of the structure. Despite of many details for such connections in special structures such as bridges, there is not any detail, accepted by both scientists and engineers, for hinges in regular concrete buildings. The existing details, in which the longitudinal reinforced bars cross each other at the center of the section, have not been verified well by experimental tests, therefore, they are not applied in practical projects. In this study two details, proposed for hinge connections are experimentally studied. In this regard, three cantilever concrete beam specimens with different connections were constructed and loaded by displacement-controlled loading. The first specimen had rigid connection that was used as a reference to be compared with other specimens. Both the second and third specimens had crossed reinforcements at the hinge part; however, the last one was also equipped with two grooves at the top and bottom of the section. Moment- rotation diagrams of the specimens were compared to find their connection rigidity. The results show that connections with crossed reinforcement with or without grooves cannot be considered for hinge connections, for their brittle behaviors and considerable bending strengths.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_385_262f9d29d0052e05b2831f5bc4c81c76.pdf
2015-02-20
57
65
10.22060/ceej.2015.385
Hinge connection
Rigid connection
semi rigid connection
concrete building
Majid
Mohammadi
ghazimahalleh@gmail.com
1
Assistant Professor, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Tehran, I.R. Iran,
LEAD_AUTHOR
َAmin
Mohammadi
modaamin@gmail.com
2
M.Sc. Student, Science and Research University, Tehran, I.R. Iran
AUTHOR
[1] آیین نامه طرح ساختمان ها در برابر زلزله و مهندسی زلزله، استاندارد 84 - 2800 ، ویرایش سوم، مرکز تحقیقات ساختمان و مسکن،1384
1
[2] بدیعی، مجید، ”تئوری مقدماتی سازه ها “ ، دانشگاه صنعتی خواجه نصیرالدین طوسی، 1383
2
[3] فروغی، محمد، ”بی بعد کردن محور لنگر دوران، راه حلی برای مقایسه صلبیت اتصالات مختل با شرایط متهاوت “ ، چهارمین کنگره ملی مهندسی عمران دانشگاه تهران، 1387
3
[4] AISC, “Qualifying Cyclic Tests of Beam to Column and Link to Column Connections”, Seismic Provisions for Steel Building, 2002.
4
[5]K. M. Holford ; R. Pullinand R. J. Lark; “Acoustic Emissinon Monitoring of Concrete Hinge Joint Models”, DGZfP-Proceedings BB 90-CD, Lecture 19, 2004.
5
[6]Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (ACI 318- 10), 2010.
6
[7] ATC-24, Guidelines for Seismic Testing of Components of Steel Structures, Applied Technology Council, 1992.
7
[8] M. Haskett, D. J. Oehlers, M.S. Mohamed Ali, C. Wu-2009 , “Rigid body moment- rotation mechanism for reinforced concrete beam hinges”, Engineering Structures 31, 2009.
8
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
مقایسهی نتایج تحلیل عددی وآزمایشگاهی مقاومت بیرونکشش (Pull-Out) ژئوگرید و مهار- شبکه (Grid-Anchor) محصور شده توسط لایهی
The pull- out strength of the reinforcement has a significant role on the function of the most reinforced soil structures. Since the coarse grain soils have a better interaction with the reinforcement, they are mostly used in these structures. In most situations, we have to transfer these granular soils from the borrow area, usually far from the site of the project. This will impose a considerable amount of cost to the project. In this research, it is trying to use just a thin layer of coarse grain soil for surrounding the reinforcements. This is because of the important role of the pull- out strength on determining the kind of the reinforcements. From this point of view, in this paper, the results of the pull- out experiments conducted on an ordinary geogrid and an innovative reinforcement, that is named Grid- Anchor, are presented. While just a layer of coarse grain soil, with the selected thicknesses, is surrounding the reinforcement, the remained volume is replaced with the fine grain soils. Furthermore, the numerical analysis for these experiments is conducted using the finite element code, Plaxis 3D Tunnel. The numerical and experimental results indicate the efficiency of the cited method for cutting the expenses while keeping the function of the reinforced soil.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_386_0ccdaff158f0234ff757d8b35cd232c9.pdf
2015-02-20
67
78
10.22060/ceej.2015.386
Pull- Out Test
Geogrid
Grid- Anchor
Fine Grain Soil
Coarse Grain Soil
PLAXIS3D Tunnel
nazanin
sohrabi
sephid82@yahoo.com
1
M.Sc. Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University, Iran
AUTHOR
nader
hataf
nhataf@shirazu.ac.ir
2
Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] عبدی، محمود رضا، و ارجمند، محمد علی، ”ارزیابی بهبود مقاومت برشی خاک رس مسلح شده در سیستم ساندیویچی “ ،هشتمین کنگرهی بینالمللی مهندسی عمران، ایران: دانشگاه شیراز، 1388 .
1
[2] مصلی نژاد، منصور، ” بررسی نحوهی افزایش ظرفیت باربری سطحی خاکهای دانهای با استفاده از مهار شبکه )گرید انکر(“، پایان نامهی دکترا در رشتهی مهندسی عمران )مکانیک خاک و پی(، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، 1387 .
2
[3] صدر، عبدالله، ” بررسی مقاومت بیرون کشیدگی ) Pull- out )مهار شبکه ) - Grid- Anchor ( در خاکهای ماسهای “، پایان نامه ی کارشناسی ارشد در رشته ی مهندسی عمران )مکانیک خاک و پی(، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، 1386 .
3
[4] عبدی، محمود رضا، و ارجمند، محمد علی، ” ارزیابی بهبود مقاومت برشی خاک رس مسلح شده در سیستم ساندیویچی “ ، هشتمین کنگرهی بینالمللی مهندسی عمران، ایران: دانشگاه شیراز، 1388 .
4
[5] مصلی نژاد، منصور، ” بررسی نحوهی افزایش ظرفیت باربری سطحی خاکهای دانهای با استفاده از مهار شبکه )گرید انکر( “ ، پایان نامهی دکترا در رشتهی مهندسی عمران )مکانیک خاک و پی(، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، 1387 .
5
[6] Pull- out, Grid- Anchor, ASTM D 4439- 04, “Standard Terminology for Geosynthetics”.
6
[7] Saran, Swami; “Reinforced soil and its Engineering Applications”, I.K. International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2005.
7
[8] Sieira, A.C.C.F., Gerscovich, D.M.S. and Sayão, A.F.S.J, “Displacement and load transfer mechanisms of geogrids under pullout condition”, Journal of Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol.27: pp. 241 – 253, 2009.
8
[9] Bergado, D.T., Chai, J. C., Abiera, H. O. Alfaro, M. C. and and Balasubramaniam, A. S., “Interaction between Cohesive- Frictional Soil and Various Grid Reinforcements”, Journal of Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol.12: pp. 327 – 349, 1993.
