ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Performance-Based Seismic Response of Continues Buried Steel Pipelines Under Near-Field Ground Motion Effects
Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) attempts to improve seismic risk through assessment and design methods that are more informative than current approaches. However, little work has been performed investigating the seismic response of buried steel pipelines within a performance-based framework. In this paper the seismic response of buried steel pipelines was studied in a performance-based context. Multiple nonlinear dynamic analyses of three buried steel pipes with different diameter to thickness and burial depth to diameter ratios, steel grade and various soil characteristics carried out using an ensemble of near-field ground motion records were scaled to various intensities to capture the behavior of buried pipeline in the range of elastic response to dynamic instability. Peak axial compressive strain in critical section of the pipe was considered as engineering demand parameter (EDP) of pipelines. Several ground motion intensity measures (IMs) are considered to investigate their correlation with EDP. Using the regression analysis in logarithmic space, the efficiency and sufficiency of investigated IMs are studied. Among the models investigated in this study, it was seen that a combined IM, PGV and SMV were the most sufficient IMS. For buried steel pipelines investigated in this study, it was concluded that PGD is the most sufficient IM for near-field ground motions. It was seen that the combined IM followed by SMV were the optimal IM for buried steel pipelines under near-field ground motions based on both efficiency and sufficiency conceptions.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3060_f08450e8cada7ef816e860b400bfca92.pdf
2019-10-23
619
630
10.22060/ceej.2018.13581.5444
Continues buried steel pipeline
Near-field ground motion
Incremental dynamic analysis
Performance-based
earthquake engineering
Intensity measure
Alireza
Kiani
a.kiani@iaubushehr.ac.ir
1
Civil Eng. Dept., Faculty Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran.
AUTHOR
Mehdi
Torabi
mehdi.torabi@iaubushehr.ac.ir
2
Civil Eng. Dept., Faculty Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Kangan Branch, Kangan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
S. Mohammad
Mirhosseini
m.mirhosayni@gmail.com
3
Civil Eng. Dept., Faculty Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] N. Luco, P. Mai, C. Cornell, G. Beroza, Probabilistic seismic demand analysis, SMRF connection fractures, and near-source effects, (2002).
1
[2] N. Shome, C.A. Cornell, P. Bazzurro, J.E. Carballo, Earthquakes, records, and nonlinear responses, Earthquake Spectra, 14(3) (1998) 469-500.
2
[3] N. Shome, Probabilistic seismic demand analysis of nonlinear structures, 1999.
3
[4] N. Luco, C.A. Cornell, Structure-specific scalar intensity measures for near-source and ordinary earthquake ground motions, Earthquake Spectra, 23(2) (2007) 357-392.
4
[5] D. Vamvatsikos, C.A. Cornell, Developing efficient scalar and vector intensity measures for IDA capacity estimation by incorporating elastic spectral shape information, Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics, 34(13) (2005) 1573-1600.
5
[6] P. Tothong, N. Luco, Probabilistic seismic demand analysis using advanced ground motion intensity measures, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 36(13) (2007) 1837.
6
[7] S.S. Mehanny, A broad-range power-law form scalar-based seismic intensity measure, Engineering Structures, 31(7) (2009) 1354-1368.
7
[8] M. Bianchini, P. Diotallevi, J. Baker, Prediction of inelastic structural response using an average of spectral accelerations, in: Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability (ICOSSAR09), Osaka, Japan, 2009, pp. 13-17.
8
[9] F. Mollaioli, A. Lucchini, Y. Cheng, G. Monti, Intensity measures for the seismic response prediction of base-isolated buildings, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 11(5) (2013) 1841-1866.
9
[10] M. De Biasio, S. Grange, F. Dufour, F. Allain, Petre-Lazar, A simple and efficient intensity measure to account for nonlinear structural behavior, Earthquake Spectra, 30(4) (2014) 1403-1426.
10
[11] B. Mackie K. Stojadinovic, Seismic Demands for Performance-Based Design of Bridges, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
11
[12] J.E. Padgett, R. DesRoches, Methodology for the development of analytical fragility curves for retrofitted bridges, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 37(8) (2008) 1157-1174.
12
[13] B.A. Bradley, M. Cubrinovski, R.P. Dhakal, G.A. MacRae, Intensity measures for the seismic response of pile foundations, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29(6) (2009) 1046-1058.
13
[14] H. Shakib, V. Jahangiri, Intensity measures for the assessment of the seismic response of buried steel pipelines, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14(4) (2016) 1265-1284.
14
[15] C. Davis, J. Bardet, Seismic analysis of large-diameter flexible underground pipes, Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, 124(10) (1998) 1005-1015.
15
[16] C.A. Cornell, F. Jalayer, R.O. Hamburger, D.A. Foutch, Probabilistic basis for 2000 SAC federal emergency management agency steel moment frame guidelines, Journal of Structural Engineering, 128(4) (2002) 526-533.
16
[17] H.-S.A. Alfredo, H. Wilson, Probability concepts in engineering planning and design, John Wily and Sons, (1975).
17
[18] A.L. Alliance, Guidelines for the design of buried steel pipe, in, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2001.
18
[19] A. Hindy, M. Novak, Earthquake response of underground pipelines, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 7(5) (1979) 451-476.
19
[20] A.-w. Liu, Y.-x. Hu, F.-x. Zhao, X.-j. Li, S. Takada, L. Zhao, An equivalent-boundary method for the shell analysis of buried pipelines under fault movement, Acta Seismologica Sinica, 17(1) (2004) 150-156.
20
[21] M. Bruneau, C.-M. Uang, S.R. Sabelli, Ductile design of steel structures, McGraw Hill Professional, 2011.
21
[22] A.U.s.M.R. ANSYS, 5.5, ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, (1998).
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[23] V. Jahangiri, H. Shakib, Seismic risk assessment of buried steel gas pipelines under seismic wave propagation based on fragility analysis, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16(3) (2018) 1571-1605.
23
[24] SigmaPlot., SigmaPlot for Windows. Ver. 10, in, Systat Software Point Richmond, CA, 2006.
24
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Investigating The Effect of Thermal Loading on Cooling Tower Shells
Thermal load is one of important loads on the cooling towers, which reduce the final resistance of the cooling towers by creating micro Cracks at the end of the wind load. In the past, the impact of these loads has been less considered. Due to the progress of the finite element methods, nowadays it is possible to model cooling towers under thermal loads. In this research, the cooling tower of Shahid Rajaee power plant was modeled using ABAQUS finite element software. Damage plasticity model was used to model the crust of this tower. Behavior of cooling tower shell under two loading was compared. In the first loading, gravity, wind and heat, and in the second loading, the gravity and wind load were applied. The difference in shell displacement, tensile and compression cracking and ultimate strength in the shell was compared in both loading. Based on this study, the difference in the displacement of the shell in two loading was 6.4%. The difference in compression damage was about 3%, and the difference in tensile damage was about 10%. The pressure damage and tensile damage was developed in the presence of thermal loading. The difference in the bending moments in two loading was about 40% at the back side of the wind. Finally, the tower shell was reached to its ultimate strength in the presence of thermal load at a lower wind pressure.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2916_74cb0106f928a870a1efa47ad6ef9bc6.pdf
2019-10-23
631
644
10.22060/ceej.2018.13858.5493
Cooling Tower
finite element method
Damage Plasticity
Thermal loads
salman
rahimian
salmanrahimian@yahoo.com
1
MSc Graduate, Yazd University
AUTHOR
reza
morshed
morshed@yazd.ac.ir
2
Yazd University / member of Scientific Board
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] V. Guideline, Structural design of cooling towers, VGB Power Tech R, 610 (2005).
1
[2] A. Committee, I.O.f. Standardization, Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318-08) and commentary, in, American Concrete Institute, 2008.
2
[3] A. Zingoni, Shell structures in civil and mechanical engineering: theory and closed-form analytical solutions, Thomas Telford, 1997.
3
[4] A. Zingoni, Self-weight stresses in hyperbolic cooling towers of general shape, International Journal of Space Structures, 14(4) (1999) 281-294
4
[5] Á. Orosz, Effects of temperature upon reinforced concrete cooling towers, Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 25(1-2) (1981) 81-93.
5
[6] J. Błocki, Stress states in cooling tower caused by thermal field, Journal of structural engineering, 114(12) (1988) 2633-2651.
6
[7] M.G. Hashish, S.H. Abu-Sitta, Response of hyperbolic cooling towers to turbulent wind, Journal of the Structural Division, 100(5) (1974) 1037-1051.
7
[8] G. Meschke, H.A. Mang, P. Kosza, Finite element analyses of cracked cooling tower shell, Journal of structural engineering, 117(9) (1991) 2620-2638.
8
[9] S.-Y. Noh, W.B. Krätzig, K. Meskouris, Numerical simulation of serviceability, damage evolution and failure of reinforced concrete shells, Computers & structures, 81(8-11) (2003) 843-857.
9
[10] S. Ke, Y. Ge, The influence of self-excited forces on wind loads and wind effects for super-large cooling towers, Journal of wind engineering and industrial aerodynamics, 132 (2014) 125-135.
10
[11] J. Noorzaei, A. Naghshineh, M.A. Kadir, W. Thanoon, M. Jaafar, Nonlinear interactive analysis of cooling tower–foundation–soil interaction under unsymmetrical wind load, Thin-walled structures, 44(9) (2006) 997-1005.
11
[12] H.C. Noh, Nonlinear behavior and ultimate load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete natural draught cooling tower shell, Engineering Structures, 28(3) (2006) 399-410.
12
[13] M. Orlando, Wind-induced interference effects on two adjacent cooling towers, Engineering structures, 23(8) (2001) 979-992.
13
[14] T. Sun, Z. Gu, L. Zhou, P. Li, G. Cai, Full-scale measurement and wind-tunnel testing of wind loading on two neighboring cooling towers, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 43(1-3) (1992) 2213-2224.
14
[15] G. Li, W.-B. Cao, Structural analysis and optimization of large cooling tower subjected to wind loads based on the iteration of pressure, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 46(5) (2013) 735-753.
15
[16] S. Ke, Y. Ge, L. Zhao, Y. Tamura, Stability and reinforcement analysis of superlarge exhaust cooling towers based on a wind tunnel test, Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(12) (2015) 04015066
16
[17] L. Zhao, Y. Ge, A. Kareem, Fluctuating wind pressure distribution around full-scale cooling towers, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 165 (2017) 34-45.
17
[18] EGI, Cooling Tower Document ‘Shahid Rajaee Thermal Power Plant’, Qazvin, Iran, in, 1990
18
[19] L. Zhao, Y. Ge, A. Kareem, Fluctuating wind pressure distribution around full-scale cooling towers, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 165 (2017) 34-45.
19
[20] L.A. Documentation, 6.13. (2014), Abaqus Analysis User's Guide.
20
[21] Z. Waszczyszyn, E. Pabisek, J. Pamin, M. Radwańska, Nonlinear analysis of a RC cooling tower with geometrical imperfections and a technological cut- out, Engineering structures, 22(5) (2000) 480-489.
21
[22] J.C. Jofriet, G.M. McNeice, Finite element analysis of reinforced concrete slabs, Journal of the structural division, 97(3) (1971) 785-806.
22
[23] M. Crisfield, Accelerated solution techniques and concrete cracking, Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering, 33(1-3) (1982) 585-607.