9
[10] Bergado, D.T., Bukkanasuta, A. and Balasubramaniam, A. S., “Laboratory Pull- Out Tests Using Bamboo and Polymer Geogrids Including a Case Study”, Journal of Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 5: pp. 153– 189, 1987.
10
[11] Palmeira, E. M., Milligan, G. E., “Large Scale Direct Shear Tests on Reinforced Soil”, Soils and Foundations, Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 29 (1): pp. 18- 30, 1989.
11
[12] Farrag, Kh. and Acar, Y. B. ,Juran, I., “Pull- Out Resistance of Geogrid Reinforcements”, Geotextile and Geomembrane,12: pp. 133- 159, 1991.
12
[13] Hataf, N. and Sadr, A., “Pull- Out behavior of an innovative Grid- Anchor system”, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Alexandria, Egypt: pp. 909- 912, October, 2009.
13
[14] Feng X., Yang Q., Li S., “Pullout Behavior of Geogrid in Red Clay and the Prediction of Ultimate Resistance”, The Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Volume 13, Bundle J: pp. 1- 17, 2008.
14
[15] Arjomand, M. A. and Abdi, M. R. and Sadrnejad, S. A., “Clay Reinforcement Using Geogrid Embedded In Thin Layers of Sand”, International Journal of Civil Engineerng, Vol. 7, No. 4: pp. 224- 235, 2009.
15
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Bus Network Design Considering Transfer Stations
ABSTRACT Bus network design is the first step in urban transportation planning process, and due to its influence on the consequent steps, such as timetabling, vehicle scheduling and crew scheduling, this step plays an important role in the process of transportation planning. One of the important issues in transit network design is locating transfer points. However, in the previous studies this issue was not considered, and it has been only paid attention to optimizing parameters such as travel time. This study is focused on defining the location of transfer points, as a result of transit network design, such that transfers are performed in points with higher capacities. Applying the genetic algorithm, the presented methodology is implemented on a virtual network, and the results showed that considering transfer constraint affects defining the location of transfer points.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_387_851a7691d9cc28aeeb72743bec72642f.pdf
2015-02-20
79
90
10.22060/ceej.2015.387
Bus Network Design
genetic algorithm
Transfer Points
Transfer Capacity
afshin
shariat Mohaymany
shariat@iust.ac.ir
1
Associate Professor, Iran University of Science and Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
Majid
Shalforoush
magidshalforoosh@gmail.com
2
M.Sc. Student, Iran University of Science and Technology
AUTHOR
[1] Poetranto, D.R.; “ Stop Location Problem in Public Transportation Network”, (Master Thesis, Department of Mathematics Technische Universit¨at Kaiserslautern Germany), 2004.
1
[2] رنجبری، اندیشه، ”طراحی شبکه اتوبوسرانی با تقاضاای متغیار “ ،)پایان نامه جهت گرفتن مدرک کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه علام و صنعت ایران(، استاد راهنما: دکتر افشین شریعت، 1390 .
2
[3] Aldaihani, M.M., Quadrifogli, L., Dessouky, M.M., & Hall, R., “Network design for a grid hybrid transit service”, Transportation Research Part A No. 38, pp. 511– 530, 2004.
3
[4] Baaj, M.H., Mahmassani, H.S., “An AI based approach for transit route system planning and design”, Journal of Advanced Transportation, No. 25, Vol. 2, pp. 187– 210, 1991.
4
[5] Baaj, M.H., Mahmassani, H.S., “Hybrid route generation heuristic algorithm for the design of transit networks”, Transportation Research Part C, No.3, pp. 31- 50, 1995.
5
[6] Ceder, A., Prashker, J.N., Stern, J.I., “An algorithm to evaluate publictransportation stops for minimizing passenger walking distance”, Appl. Math Modelling, Vol.7, 1983.
6
[7] Ceder, A., Wilson, N.H.M., “Bus network design”, Transportation Research Part B, No. 20, Vol. 4, pp. 331– 344, 1986.
7
[8] Cipriani, E. et al, “ Transit network design: A procedure and an application to a large urban area”, Transportation Research Part C, Emerging Technologies, Article in Press, Corrected Proof, 2010.
8
[9] Chakroborty, P., Deb, K., Subrahmanyam, P.S., “Optimal scheduling of urban transit systems using genetic algorithms”, Journal of Transportation Engineering, No.121, Vol.6, pp. 544– 553, 1995.
9
[10] Chakroborty, P., Deb, K., & Srinivas, B., “Network-Wide Optimal Scheduling of TransitSystems Using Genetic Algorithms”, Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, No.18, pp. 363- 376, 1998.
10
[11] Chakroborty, P., Wivedi, T., “Optimal Route Network Design for Transit Systems Using Genetic algorithm”, Engineering Optimization, No.34, vol.1, pp. 83– 100, 2002.
11
[12] Chakroborty, P., “Genetic algorithms for optimal urban transit network design”, Journal of Computer Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, No.18, pp. 184– 200, 2003.
12
[13] DiJoseph, P., Chien, S.I., “Optimal Service Planning for a Sustainable Transit System”, The Transportation Research Forum, The 50th Annual Meeting, 2009.
13
[14] Fan, W., Machemehl, R., “Optimal transit route network design problem with variable transit demand: genetic algorithm approach”, Journal of Transportation Engineering, No.132, Vol.1, pp. 40– 51, 2006.
14
[15] Ghanbari, R., MahdaviAmiri, N., “Solving bus terminal location problems using evolutionary algorithms”, Applied Soft Computing, No.11, pp. 991– 999, 2011.
15
[16] Guihaire, V., Hao, J., “Transit network design and scheduling: A global review”, Transportation Research Part A, No. 42, pp. 1251– 1273, 2008.
16
[17] Ibeas, A., dell'Olio, L., Alonso, B., Sainz, O., “Optimizing bus stop spacing in urban erea”, Transportation Research Part E, No.46, pp. 446– 458, 2010.
17
[18] Israeli, Y., Ceder, A., “Designing Transit Routes at the Network Level”, Transportation Research Record, No.1221, pp. 8– 22, 1989.
18
[19] Kepaptsoglou, K., Karlaftis, M., “Transit Route Network Design Problem: Review”, Journal of Transportation Engineering, No.135, Vol.8, pp. 491- 505, 2009.
19
[20] Lee, Y.J., Vuchic, V.R., “Transit network design with variable demand”, Journal of Transportation Engineering, No.131, Vol.1, pp. 1– 10, 2005.
20
[21] Mandl, C.E., “Evaluation and optimization of urban public transportation networks”, European Journal of Operational Research, No.5, pp. 396– 404, 1979.