23
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Prediction of Flow Discharge in Compound Open Channels Using Group Method of Data Handling
Prediction of flow through the compound open channel is one of the main problems in the field of hydraulic engineering. One of the main parameter related to the flow properties in the compound open channel is shear stress. The shear stress occurs because of difference of velocities between the main channel and floodplains. The shear stress is the main causes of turbulence and vortex creation on the border of main channel and floodplains. The difference between the roughness of main channel and floodplains intensifies the shear stress in the border zone and also decreases total flow discharge. In this paper, the flow discharge in compound open channels was predicted using group method of data handling technique. To do this, related dataset was collected from literature. Involved parameters in modeling are relative hydraulic depth (Hr ), relative hydraulic radius (Rr ), relative roughness (fr ) and relative area (Ar ). To compare the performance of GMDH with other types of soft computing methods, the MLPNN as most well[1]known soft computing technique was developed as well. Results indicated that the GMDH model with coefficient of determination 0.91 and root means square error 0.057 was more accurate than the MLPNN. Reviewing the structure of developed GMDH model showed that and are the most effective parameters on prediction of flow discharge in compound open channels.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2836_7d2defa3e2ddd85829db063421051415.pdf
2019-10-23
645
656
10.22060/ceej.2018.13841.5488
Flood Management
Depth Ratio
River Engineering
artificial neural network
GMDH
Abbas
Parsaie
abbas_parsaie@yahoo.com
1
Ph.D. Candidate of Hydro-Structure Engineering, Water Engineering Department, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.
AUTHOR
Shadi
Najafian
najafianshadi.1988@gmail.com
2
Ph.D. Candidate of Hydro-Structure Engineering, Water Engineering Department, Gorgan University, Golestan, Iran.
AUTHOR
Abdolreza
Zahiri
zahiri.areza@gmail.com
3
Associate professor in Water Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural, Golestan, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] P. Ackers, Flow formulae for straight two-stage channels, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 31(4) (1993) 509-531.
1
[2] S. Atabay, D. Knight, 1-D modelling of conveyance, boundary shear and sediment transport in overbank flow, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 44(6) (2006) 739-754.
2
[3] H.M. Azamathulla, A.H. Haghiabi, A. Parsaie, Prediction of side weir discharge coefficient by support vector machine technique, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 16(4) (2016) 1002-1016.
3
[4] H. Bashiri-Atrabi, K. Qaderi, D.E. Rheinheimer, E. Sharifi, Application of harmony search algorithm to reservoir operation optimization, Water Resources Management, 29(15) (2015) 5729-5748.
4
[5] D. Bousmar, Y. Zech, Momentum transfer for practical flow computation in compound channels, Journal of hydraulic engineering, 125(7) (1999) 696- 706.
5
[6] P. Conway, J.J. O'Sullivan, M.F. Lambert, Stage– discharge prediction in straight compound channels using 3D numerical models, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Water
6
[7] Management, 166 (1) (2012) 3-15.
7
[8] M. Filonovich, R. Azevedo, L. Rojas-Solórzano, J. Leal, Credibility analysis of computational fluid dynamic simulations for compound channel flow, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 15(3) (2013) 926-938.
8
[9] F. Huthoff, P.C. Roos, D.C. Augustijn, S.J. Hulscher, Interacting divided channel method for compound channel flow, Journal of hydraulic engineering, 134(8) (2008) 1158-1165.
9
[10] S. Ikeda, I.K. McEwan, Flow and sediment transport in compound channels: the experience of Japanese and UK research, CRC Press, 2009.
10
[11] A.G. Ivakhnenko, Polynomial theory of complex systems, IEEE transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1(4) (1971) 364-378.
11
[12] K. Khatua, K. Patra, P. Mohanty, Stage-discharge prediction for straight and smooth compound channels with wide floodplains, Journal of hydraulic Engineering, 138(1) (2011) 93-99.
12
[13] D. Knight, J. Demetriou, M. Hamed, Stage discharge relationships for compound channels, in: Channels and Channel Control Structures, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, (1984) 445-459.
13
[14] T. Koftis, P. Prinos, Reynolds stress modelling of flow in compound channels with vegetated floodplains, Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, (2016) 1-11.
14
[15] H. Kordi, R. Amini, A. Zahiri, E. Kordi, Improved Shiono and Knight method for overflow modeling, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 20(12) (2015) 04015041.
15
[16] A. Mohanta, K. Khatua, K. Patra, Flow Modeling in Symmetrically Narrowing Flood Plains, Aquatic Procedia, 4 (2015) 826-833.
16
[17] M. Najafzadeh, G.-A. Barani, H.M. Azamathulla, GMDH to predict scour depth around a pier in cohesive soils, Applied ocean research, 40 (2013) 35- 41.
17
[18] M. Najafzadeh, M.R. Balf, E. Rashedi, Prediction of maximum scour depth around piers with debris accumulation using EPR, MT, and GEP models, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 18(5) (2016) 867-884.
18
[19] M. Najafzadeh, A.M. Sattar, Neuro-fuzzy GMDH approach to predict longitudinal dispersion in water networks, Water Resources Management, 29(7) (2015) 2205-2219.
19
[20] M. Najafzadeh, A. Tafarojnoruz, Evaluation of neuro-fuzzy GMDH-based particle swarm optimization to predict longitudinal dispersion coefficient in rivers, Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(2) (2016) 157.
20
[21] M. Najafzadeh, A.R. Zahiri, Neuro-fuzzy GMDH- based evolutionary algorithms to predict flow discharge in straight compound channels, 20(12) (2015) 04015035.
21
[22] A. Parsaie, A.H. Haghiabi, Predicting the longitudinal dispersion coefficient by radial basis function neural network, Modeling earth systems and environment, 1(4) (2015) 34.
22
[23] A. Parsaie, S. Najafian, M.H. Omid, H. Yonesi, Stage discharge prediction in heterogeneous compound open channel roughness, ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 23(1) (2017) 49-56.
23
[24] A. Parsaie, S. Najafian, H. Yonesi, Flow discharge estimation in compound open channel using theoretical approaches, Sustainable Water Resources Management, 2(4) (2016) 359-367.
24
[25] A. Parsaie, H. Yonesi, S. Najafian, Prediction of flow discharge in compound open channels using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system method, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 54 (2017) 288- 297.
25
[26] A. Parsaie, H.A. Yonesi, S. Najafian, Predictive modeling of discharge in compound open channel by support vector machine technique, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 1(1-2) (2015) 1.
26
[27] M. Sahu, K. Khatua, S. Mahapatra, A neural network approach for prediction of discharge in straight compound open channel flow, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 22(5) (2011) 438-446.
27
[28] K. Shiono, D.W. Knight, Turbulent open-channel flows with variable depth across the channel, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 222 (1991) 617-646.
28
[29] G. Seckin, A comparison of one-dimensional methods for estimating discharge capacity of straight compound channels, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 31(4) (2004) 619-631.
29
[30] X. Tang, D.W. Knight, Lateral distributions of streamwise velocity in compound channels with partially vegetated floodplains, Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, 52(11) (2009) 3357- 3362.
30
[31] P. Wormleaton, D. Merrett, An improved method of calculation for steady uniform flow in prismatic main channel/flood plain sections, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 28(2) (1990) 157-174.
31
[32] H.A. Yonesi, M.H. Omid, S.A. Ayyoubzadeh, The hydraulics of flow in non-prismatic compound channels, J Civil Eng Urban, 3(6) (2013) 342-356.
32
[33] C.L. Yen, D.E. Overton, Shape Effects on Resistance in Flood Plain Channels, Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, 99 (HY1) (1973) 21 9-238.
33
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Investigation of Carbonate Sand Shear Behavior Based on Manzari anid Dafalias Behavioral Model
Investigating soil characteristics and models for better design and performance of construction projects is very important. In this paper, the ability of the behavioral model of Manzari and dafaliais, which is an advanced model in the field of soil behavioral model, was evaluated to predict the shear behavior of carbonate sand with brittle seeds. Soil parameters were examined and their effects on soil behavior display were studied. By comparing strain stresses obtained from a tri-axial test and a model in loose and dense samples, it was observed that the results of the behavioral model are in good agreement with experimental results. However, by examining the volumetric strain graphs against the axial strain, the outcomes of the Manzari and dafaliais behavioral model were not sufficiently accurate in comparison with the experimental results. The main reason for this was the crushing of soil grains and its effect on soil volume variation in the Dafalias model. There is no perspective on the prediction of the volumetric strain. Nevertheless, the above-mentioned behavioral model predicts the trend of change. This behavioral model in high imbibed tensions had better results in comparison with the immensely low stresses in the study of strain volumes of samples.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3047_41ea826110c007045935ac196b34afad.pdf
2019-10-23
657
670
10.22060/ceej.2018.13856.5499
Soil
Manzari and Dafalias Behavioral Model
Carbonate Sand
Mode Parameter
Triaxial Test
mehgdad
hamidzadeh
meghdad.hamidzadeh@gmail.com
1
Imam Khomeini International University
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mahmoud
Hassanlourad
hassanlou@eng.ikiu.ac.ir
2
Imam Khomeini International University
AUTHOR
Rasoul
Mohammadpour Salout
skiani.077@gmail.com
3
Imam Khomeini International University
AUTHOR
[1] M. Hassanlorad, Investigating the behavior of non- cemented and cemented carbonated sand behavior by injection under shear loading, Ph.D. Thesis., Iran University of Science and Industry, Tehran, (2008). (In Persian)
1
[2] H. Heidarzadeh, Latifi Namin, M., Investigating the Effect of Different State Parameters on the Reform of an Elastoplastic Model in the Form of Models with limit surface, Sharif Civil Engineering Journal, Vol. 28, No. 2, (2010), pp 57-64. (In Persian)
2
[3] M. Latifi Namin, Lashkarī, A., The effect of state parameter on the prediction of elastoplastic models for soil granules, Journal of the Technical Faculty of Tehran University, vol. 38, No. 2, (2004), pp. 269- 280. (In Persian)
3
[4] K. Been, Jefferies, M. G., A State Parameter for Sands, Géotechnique, 35:2, (1985), pp 99-112.
4
[5] M. D. Bolton, The strength and dilatancy of sands, Géotechnique, 36:1, (1986), pp 65-78.
5
[6] G. D. Bouckovalas, Andrianopoulos, K. I., Papadimitriou, A. G., A Critical State Interpretation for the Cyclic Liquefaction Resistance of Silty Sands, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 23, (2003), pp 115-125.
6
[7] D. A. Cameron, Carter, J. P. A Constitutive Model for Sand Based on Non-Linear Elasticity and the State Parameter, Computers and Geotechnics, 36, (2009), pp 1219-1228.
7
[8] R. S. Crouch, Wolf J. P., Unified 3-D Criticalstate Bounding-Surface Plasticity Model for Soil Incorporating Continuous Plastic Loading under Cyclic Paths, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geom. 18:11, (1994), pp 735.
8
[9] R. S. Crouch, Wolf, J. P., Dafalias Y. F., Unified Critical-State Bounding Surface Plasticity Model for Soil, Eng. Mech., ASCE 120:11, (1994), pp 2251-2270.
9
[10] Y. F. Dafalias, Bounding Surface Plasticity. I: Mathematical Foundation and Hypoplasticity, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 112-9, (1986), pp 966-987.
10
[11] Y. F. Dafalias, Herrmann, L. R., A Bounding Surface Soil Plasticity Model, International Symposium. on Soils under Cyclic and Transient Loading, Swansea 1, (1980), pp 335-345.
11
[12] Y. F. Dafalias, Herrmann, L. R., Bounding Surface Plasticity, II: Application to Isotropic Cohesive soils, Eng. Mech., ASCE 112:12, (1986), pp1263-1291.
12
[13] Y. F. Dafalias, Manzari, M. T., Simple Plasticity Sand Model Accounting for Fabric Change Effects, Engineering Mechanics, 130:6, (2004), pp 622-634.