21
[22] Murray, A. T., Davis, R., Stimson, R.J., Ferreira, L., “Public Transportation Access”, Transpn Res.-D, No. 5, Vol.3, pp. 319- 328, 1998.
22
[23] Ngamchai.S, Lovell, D., “Optimal time transfer in bus transit route network design using a genetic algorithm”, Journal of Transportation Engineering, No.129, Vol.5, pp. 510– 521, 2003.
23
[24] Pattnaik, S.B., Mohan, S., Tom, V.M., “Urban bus transit route network design using genetic algorithm”, Journal of Transportation Engineering, No.124, Vol.4, pp. 368– 375, 1998.
24
[25] Patz, A., “Die richtige Auswahl von Verkehrslinien bei groen Straenbahnnetzen”, Verkehrstechnik 50/51, 1925.
25
[26] Shariat Mohaimeni, A., Gholami, A., “Multimodal Feeder Network Design Problem: Ant Colony Optimization Approach”, Journal of Transportation Engineering, No.4, Vol.136, pp. 323- 33, 2010.
26
[27] Szeto, W.Y., Wu, Y., “A simultaneous bus route design and frequency setting problem for
27
Tin Shui Wai, Hong Kong”, European Journal of Operational Research, No. 209, pp. 141– 155, 2011.
28
[28] Zhao, F., Zeng, X., “Simulated annealing–genetic algorithm for transit network optimization”, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, No. 20, Vol.1, 57– 68, 2006.
29
[29] Zhao, F., Zeng, X., “Optimization of transit route network, vehicle headways and timetables for large-scale transit networks”, European Journal of Operational Research, No.186, pp. 841– 855, 2008.
30
[30] Wu, C., Murray, A.T., “Optimizing public transit quality and system access: the multiple-route, maximal covering/shortest path problem”, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, vol.32, pp. 163– 178, 2005.
31
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effects of Joints Spacing on Static Bearing Capacity of Rock Foundations in the case of Punching Failure
In this paper, using distinct element method, static bearing capacity of rock foundations containing one, two and three joint sets is investigated in the case of punching failure. The effect of joints spacing is incorporated to the analyses using a dimensionless factor, named spacing ratio (SR). Different values for SR are selected and variation of the bearing capacity versus SR is monitored. Then, the magnitude of SR in which the bearing capacity does not change significantly, is determined. The findings show that for SR<30, increasing the SR results in decreasing the bearing capacity, while for SR>30, the joints spacing do not affect the bearing capacity, significantly. Hence, SR=30 can be used as a criterion for analysis of rock foundations either as an equivalent continuum or a discontinuous medium. Using this criterion will tend to greatly reduce the time required for the bearing capacity analysis of rock foundations.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_388_9cb4695970702b5ff580636eb5d0407c.pdf
2015-02-20
91
100
10.22060/ceej.2015.388
Bearing Capacity
Rock foundation
Punching failure
Spacing
Direct approach
Homogenization approach
Distinct element
Meysam
Imani
imani@aut.ac.ir
1
Ph.D. Student, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
ahmad
fahimifar
fahim@aut.ac.ir
2
Professor, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
AUTHOR
Mostafa
Sharifzadeh
sharifzadeh@aut.ac.ir
3
Associate Professor, Department of Mining & Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
AUTHOR
[1] Alehossein, H., Carter, J. P. and Booker, J. R.“Finite element analysis of rigid footings on jointed rock”, 3rd International Conference on Computational Plasticity, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 935- 945, 1992.
1
[2] Bobet, A., Fakhimi, A., Johnson, S., Morris, J., Tonon, F. and Yeung M. R., “Numerical Models in Discontinuous Media: Review of Advances for Rock Mechanics Applications”, J. Geotech. and Geoenvir. Engrg., ASCE, 135(11), pp. 1547– 1561, 2009.
2
[3] Briaud, J. L. and Jeanjean, P. “Load Settlement Curve Method for Spread Footings on Sand”, Vertical and Horizontal Deformations of Foundations and Embankments, ASCE. Vol. 2, pp. 1774- 1804, 1994.
3
[4] Deere, D. and Miller, R. D., “Engineering Classification and Index Properties for intact Rock”, University of Illinois, Tech. Rep. AF WL-TR-116, 1966.
4
[5] Frank, R., Bauduin, C., Driscoll, R., Kavvadas, M., Ovesen, N. K., Orr, T. and Schuppener, B., “Designer’s Guide to EN 1997-1, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design- General Rules”, 1st ed. London, Thomas Telford Ltd, 2004.
5
[6] Imani, M., Fahimifar, A. and Sharifzadeh, M. “Upper Bound Solution for the Bearing Capacity of Submerged Jointed Rock Foundations”, Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 45, pp. 639- 646, 2012.
6
[7] Imani, M., Sharifzadeh, M., Fahimifar, A. and Haghparast, P., “A Characteristic Criterion to Distinguish Continuity of Rock Masses Applicable to Foundations”, 45th US Rock Mech/ Geomech. Symposium, San Francisco, USA, ARMA-11- 508, 2011.
7
[8] Itasca Consulting Group, Inc. UDEC: Universal distinct element code, Version 3.1., Minneapolis, MN, USA, 2000.
8
[9] Ki-Bok Min, “Fractured Rock Masses as equivalent continua- a numerical study”, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Land and Water Resource Engrg., KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004.
9
[10] Maghous, S., Bernaud, D., Freard, J. and Garnier, D., “Elastoplastic behavior of jointed rock masses as homogenized media and finite element analysis”, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min Sci. 45, pp. 1273- 1286, 2008.
10
[11] Merifield, R. S., Lyamin, A. V. and Sloan, S. W. “Limit analysis solutions for the bearing capacity of rock masses using the generalised Hoek–Brown criterion”, Int. J. Rock. Mech. Mining. Sci, 43, pp. 920– 937, 2006.
11
[12] Prakoso, W. A. and Kulhawy, F. H., “Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings on Jointed Rock Masses”, J. Geotech. and Geoenvir. Engrg., ASCE, 130(12), pp. 1347– 1349, 2004.
12
[13] Rock Foundations, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineering and Design, EM 1110-1-2908, Nov. 1994.
13
[14] Saada, Z., Maghous, S. and Garnier, D. “Bearing capacity of shallow foundations on rocks obeying a modified Hoek–Brown failure criterion”, Comput. Geotech., 35(2), pp. 144- 154, 2008.
14
[15] Serrano, A. and Olalla, C. “Allowable Bearing Capacity of Rock Foundations Using a Non-linear Failure Criterium”, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min Sci. 33(4), pp. 327- 345, 1996.