13
[14] Y. F. Dafalias, Popov, E. P., A Model of Nonlinearly Hardening Materials for Complex Loadings, Acta Mechanica, 21, (1975), pp 173-192.
14
[15] Y. F. Dafalias, Popov, E. P., Plastic Internal Variable Formalism of Cyclic Plasticity,Journal of applied mechanics, 98:4, (1976),pp 645-50.
15
[16] A. W. Elgamal, Parra E., Yang Z., Dobry R. and Zeghal M., Liquefaction Constitutive Model, Proc., Internationa Workshop on the Physics and Mechanics of Soil Liquefaction, P. Lade, ed., Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, (1998), pp 269-279
16
[17] Z. Gao, Zhao J., Constitutive modeling of artificially cemented sand by considering fabric anisotropy, Computers and Geotechnics, 41, (2012), pp 57-69.
17
[18] K. Ishihara, Liquefaction and failure during earthquakes’, Geotechnique, 43:3, (1993), pp 351-415.
18
[19] K. Ishihara, Tatsuoka F., Yasuda S., Undrained Deformation and Liquefaction of Sand Under Cyclic Stresses, Soils Found.,15-1, (1975), pp 29-44.
19
[20] M. B. Jefferies, Nor-Sand: a Simple Critical StateModel for Sand, Geotechnique 43:1, (1993), pp 91-103.
20
[21] A. Lashkari, A Sanisand-Structure Interface Model, Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 35:C1, (2011), pp 15-34.
21
[22] A. Lashkari, A Critical State Model for Saturated and Unsaturated Interfaces, Scientia Iranica, 19:5, (2012), pp 1147-1156.
22
[23] A. Lashkari, Latifi, M., A Simple Plasticity Model for Prediction of Non-Coaxial Flow of Sand, Mechanics Research Communications, 34, (2007), pp 191-200.
23
[24] J. Lee, Salgado, R., Analysis of Calibration Chamber Plate Load Tests, Can Geotechn, 37, (2000), pp 14–25.
24
[25] X. S. Li, Wang, W., Linear Representation of Steady-State Line for Sand, Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 124:12, (1998), pp 1215-1218.
25
[26] X. S. Li, Dafalias, Y. F., Dilatancy for cohesionless soils, Géotechnique, 50:4, (2000), pp 449-460.
26
[27] X. S. Li, Dafalias, Y. F., Wang Z. L., State-dependent Dilatancy in Critical-state Constitutive Modeling of Sand, Can. Geotech. J., 36, (1999), pp 599-611.
27
[28] I. Ling, Yang, S., Unified Sand Model Based on the Critical State and Generalized Plasticity, Engineering Mechanics, 132:12, (2006), pp 1380-1391.
28
[29] M. T. Manzarey, Dafalias, Y. F., A Critical State Two-Surface Plasticity Model for Sands, Géotechnique, 47:2, (1997), pp 255-272.
29
[30] M. T. Manzari, Prachathananukit, R., On Integration of a Cyclic Soil Plasticity model’, Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech, 25, (2001), pp 525-49.
30
[31] B. McClelland, Calcareous Sediments: An Engineering Enigma, Proceding 1st International Conference on Calcareous Sediments, Perth, Australia. Vol. 2, (1988), pp 777-784.
31
[32] Z. Mroz, Norris, V. A., Zienkiewicz, O. C., An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Soils and Its Application to Cyclic Loading, Methods Geom. 2, (1978), pp 203-221.
32
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35
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46
[47] X. Zeng, Arulanandan K. Overview of calibration of constitutive models and soil parameters. Verifications of numerical procedures for the analysis of soil liquefaction problem. 1994;2:1717-72.
47
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Evaluation of Seismic Behavior of Steel Frames Constrained with Hybrid Core Buckling-restrained Braces
Bucking restrained braced frame (BRBF) is a special type of concentrically braced frames that the braces do not buckle in compression. As a result, it shows a desirable energy dissipation behavior. However, low post-yield stiffness of these braces causes large residual deformations at high levels of earthquake intensities. The aim of this article was evaluation of the seismic behavior of a new steel structural system known as hybrid buckling-restrained braced frame (HBRBF). Nonlinear static analysis, nonlinear time history analysis and nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) methods were used for standard and hybrid core BRBFs with different stories. The average values of seismic behavior factor (R) for HBRBFs were obtained 10.2 and 14.7 for ultimate limit state and allowable stress design methods, respectively. In order to carry out response history analyses, past earthquakes records were used with different hazard levels. Hybrid buckling-restrained braced frames were shown to have a significant improvement over standard BRBFs in terms of behavior factor and damage measures including inter-story drift ratios and residual displacements.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2869_7f5c256dd00ee6d19f8645d41b78c48b.pdf
2019-10-23
671
684
10.22060/ceej.2018.13837.5486
Hybrid Buckling-restrained Brace
behavior factor
residual displacement
Nonlinear Analysis
Mehdi
Alborzi Verki
alborzi1980@gmail.com
1
Civil engineering department, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
AUTHOR
Hossein
Tahghighi
tahghighi@kashanu.ac.ir
2
Civil Engineering Department, University of Kashan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] W.A. López, R. Sabelli, Seismic Design of Buckling- Restrained Braced Frames, Steel tips, (2004) 78.
1
[2] S. Kiggins, C.-M. Uang, Reducing Residual Drift of Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames as a Dual System, Engineering Structures, 28(11) (2006) 1525- 1532.
2
[3] R. Sabelli, S. Mahin, C. Chang, Seismic Demands on Steel Braced Frame Buildings with Buckling- Restrained Braces, Engineering Structures, 25(5) (2003) 655-666.
3
[4] G.M.D. Gobbo, M.S. Williams, A. Blakeborough, Seismic performance assessment of Eurocode 8-compliant concentric braced frame buildings using FEMA P-58, Engineering Structures, 155 (2018), 192- 208.
4
[5] C. Ariyaratana, L.A. Fahnestock, Evaluation of Buckling-Restrained Brace Frame Seismic Performance Considering Reserve Strength, Eng Struct 33 (2011) 77–89.
5
[6] D.J. Miller, L.A. Fahnestock, M.R. Eatherton, Development and Experimental Validation of a Nickel–Titanium Shape Memory Alloy Self- Centering Buckling-Restrained Brace., Eng Struct 40 (2012) 288–298.
6
[7] R. Tremblay, M. Lacerte, C. Christopoulos, Seismic Response of Multistory Buildings with Self-Centering Energy Dissipative Steel Braces. , Journal of Structural Engineering 134(1) (2008) 108–120.
7
[8] C.M. Uang, M. Bruneau, State-of-the-Art Review on Seismic Design of Steel Structures, Journal of Structural Engineering, 144 (2018), 03118002.
8
[9] M. Nakashima, S. Iwai, M. Iwata, T. Takeuchi, S. Konomi, T. Akazawa, K. Saburi, Energy Dissipation Behaviour of Shear Panels Made of Low Yield Steel, Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics, 23(12) (1994) 1299-1313.
9
[10] M. Sugisawa, H. Nakamura, Y. Ichikawa, M. Hokari, E. Saeki, R. Hirabayashi, M. Ueki, Development of Earthquake-Resistant, Vibration Control, and Base Isolation Technology For Building Structures, Nippon Steel Technical Report, 66 (1996) 37–46.
10
[11] C.C. Chen, S.Y. Chen, J.J. Liaw, Application of Low Yield Strength Steel on Controlled Plastification Ductile Concentrically Braced Frames, Can J Civ Eng 28 (2011) 823–836.
11
[12] J.A. Jarrett, J.P. Judd, F.A. Charney, Comparative evaluation of innovative and traditional seismic- resisting systems using the FEMA P-58 procedure, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 105 (2015), 107-118.
12
[13] O. Atlayan, Hybrid Steel Frames, Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, 2013.
13
[14] O. Atlayan, F.A. Charney, Hybrid buckling- restrained braced frames, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 96 (2014) 95-105.
14
[15] OpenSees, Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, California, 2016.
15
[16] I.R.o.I. Vice Presidency for Strategic Planning and Supervision, Instruction for Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, Code No. 360 (1st Revision), 2014 (in Persian).
16
[17] SEAOC, Recommended Provision for Buckling- restrained Braced Frames, (2001).
17
[18] BHRC., Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings: Standard No. 2800 (4th Revision), In persian, Building and Housing Research Center, Iran, 2014 (in Persian).
18
[19] F. Mazzolani, V. Piluso, Theory and design of seismic resistant steel frames, CRC Press, 1996.
19
[20] B. Asgarian, H. Shokrgozar, BRBF Response Modification Factor, Journal of constructional steel research, 65(2) (2009) 290-298.
20
[21] C.M. Uang, Establishing R (or Rw) and Cd factors for building seismic provisions, Journal of Structural Engineering, 117(1) (1991) 19-28.
21
[22] B. Schmidt, F. Bartlett, Review of resistance factor for steel: resistance distributions and resistance factor calibration, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 29(1) (2002) 109-118.
22
[23] M. Bruneau, C.M. Uang, R. Sabelli, Ductile Design of Steel Structures, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, 2011.
23
[24] P.C. Lin, K.C. Tsai, K.J. Wang, Y.J. Yu, C.Y. Wei, A.C. Wu, C.Y. Tsai, C.H. Lin, J.C. Chen, A.H. Schellenberg, S.A. Mahin, C.W. Roeder, Seismic design and hybrid tests of a full-scale three-story buckling-restrained braced frame using welded end connections and thin profile, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 41 (2012) 1001–1020.
24
[25] MHUD, Iranian National Building Code for Structural Loadings (part 6) ,3rd Revision, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Tehran, Iran, 2013 (in Persian).
25
[26] MHUD, Iranian national building code (part 10): steel structure design, 4th Revision, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Tehran, Iran, 2013 (in Persian).
26
[27] FEMA, Quantification of building seismic performance factors (FEMA P-695), Prepared by Applied Technology Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington D.C., 2009.
27
[28] PEER Ground Motion Database, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, 2015.
28
[29] H. Tahghighi, Simulation of strong ground motion using the stochastic method: Application and validation for near-fault region, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 16 (2012), 1230-1247.
29
[30] A. Systani, B. Asgarian, A. Jalaeefar, Incremental Dynamic Analysis of Concentrically Braced Frames (Cbfs) Under Near Field Ground Motions, Modares Civil Engineering Journal, 16, (2016) 135-145 (in Persian).
30
[31] D. Vamvatsikos, C.A. Cornell, Seismic Performance, Capacity and Rellability of Structures as Seen Through Incremental Dynamic Analysis, in: Report No.151 (Ed.), Department of Civil and environmental Engineering, Stanford University, 2005.
31
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams Retrofitted with NSM-SMA/FRP
Re-centering is an exclusive characteristic of superelastic Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) which can be used in manufacturing and retrofitting of reinforced concrete elements. Reinforced concrete beams retrofitted with SMA bars have more ductility and higher energy dissipation compared to conventional RC beams. Furthermore, these beams experience less damage in consecutive loading-unloading cycles. The current research aims to investigate the behavior of reinforced concrete beams retrofitted with SMA bars using Near-Surface Mounted (NSM) flexural retrofitting method. Eleven RC beam specimens with the cross section of 200*150 mm and length of 1150 mm were cast. Three of the specimens had no external strengthening, four of them were retrofitted with SMA bars and other four beams were retrofitted with GFRP reinforcements. The specimens were subjected to three-point bending test under either monastic or loading-unloading. Different parameters including load-carrying capacity, energy dissipation, deformation recovery and reduction capability of crack width were investigated. The results showed that RC beams retrofitted with SMA bars had more mid-span deflection and higher energy dissipation compared to other specimens under monotonic loading. Moreover, under loading-unloading, RC beams retrofitted with SMA bars method experienced less damage.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2861_8e71f1f6ecb1bd9716d160d9333c2063.pdf
2019-10-23
685
698
10.22060/ceej.2018.13927.5512
Shape memory alloys
FRP Bars
Near-Surface Mounted Method
energy dissipation
Deformation Recovery
Behrouz
Farahi
behrooz.farahi@mail.um.ac.ir
1
M.Sc, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
AUTHOR
Mohammadreza
Esfahani
esfahani@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir
2
Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
javad
sabzi
sabzi.javad@mail.um.ac.ir
3
Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] R.Y. Huang, I.S. Mao, H.K. Lee, Exploring the deterioration factors of RC bridge decks: a rough set approach, Computer‐Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 25(7) (2010) 517-529.