15
[16] Serrano, A. and Olalla, C. “Ultimate bearing capacity of an anisotropic discontinuous rock mass, Part I: Basic modes of failure”, Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci, 35 (3), pp. 301- 324,
16
[17] Serrano, A. and Olalla, C. “Ultimate bearing capacity of an anisotropic discontinuous rock mass, Part II: Determination procedure”, Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci, 35(3), pp. 325- 348, 1998.
17
[18] Singh, M. and Rao, K. S. “Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations in Anisotropic Non- Hoek–Brown Rock Masses”, J. Geotech. and Geoenvir. Engrg., ASCE, 131(8), pp. 1014– 1023, 2005.
18
[19] Stille, H. and Palmstrom, A. “Ground behaviour and rock mass composition in underground excavations”, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 23, pp. 46- 64, 2008.
19
[20] Sutcliffe, D. J., Yu, H. S. and Sloan, S. W. “Lower bound solutions for bearing capacity of jointed rock”, Comput. Geotech., 31, pp. 23– 36, 2004.
20
[21] Yang, X. L. and Yin, J. H. “Upper bound solution for ultimate bearing capacity with a modified Hoek-Brown failure criterion”, Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci, 42, pp. 550- 560, 2005.
21
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
پیوستگی میلگردهای فولادی و پلیمری در بتن های خودتراکم
In this research, numerous tests have been carried out for estimating the bond strength of steel and FRP bars with self- compacting and normal concrete specimens. The main experimental part of the research was concentrated on a pull out test. Two mix designs have been used for making self- compacting concrete and super plasticizer dosages of the two mixes were different. Therefore, the effect of super plasticizer dosage on bonding strength is also studied in this research.Comparing the pull out test results on self- compacting and normal concrete showed that in all conditions, the bonding of steel bars was more than that of FRP bars., Moreover, self- compacting concrete containing higher dosages of super plasticizers had more bonding strength. The existing models were not exactly enough for estimating the bonding strength of FRP bars. Therefore ABAQUS software is used for modeling this phenomenon, and two models including two and three dimensional models were compared. The results of this section showed that the three dimensional modeling was better than the others for estimating the experimental results.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_389_a7ce272e8f635d507e5aae587495e3ed.pdf
2015-02-20
101
116
10.22060/ceej.2015.389
Bond Strength
Self Compact Concrete (SCC)
Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (FRP) Bar
Pull Out Test
Moosa
Mazloom
moospoon@yahoo.com
1
Assistant Professor , Civil Engineering Department, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran
LEAD_AUTHOR
komeil
momeni
komeil110121@yahoo.com
2
Ph.D. Student, School of Engineering Department, Gilan University, Rasht
AUTHOR
[1] Achillides, Z. Pilakoutas, K., “FE modelling of bond interaction of FRP bars to concrete”, Structural Concrete; Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 7– 16, 2006.
1
[2] Bakis, C.E. Uppuluri, V.S. Nanni, A., “ Analysis of bonding mechanisms of smooth and lugged FRP rods embedded in concrete”,
2
Composites Science and Technology; Vol. 58, No. 8, pp. 1307– 1319, 1998.
3
[3] Jendele, L. Cervenka, J., “Finite element modelling of reinforcement with bond”, Computers and Structures; Vol. 84, No. 28, pp. 1780– 1791, 2006.
4
[4] Tvergaard, V., “ Effect of fibre debonding in a whisker-reinforced metal”, Materials Science and Engineering; Vol. 125, No. 2, pp. 203– 213, 1990.
5
[5] Chaboche, J.L. Girard, R. Schaff, A., “Numerical analysis of composite systems by using interphase/interface models”, Computational Mechanics, Vol. 11, No.3, 1997.
6
[6] Lin, G. Geubelle, P.H.. Sottos, N.R., “Simulation of fiber debonding with friction in a model composite push out test”, International Journal of Solid sand Structures; Vol. 38, No. 46- 47, pp. 8547– 8562, 2001 .
7
[7] Guide Test Methods for Fiber– Reinforced Polymers (FRPS) for Reinforcing or Strengthening Concrete Structures – ACI 440. 3R- 04, 2004.
8
[8] ASTM 944– 99 International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, United States, “Standard Test Method for Comparing Bond Strength of Steel Reinforcing Bars to Concrete Using Beam-End Specimens”, pp. 19428- 2959, 2004.
9
[9] Avraham, N. Amnon, Katz .Uri, Wexler, “Bond between deformed reinforcement and normal and high-strength concrete with and without fibers”, Materials and Structures ; Vol. 43, No. 10, pp. 839– 856, 2010.
10
[10] Bamonte, PF. Gambarova, PG., “High-bond bars in NSC and HPC: study on size effect and on the local bond stress-slip law”, ASCE J Struct Eng ;Vol. 133, No. 2, pp. 225– 234, 2007.
11
[11] Azizinamini, A. Stark, M. Roller, JJ. Ghosh, SK, “Bond performance of reinforcing bars embedded in high-strength concrete”, ACI Struct J 90; Vol. 5, pp. 554– 561, 1993.
12
[12] Okamura, H., “Self-compacting high-performance concrete”, Concrete Int; Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 50– 54, 1997.
13
[13] رهایی، علیرضا، طراحی و محاسبه سازه های بتن مسلح 240 - 233 ، 1382 .
14
[14] Harajli, M. Hamad, B. Karam, K., “Bond-slip Response of Reinforcing Bars Embedded in Plain and Fiber Concrete”, Journal of materials in civil engineering, pp. 503- 511, 2002.
15
[15] آیین نامه بتن ایران )آبا( ، تجدید نظر اول. 347 -370 ، 1388 .
16
[16] مبحث نهم مقررات ملی ساختمان، طرح و اجرای ساختمانهای بتن آرمه، 259 - 960 ، 1388 .
17
[17] آیین نامه ACI 318-8-0 ، طراحی سازه های بتنی و تفسیر، ترجمه علی قربانی 340 - 316 ، 1387 .
18
[18] Khayat, K. H. Mitchell, D., “Self-Consolidating Concrete for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bridge Elements”, NCHRP REPORT 628. pp. 76- 80, 2007.
19
[19] Pandurangan, K. Kothandaraman, D. Sreedaran, S., “A study on the bond strength of tension lap splices in self compacting concrete”, Materials and Structures; Vol. 43, pp. 1113– 1121, 2009.
20
[20] Menezes, F. Mounir, K., “Bond-slip behavior of self-compacting concrete and vibrated concrete using pull-out and beam tests”, Materials and Structures;Vol. 41. pp. 1073– 1089, 2007.
21
[21] Okelo, R.Yuan, R.L., “Bond strength of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Rebars in Normal Strength Concrete”, Journal of composites for construction;Vol. 203, 2005.