1
[2] L.C. HOLLAWAY, Case studies, in: Strengthening and Rehabilitation of Civil Infrastructures Using Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites, Elsevier, 2008, pp. 352-385.
2
[3] J. Teng, J.-F. Chen, S.T. Smith, L. Lam, FRP: strengthened RC structures, Frontiers in Physics, (2002) 266.
3
[4] R. Seracino, M. Raizal Saifulnaz, D. Oehlers, Generic debonding resistance of EB and NSM plate-to-concrete joints, Journal of Composites for Construction, 11(1) (2007) 62-70.
4
[5] I. Liu, D. Oehlers, R. Seracino, Tests on the ductility of reinforced concrete beams retrofitted with FRP and steel near-surface mounted plates, Journal of Composites for Construction, 10(2) (2006) 106-114.
5
[6] J. Bonacci, M. Maalej, Behavioral trends of RC beams strengthened with externally bonded FRP, Journal of Composites for Construction, 5(2) (2001) 102-113.
6
[7] L. Bizindavyi, K. Neale, Transfer lengths and bond strengths for composites bonded to concrete, Journal of composites for construction, 3(4) (1999) 153-160.
7
[8] J. Sabzi, M.R. Esfahani, Flexural behavior of RC beams strengthened by CFRP sheets in the beams with low and high reinforcement ratios, Amirkabir J. Civil Eng., 50 (5) (2018) 907-918.
8
[9] J. Sabzi, M.R. Esfahani, Effects of tensile steel bars arrangement on concrete cover separation of RC beams strengthened by CFRP sheets, Construction and Building Materials, 162 (2018) 470-479.
9
[10] F. Ceroni, M. Pecce, A. Bilotta, E. Nigro, Bond behavior of FRP NSM systems in concrete elements, Composites Part B: Engineering, 43(2) (2012) 99-109.
10
[11] F. Oudah, R. El-Hacha, Fatigue behavior of RC beams strengthened with prestressed NSM CFRP rods, Composite Structures, 94(4) (2012) 1333-1342.
11
[12] R. El-Hacha, S.H. Rizkalla, Near-surface-mounted fiber-reinforced polymer reinforcements for flexural strengthening of concrete structures, Structural Journal, 101(5) (2004) 717-726.
12
[13] R. Kotynia, Bond between FRP and concrete in reinforced concrete beams strengthened with near surface mounted and externally bonded reinforcement, Construction and Building Materials, 32 (2012) 41-54.
13
[14] L.D. Lorenzis, A. Nanni, Characterization of FRP rods as near-surface mounted reinforcement, Journal of Composites for Construction, 5(2) (2001) 114-121.
14
[15] S.M. Soliman, E. El-Salakawy, B. Benmokrane, Bond performance of near-surface-mounted FRP bars, Journal of Composites for Construction, 15(1) (2010) 103-111.
15
[16] I.A. Sharaky, L. Torres, M. Baena, I. Vilanova, Effect of different material and construction details on the bond behaviour of NSM FRP bars in concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 38 (2013) 890- 902.
16
[17] S.M. Daghash, O.E. Ozbulut, Bond–slip behavior of superelastic shape memory alloys for near-surface- mounted strengthening applications, Smart Materials and Structures, 26(3) (2017) 035020.
17
[18] R. El-Hacha, M. Gaafar, Flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using prestressed, near- surfacemounted CFRP bars, PCI journal, 56(4) (2011).
18
[19] C. Czaderski, M. Shahverdi, R. Brönnimann, C. Leinenbach, M. Motavalli, Feasibility of iron- based shape memory alloy strips for prestressed strengthening of concrete structures, Construction and Building Materials, 56 (2014) 94-105.
19
[20] S. Al-Obaidi, Behavior of reinforced concrete beams retrofitted in flexure using CFRP-NSM technique, (2015).
20
[21] A. Abdulridha, D. Palermo, S. Foo, F.J. Vecchio, Behavior and modeling of superelastic shape memory alloy reinforced concrete beams, Engineering Structures, 49 (2013) 893-904.
21
[22]H. Li, Z.-q. Liu, J.-p. Ou, Experimental study of a simple reinforced concrete beam temporarily strengthened by SMA wires followed by permanent strengthening with CFRP plates, Engineering Structures, 30(3) (2008) 716-723.
22
[23] N. Wierschem, B. Andrawes, Superelastic SMA–FRP composite reinforcement for concrete structures, Smart materials and structures, 19(2) (2010) 025011.
23
[24] C. Czaderski, B. Hahnebach, M. Motavalli, RC beam with variable stiffness and strength, Construction and Building Materials, 20(9) (2006) 824-833.
24
[25] K. Moser, A. Bergamini, R. Christen, C. Czaderski, Feasibility of concrete prestressed by shape memory alloy short fibers, Materials and Structures, 38(5) (2005) 593-600.
25
[26] O. Ozbulut, S. Hurlebaus, Neuro-fuzzy modeling of temperature-and strain-rate-dependent behavior of NiTi shape memory alloys for seismic applications, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 21(8) (2010) 837-849.
26
[27] ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, 2014.
27
[28] ACI 440.2R-17. "Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded Frp Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures." Reported by ACI Committee 440.2017 (2017).