22
[22] Barbosa, MTG., “Evaluation of the behavior of the bond in ordinary and high strength concrete”, Doctoral Thesis, COPPE/UFRJ (in Portuguese), 2001.
23
[23] Chapman, RA. Shah, SP, “Early-age bond strength in reinforced concrete”, ACI Mater J;Vol. 84, No. 6, pp. 501– 510.
24
[24] Kim, G.B. Pilakoutas, K. Waldron, P., “Finite element analysis of thin GFRC panels reinforced with FRP”, Construction and Building Materials;Vol, 23. pp. 930– 942, 2009.
25
[25] Baena, M. Torres, L. Turon, A. Barris, C., “Experimental study of bond behaviour between concrete and FRP bars using a pull-out test”, Analysis and Advanced Materials for Structural Design (AMADE), Polytechnic School, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain, 2009.
26
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Seismic Vibration Control of Nonlinear Structures Using Semi-Active Tuned Mass Dampers
In this paper, designing semi-active tuned mass damper (SATMD) for reducing the response of nonlinear frame structures under earthquake excitations has been studied. The semi- active characteristic of the control system has been achieved by modifying the damping in each time step. To determine the appropriate command signals for selecting the damping coefficient of SATMD, a semi-active control algorithm based on nonlinear instantaneous optimal control and Clipped Optimal Control concept has been developed. Also for optimal design of the control system, the design parameters have been determined by solving an optimization problem that minimizes the maximum response of the structure using genetic algorithm (GA). As numerical example, for an eight-storey nonlinear shear frame with bilinear hysteresis behavior under white noise excitation, SATMD has been designed. The results of numerical simulations show the capability of the proposed method for determination of control signal as well as the effectiveness of the SATMD mechanism in reducing the response of the nonlinear structures under earthquake excitation. In addition, comparing the performance of SATMD with those of passive and active tuned mass dampers shows that SATMD has worked better than passive tuned mass damper while active mass damper shows better performance than SATMD
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_390_21b700ec0cef522b9c578896fa6df23f.pdf
2015-02-20
117
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10.22060/ceej.2015.390
Semi-active tuned mass damper؛ Nonlinear structures؛ Semi-active control؛ Instantaneous optimal control
Clipped optimal control
Mohtasham
Mohebbi
mohebbi@uma.ac.ir
1
Assistant Professor, Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
LEAD_AUTHOR
Hamed
Rasouli
m_mohebbi@yahoo.com
2
M.Sc. Student, Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
AUTHOR
Solmaz
Moradpour
moradpoor@yahoo.com
3
M.Sc. Student, Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
AUTHOR
[1] Zuk, W.M.; “Kinetic structures”, ASCE, J, Civil. Eng., 38(7), pp. 62- 64, 1968.
1
[2] Yao,J.T.P.; “Concept of structural control”, J. Struct. Division, ASCE, 98, ST 7, pp. 1567-1574, 1972.
2
[3] Soong, T.T.; “Active Structural Control: Theory and Practice”, 1st edn., Longman Scientific & Technical, UK and JohnWiley & Sons, New York, 1990.
3
[4] Symans, M.D. and Constantinou, M.C.; “Development and experimental study of semi-active fluid damping devices for seismic protection of structures”, Nat. Center for Earthquake Engrg. Res., Tech. Report NCEER-95- 0011, 1995.
4
[5] Sadek, F. and Mohraz, B.; “Semi-active control algorithms for structures with variable dampers”, J. Engrg. Mech. ASCE, 124 (9), pp. 981- 990, 1998.
5
[6] Jansen, L.M. and Dyke, S.J.; “Semi-active control strategies for the MR damper: A comparative study”, J. Engrg. Mech. ASCE, 126(8), pp. 795- 803, 2000.
6
[7] Connor, J.J., “An Introduction to structural motion control”, IT University Press, 2001.
7
[8] McNamara, R. J.; “Tuned mass dampers for buildings”, ASCE J. Struct. Division, 103(9), pp. 1785- 1798, 1977.
8
[9] Soong, T.T. and Dargush, G.F.; “Passive Energy Dissipation Systems in Structural Engineering”, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1997.
9
[10] Den Hartog J.P; “Mechanical Vibrations”, 4th edn, McGraw- Hill, New York, 1956.
10
[11] Warburton G.B.; “Optimal absorber parameters for various combination of response and excitation parameters”, Earthquake Eng. & Struc. Dyn., pp. 197- 217, 1982.
11
[12] Sadek F. and Mohraz, B.; “A method of estimating the parameters of tuned mass dampers for seismic application”, Earthquake Eng. & Struc. Dyn., 26, pp. 617- 635, 1997.
12
[13] Pinkaew, T. and Fujino, Y.; “Effectiveness of semi-active tuned mass dampers under harmonic excitation”, Engrg. Struct. 23, pp. 850- 856., 2001.
13
[14] Kaynia N.M., Veneziano D. and Biggs J.M ; “Seismic effectiveness of tuned mass dampers”, J. Struct. Division, ASCE,107(8), pp. 1465- 84, 1981.
14
[15] Sladek, J.R. and Klinger, R.E.; “Effect of tuned-mass dampers on seismic response”, J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 109(9), pp. 2004- 2009, 1983.
15
[16] Soto-Brito, R. and Ruiz S.E.; “Influence of ground motion intensity on the effectiveness of tuned mass dampers”, Earthquake Eng. & Struct. Dyn., 28, pp. 1255- 1271, 1999.
16
[17] Lukkunaprasit, P. and Wanitkorkul, A.; “Inelastic buildings with tuned mass dampers under moderate ground motions from distant earthquakes”, Earthquake Engrg. and Struct. Dyn., 30, pp. 537- 51, 2001.
17
[18] Mohebbi, M. and Joghataie, A.; “Designing optimal tuned mass dampers for nonlinear frames by distributed genetic algorithms”, Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build., 21(1), pp. 57-76, 2012.
18
[19] Chang, C. C. and Yang, H. T. Y. ;“Control of buildings using active tuned mass dampers”, J. Engrg. Mech., ASCE, 121(3), pp. 355-366,1995.
19
[20] Reinhorn, A., Soong, T. T., Riley, M. A., Lin, R. C., Aizawa, S. and Higashino, M.; “Full scale implementation of active control. ii: Installation and performance”, J. Struc. Eng., ASCE, 119(6), pp. 1935– 1960, 1993.
20
[21] Spencer, B.F. and Nagarajaiah, S.; “State of the art of structural control”, J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 129(7), pp. 845- 856, 2003
21
[22] Hrovat, D., Barak, P. and Rabins, M.; “Semi-active versus passive or active tuned mass dampers for structural control”, J. Engrg. Mech., ASCE, pp. 109- 691, 1983.
22
[23] Abe, M.; “Semi-active tuned mass dampers for seismic protection of civil structures”, Earthquake Eng. & Struc. Dyn, 25(7), pp. 743- 749, 1996.
23
[24] Runlin, Y. , Xiyuan, Z. and Xihui, Z.; “Seismic structural control using semi-active tuned mass dampers”, Earthquake Eng & Eng Vib., 1(1), pp. 111– 118, 2002.
24
[25] Aldemir, U.; “Optimal control of structures with semi-active-tuned mass dampers”, J. Sound Vibrat., 266(4), pp. 847- 874, 2003.
25
[26] Setareh. M; “Application of semi-active tuned mass dampers to base-excited systems”, Earthquake Eng. & Struct Dyn., 30(3), pp. 449– 462, 2001.
26
[27] Lin, P.Y., Chung, L.L. and Loh, C.H.; “Semi-active control of building structures with semi-active tuned mass damper”, Computer-aided Civil and Infrastruct. Eng., 20(1), pp. 35– 51, 2005.
27
[28] Dyke, S. J., Spencer, B. F., Sain, M. K. and Carlson, J.D.; “Modeling and control of magnetorheological dampers for seismic response reduction”, Smart Materials and Struct., 5, pp. 565– 575, 1996.
28
[29] Ji, H., Moon, Y., Kim, C. and Lee, I.; “Structural vibration control using semi-active tuned mass damper”, Proc Eighteenth KKCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering-KAIST6 December 18– 20, Taiwan, 2005.
29
[30] Chang, C. C. and Yang, H. T. Y; “Instantaneous optimal control of building frames”, J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 120(4), pp. 1307- 1326, 1994.
30
[31] Joghataie, A. and Mohebbi, M.; “Optimal control of nonlinear frames by Newmark and distributed genetic algorithms”, Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build, 21 (2): pp. 77- 95., 2012.
31
[32] Jalili .N; “A Comparative study and analysis of semi-Active vibration control systems”, J. Vib. Acoust., 124(4), pp. 593– 605, 2002.
32
[33] Jansen, L.M. and Dyke, S.J.; “Semiactive control strategies for MR dampers: comparative study”, J. Engrg. Mech., ASCE, 126(8), pp. 795- 803, 2000.
33
[34] Koo, J.H, Setareh, M. and Murray, T.M; “In search of a suitable control methods for semi-active tuned vibration absorbers”, J. Vibrat. and Contr., (10), pp. 163- 174, 2004.
34
[35] Liu, Y., Waters, T.P. and Brennan, M.J.; “A comparison of semi-active damping control strategies vibration isolation of harmonic disturbances”, J. Sound Vibrat., 280(1–2), pp.
35
21– 39, 2005.
36
[36] Symans, M.D. and Constantinou, M.C.; “Semi-active control systems for seismic protection of structures: A state-of-the-art review”, J. Engrg. Struct., 21(6), pp. 469– 487, 1999.
37
[37] Kurata, N., Kobori, T., Takahashi, M., Niwa, N., and Midorikawa, H.; “Actual seismic response controlled building with semi-active damper system”, Earthquake Eng. & Struc. Dyn., 28, pp. 1427– 1447, 1999.
38
[38] Symans, M. and Constantinou, M. C.; “Seismic testing of a building structure with a semi-active fluid damper control system”, Earthquake Eng. & Struc. Dyn., 26(7), pp. 759– 777, 1999.
39
[39] Christopoulos, C., Rotunno, M. D. and Callafon, R. A.; “Semi-active tuned mass dampers for seismic protection of MDOF
40
structures controlling the damping”, Proc., 12th European Conf. on Earthquake. Engineering, paper reference, 178, 2002.
41
[40] Bathe KJ.; “Finite element Procedures”, Prentice‐Hall, Inc. New Jersey, 1996.
42
[41] Goldberg, D.E., “Genetic algorithms in search, optimization and machine Learning”, Addison- Wesley Publishing Co., Inc. Reading, Mass, 1989.
43
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of Plastic Fines on Undrained Resistance
of Anzali Sand
In this regard, plastic fines have been added to Anzali sand with diverse proportions and then triaxial monotonic tests have been implemented to find that how these fine contents can affect the sand undrained shear behaviour. All the prepared samples had the same initial dry density and were subjected to two different confining pressures. The results show that, in comparison to the clean sand, increasing the content of plastic fines from 0 to 30% results in a decrease in the undrained shear resistance of the samples, wherease this trend is reversed for the values of fine contents greater than 30%. In addition, the effect of plastic fines on the pore pressure generation was studied in the saturated sands. The results reveal that the specimens having up to 30% plastic fine contents generated larger values of pore water pressure than clean sand specimens. And for the larger amounts of fine contents, the excess pore water pressure decreased comparing to the clean sand.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_391_563229bd6746d08b4679bd02df4a431d.pdf
2015-02-20
133
141
10.22060/ceej.2015.391
Plastic Fine
Clay
Triaxial Test
Undrained Shear Strength
Pore Water Pressure
Majid
Ebrahimi
majid_ebrahimi84@yahoo.com
1
M.Sc. Student, Campus of the the Guilan University, Iran
AUTHOR
Ali
Ghorbani
ghorbani@guilan.ac.ir
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Engineering, Guilan University, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Yaser
Jafarian
yjafarianm@yahoo.com
3
Assistant Professor, Geotechnical Engineering Research Center, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering
AUTHOR
[1] Castro G., “Liquefaction of sands”, Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard Soil Mechanics Series, Harvard University, Cambridge, M.A, 1969.
1
[2] Chen YC., Liao TS ., “Studies of the state parameter and liquefaction resistance of sand”, In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on earthquake geotechnical engineering, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 513– 8, 1999.
2
[3] Jafari, M. K., Shafiee, A ., “Mechanical behavior of campacted composite clays”, Can. Geotech. J., No. 41, pp. 1152- 1167, 2004.
3
[4] Lade PV, Yamamuro JA ., “Effects of non-plastic fines on static liquefaction of sands”, Can. Geotech. J., No. 34, pp. 918– 28, 1997.
4
[5] Miura, S., Kawamura, S., and Yagi, K., “Liquefaction Damage of Sandy and Volcanic Grounds in the 1993 Hokkaido Nansel-Oki Earthquake”, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Eng. and Soil Dynamics, St. Louis, Missouri, pp. 193- 196, 1995.
5
[6] Naeini, S.A., Baziar, M.H., “effect of fines content on steady-state strength of mixed & layered samples of a sand”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Eng. J., No. 24, pp. 181- 187, 2004.
6
[7] Naeini, S.A. and Ziaei, R., “Evaluation of undrained shear strength of loose silty sands using CPT results”, International Journal of Civil Engineering. Vol. 5, No. 2, June, 2007.
7
[8] Polito CP. “The effects of non-plastic and plastic fines on the liquefaction of sandy soils”, Ph.D. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 1999.
8
[9] Thevanayagam, S ., “Liquefaction Potential and Undrained Fragility of Silty Soils”, Proc. of 12th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand, p. 8, 2000.
9
[10] Yasrobi, S. Sh. and Abedi, M., “Effect of plastic fines on the instability of sands”, soil dynamics and earthquake engineering, No. 30, pp. 61- 67, 2010.
10
[11] Zlatovic, S. and Ishihara, K ., “On the influence of nonplastic fines on residual strength”, First Int. Conf. on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 239- 244, 1995.
11
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Concrete containing Nano Wollastonite and Modeling with GMDH-type Neural Networks
Wollastonite is a natural and low cost material, which can be replaced by cement in concrete. In the present paper, the influence of Nano Wollastonite on mechanical and durability of concrete was investigated using the measurement of compressive and flexural strength and water penetration on concrete specimens after 3, 7, 28 and 60 days. The results show that flexural strength increase of 63%, compressive strength of 9% and water penetration resistance with around 50% by substitute of 10% Nano Wollastonite. GMDH-type neural networks were used for modeling of these concrete properties. The aim of such modeling is to make a model for predicting of compressive and flexural strength of concrete with the different percentage of Nano Wollastonite. The age and percent of Nano Wollastonite were used as an input variables. The results show that the outputs of neural network model have a good agreement with experimental data.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_393_837819b1ac12860a11aa51580e09ff0c.pdf
2015-02-20
143
156
10.22060/ceej.2015.393
Concrete
Nano Wollastonite
Pressure strength
Water penetration
GMDH-type neural network
Mahmoud
miri
mmiri@hamoon.usb.ac.ir
1
Assistant professor, Civil Engineering Dept., University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Hossien
Beheshti nezhad
civileng_78@yahoo.com
2
Ph.D. Student, Civil Engineering Dept., University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
AUTHOR
Malihe
Jafari
malihe_jafari@yahoo.com
3
M.Sc. Student, Civil Eng. Dept., Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] ASTM C78, “Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading) ”, American Society for Testing and Materials, 2002.
1
[2] A.A. Basma, S. Barakat, S.A1-Orimi, “Prediction of Cement Degree of Hydration
2
Using Artificial Neural Networks”, ACI Material Journal, Vol. 96, No. 2, pp. 42- 48, 1999.
3
[3] Y. Benachour, C. A. Davy, F. Skoczylas, H. Houari, “Effect of high calcite filler addition upon micro structural, mechanical, Shrinkage and transport properties of a mortar ”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 38, pp. 727- 736, 2008.
4
[4] M. H. Fazel Zarandi, I. B. Turksen, J. Sobhani, A.A. Ramezanianpour, “Fuzzy polynomial neural networks for approximation of the compressive strength of concrete”, Applied Soft Computing Vol. 8, pp. 488- 498, 2008.
5
[5] Jian Ping Jiang, “Prediction of Concrete Strength Based on BP Neural Network”, Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 341– 342, pp. 58- 62, 2011.
6
[6] A. G. Ivakhnenko, “Polynomial Theory of Complex System”, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man & Cybern, S.M.C. 1, pp. 364- 378, 1971.
7
[7] A.G. Ivakhnenko, “The group method of data handling- a rival of the method of stochastic approximation”, Soviet Automatic Control, Vol.13, No. 3, pp. 43- 55, 1966.
8
[8] YH. Lin, YY. Tyan, TP. Chang, CY. Chang, “An assessment of optimal mixture for concrete made with recycled concrete aggregates”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 1373– 1380, 2004.
9
[9] M. M. Alshihri, M. A. Azmy, M. S. El-Bisy, “ Neural networks for predicting compressive strength of structural lightweight concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 23, pp. 2214– 2219, 2009.
10
[10] M. Barbuta1, R.M. Diaconescu, M. Harja, “Using Neural Networks for Prediction of Properties of Polymer Concrete with Fly Ash”, Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 523– 528, 2012.
11
[11] M. Dumont, Canadian Minerals Yearbook, 2005.
12
[12] N. Nariman-Zadeh, A. Darvizeh, R. Ahmad-Zadeh, “Hybrid Genetic Design of GMDH-Type Neural Networks Using Singular Value Decomposition for Modeling and Prediction of the Explosive Cutting Process”, Engineering Manufacture, Vol. 217, pp. 779– 790, 2003.
13
[13] N. Nariman-zadeh, A. Darvizeh, M. Darvizeh, H. Gharababaei, “Modelling of explosive cutting process of plates using GMDH-type neural network and singular value decomposition”, Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 128, No. 1- 3, pp. 80- 87, 2002.
14
[14] N. Nariman-zadeh, N. Darvizeh, A. Jamali, A. Moeini, “Evolutionary Design of Generalized polynomial Neural Networks for Modeling and Prediction of Explosive forming Process”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 164- 165, pp. 1561- 1571, 2005.
15
[15] BS 1881, “Method for determination of compressive strength of concrete cubes”, British Standard, Part 116, 1983.
16
[16] A. A. Ramezanianpour, A. Tarighat , “Neural Network Modeling of Concrete Carbonation”, 7th CANMENT/ACI International conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag and natural pozzolans in concrete, Chennai(Madras), India, July, 2001.
17
[17] G. D. Ransinchung, Brind Kumar, Veerendra Kumar, “Assessment of Water absorption and Chloride Ion Penetration of Pavement Quality Admixed with Wollastonite and Microsilica”,
18
Construction and Building, Vol. 23, pp. 1168- 1177, 2009.
19
[18] G. D. Ransinchung, Brind Kumar, “ Investigations on Pastes and Mortars of Ordinary Portland Cement Admixed with Wollastonite and Microsilica”, Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 305- 313, 2010.
20
[19] Renu Mathur, T. Misra, A. K. Pankaj Goel., “Influence of Wollastonite on Mechanical Properties of Concrete”, Scientific and Industrial Research, Vol. 66, pp. 1029- 1034, 2007.
21
[20] T. Sato, J. J. Beaudoin, “An Ac Impedance Spectroscopy Study of freezing Phenomena in Wollastonite Micro-Fibre Reinforced Cement Paste”, Department of Civil Engineering, NRCC- 46636, pp. 379- 388, 2003.
22
[21] S. Malasri, E. Thorsteinsdottir, J. Malasri, “ Concrete Strength Prediction Using a Neural
23
Network”, MAESC 2006 Conference, USA, 2006.
24
[22] GH. Tattersall, PH. Baker, “An instigation of the effect of vibration on the workability of fresh concrete using a vertical pipe apparatus”, Concrete Research, Vol. 14, pp. 3– 9, 1989.
25
[23] I. C. Yeh, “Modeling Concrete Strength with Argument– Neuron Network”, Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 263– 268, 1998.
26
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
An experimental study on one of the all steel Buckling Restrained Brace
Bracing is one of the primary devices that induced for resisting earthquake and wind lateral loads. Initially, the system was simple but as the time passed, due to shortcomings and economical problems, the type of braces changed and the changes were followed by its own complexion and complications. With better understanding of behavior and performance of the simple braces, the uses of these increased, but buckling was most problems in the braces. In 1973, buckling resisting braces (BRB) were introduced. In this version of braces, a steel tube prevents the buckling of axial members, which in turn leads to an increased in BRB forces. The aim of the present study was to investigate an all steel BRB with specific detailing in order to produce a uniform plastic region. Its advantages of use of this BRB are being lighter, ease of construction, core opening re-evaluation possibility after loading and use of single material.... To do so, some experimental processes on six specimens with 1:4 scales were made. The results indicated that if the required details are observed the brace would have proper behavior and high-energy absorption.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_394_d1f3b3dbb62d99dabacd61a460e8a4ce.pdf
2015-02-20
157
164
10.22060/ceej.2015.394
Buckling Restrained Brace
Concentric Braces
All steel BRB
Passive damper
ductile diagonal members
fereydon
Arbabi
f.arbabi@iiees.ac.ir
1
Professor, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and seismology, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
moien
tabarok
m.tabarok@iiees.ac.ir
2
M.Sc. Student, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and seismology, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] FEMA., “Recommended Seismic Design Provisions for New Moment Frame Buildings Report FEMA 350”, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC, 2000
1
[2] Osteraas J, Krawinkler H., “The Mexico earthquake of September19, 1985– behavior of steel buildings”. Earthquake Spectra; 5(1): pp. 51- 88, 1989.
2
[3] Kim H, Goel S., “Seismic evaluation and upgrading of braced frame structures for potential local failures”, UMCEE 24- 92 , Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 290, 1992.
3
[ 4 ]Tremblay R, Filiatrault A, Timler P, Bruneau M., “Performance of steel structures during the 1994 Northridge earthquake”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering; 22(2): pp. 60- 338, 1995.
4
[ 5 ]Krawinkler H, Anderson J, Bertero V, Holmes W, Theil Jr Ch., “Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994”, reconnaissance report, Vol.2-steel buildings. Earthquake Spectra, 11, Suppl., pp. 25- 47, C, Jan, 1996.
5
[ 6 ]Architectural Instrument of Japan, Steel Committee of Kinki Branch, “Reconnaissance report on damage to steel building structures observed from the Hyogoken-Nanbu (Hashin/Awaji earthquake)”, AIJ, Tokyo, pp. 167, 1995.
6
[ 7 ]Hisatoku T., “Reanalysis and repair of a high-rise steel building damaged by the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake”. Proceedings, 64th Annual Convention, Structural Engineers Association of California, Sacramento, CA, pp. 21- 40, 1995.
7
[ 8 ]Tremblay R, Filiatrault A, Bruneau M, Nakashima M, Prion H, DeVall R., “Seismic design of steel buildings: lessons from the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering; 23(3):pp. 56- 727, 1996.
8
[ 9 ]Tang X, Goel S., “A fracture criterion for tubular bracing members and its application to inelastic dynamic analysis of braced steel structures”, Proceedings, Ninth World Conference on earthquake Engineering, 9WCEE Organizing Committee, Tokyo, Vol. 4, pp. 285- 290, 1989.
9
[ 10]Jain A, Goel S., “Seismic response of eccentric and concentric braced steel frames with different proportions”, UMEE 79R1, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Michigan, pp. 88, 1979.
10
[ 11 ]Khatib I, Mahin S., “Dynamic inelastic behavior of chevron braced steel frames”. Fifth Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Balkema. pp. 211- 220, 1987.
11
[ 12 ]AISC, “Seismic provisions for structural steel buildings”, April 15 , American Institute of steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, IL, 1997.
12
[ 13 ]ICBO (International Conference of Building Officials), Uniform building code. Whittier, California, 1997.
13
[ 14 ]Liu Z, Goel S., “Investigation of concrete-filled steel tubes under cyclic bending and buckling”, “Research Report UMCE 87- 3. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Michigan, pp. 226, 1987.
14
[ 15 ]Kamura H, Katayama T, Shimokawa H., “Energy dissipation characteristics of hysteretic dampers with low yield strength steel”, Proceedings, US- Japan Joint Meeting for Advanced Steel Structures, Building Research Institute, Tokyo, 2000.
15
[16] Ohi K, Shimawaki Y, Lee S, Otsuka H., “Pseudo dynamic tests on pseudo-elastic bracing system made from shape memory alloy”, Bulletin of earthquake Resistance Structure Research Center; 34:pp. 8- 21, 2001.
16
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17
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ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
صلاح طیف طراحی آئین نامه 2800 ایران برای ساختگاههای نزدیک گسل
با استفاده از زلزله های ثبت شده با و بدون اثرات جهت
Many populated urban areas of Iran are threatened by near source problems; forward directivity effects and fling step, which may cause huge catastrophic. The major reason is that this country is surrounded by the two huge mountain chains, Alborz and Zagross. As an example, Tehran is a city faced around with four near active faults, Mosha, North, Ray, and Karaj faults, which are potentially hazardous. This is under the condition that the design response spectra [A*B(T)] in Iranian Standard No. 2800, which is established on the basis of ten percent chance in fifty years, does not illustratively account for the directivity effects for sites located at near sources. This article is intended to propose a technique to descriptively modify the far field response spectra taking into account such problems for sites 20 Km far away from the active faults. The proposed modification factors are developed based on a limited number of near source data with and without directivity effects (58 recorded data) using three attenuation relationships. The proposed coefficients for four site soil conditions are implemented to the existing far field design response spectra presented in the fourth version of the response spectra. A comparison is made with those of UBC-97 and ASCE-7-2005 corresponding to two seismicity cities in the United State aimed at understanding how to assess their differences. The recommended technique may be interpreted as a start for developing a series of design response spectra having the potentiality of more accurately accounting for the near source problems.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_395_98a0550771edf5683039c341d4b5f924.pdf
2015-02-20
165
188
10.22060/ceej.2015.395
Standard No. 2800
Near Source Problems
Forward Directivity Effects
AHMAD
NICKNAM
a_nicknam@iust.ac.ir
1
Associate Professor, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
Ehsan
Yousefi Dadras
ehsan_yousefi_dadras@civileng.iust.ac.ir
2
Ph.D. Candidate, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology
AUTHOR
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