28
[29] D. Mostofinejad, A. Moghaddas, Bond efficiency of EBR and EBROG methods in different flexural failure mechanisms of FRP strengthened RC beams, Construction and Building Materials, 54 (2014) 605- 614.
29
[30] S.M. Soliman, E. El-Salakawy, B. Benmokrane, Flexural behaviour of concrete beams strengthened with near surface mounted fibre reinforced polymer bars, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 37(10) (2010) 1371-1382.
30
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Statistical Quality Control Based on the Process Capability Index and Control Charts with Fuzzy Approach (Case Study: Water and Wastewater Company of West Azerbaijan Province)
Statistical quality control is a method for monitoring the process to identify the underlying causes of changes and carrying out corrective actions. Process and capability control charts are two important applied tools for statistical quality control. In many actual systems in which accurate and certain information is not always available and the information is vague and fuzzy, fuzzy based methods can survey production process more precisely using appropriate linguistic terms and fuzzy numbers. In this study, fuzzy control charts were developed using fuzzy rules, and then the fuzzy actual capability index of process (Cpm) was investigated in order to evaluate the precision, accuracy and performance of production process in the fuzzy state. The results of the studies performed on the quality of water flowmeters in the urban water and wastewater company of West Azerbaijan province showed that using fuzzy rules provides more decision-making options to decision- makers compared to the crisp data and provided more precise division about the product quality. Also, the fuzzy actual capability index of process could propose a more precise analysis of the process taking into account the average, target value and process variance, simultaneously. The values of the fuzzy actual capability index of process in the studied case were less than one, showing that the conditions of the production process are unfavorable.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2915_8db8e09bb7435f02513f8e84412adf65.pdf
2019-10-23
699
712
10.22060/ceej.2018.13897.5504
quality control
control charts
Process Actual Capability
Fuzzy Logic
Water Flowmeters
khosro
alinejad
khosro.alinejad@yahoo.com
1
MSc student, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran
AUTHOR
rahim
dabbagh
r.dabbagh@uut.ac.ir
2
Urmia University of technology faculty member
LEAD_AUTHOR
Akbar
Shirzad
a.shirzad@uut.ac.ir
3
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Urmia University of Technology
AUTHOR
[1] Rodriguez, M., Montgomery, D. C., & Borror, C. M. (2009). Generating experimental designs involving control and noise variables using genetic algorithms. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 25(8), 1045-1065.
1
[2] Kaya, İ., & Kahraman, C. (2011). Process capability analyses based on fuzzy measurements and fuzzy control charts. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(4), 3172-3184.
2
[3] Lundkvist, P. (2015). Application of Statistical Methods: Challenges Related to Continuous Industrial Processes. Luleå tekniska universitet.
3
[4] Zadeh, L. A. (1965). Fuzzy sets. Information and control, 8(3), 338-353.
4
[5] Bradshaw Jr, C. W. (1983). A fuzzy set theoretic interpretation of economic control limits. European Journal of Operational Research, 13(4), 403-408.
5
[6] Raz, T., & Wang, J.-H. (1990). Probabilistic and membership approaches in the construction of control charts for linguistic data. Production Planning & Control, 1(3), 147-157.
6
[7] Gülbay, M., & Kahraman, C. (2007). An alternative approach to fuzzy control charts: Direct fuzzy approach. Information Sciences, 177(6), 1463-1480.
7
[8] Senturk, S., & Erginel, N. (2009). Development of fuzzy x~-r~ and x~-s~ control charts using α-cuts. Information Sciences, 179(10), 1542-1551.
8
[9] Carot Sánchez, M. T., Sagbas, A., Juan, S., & María, J. (2013). A new approach for measurement of the efficiency of Cpm and Cpmk control charts. International journal for quality research, 7(4), 605- 622.
9
[10] Wooluru, Y., Swamy, D., & Nagesh, P. (2014). The Process Capability Analysis-A Tool For Process Performnce Measures and Metrics-A Case Study. International journal for quality research, 8(3).
10
[11] Dabbagh, R., & Ahmadi, S. (2019). Evaluation of Water and Wastewater Company Performance by Using Balanced Scorecard Model. Journal of Water and Wastewater, 30(1).
11
[12] S. nazif, M., Gholami Mayani, B. Roghani, . (2017). Development of performance indicators for evaluation of wastewater treatment plant’s units. Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, Available Online from (in persian)
12
[13] Shah, S., Shridhar, P., & Gohil, D. (2014). Control chart: A statistical process control tool in pharmacy. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics (AJP): Free full text articles from Asian J Pharm, 4(3).
13
[14] A.Pandurajan, R. V. (2011). Construction of α - cut fuzzy and Xbar-R and Xbar-S Control Charts Using Fuzzy Trapezoidal Number. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, 9(1), 100–111.
14
[15] Kane, V. E. (1986). Process capability indices. Journal of quality technology, 18(1), 41-52.
15
[16] Boyles, R. A. (1991). The Taguchi capability index. Journal of quality technology, 23(1), 17-26.
16
[17] N. A. Z. Ahmad Basri, M. S. R., R. Roslan, M. Mohamad, K. Khalid. (2016). Application of Fuzzy Charts for Solder Paste Thickness, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 12(5), 4299-4315.
17
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental Study on Performance of Multi-Tiered Reinforced Soil Retaining Walls
In reinforced soil walls, if the wall divided into several sections (here called tiers) it can be called multi-tiered reinforced soil retaining walls (MRSRW). These walls are considered to be a good solution especially if the wall’s height need to increase. The main objective of the study was finding the effects of tiers horizontal distance, offset distance between adjacent tiers and number of tiers on the lateral deflection of the wall facing as well as ultimate bearing capacities of a strip footing located at top of the wall. In this study, a small scale experimental programme on MRSRW were carried out where a total of 12 experiments were performed under static loading condition. The results showed that by increasing the tiers’ width and number of tiers in MRSRW, the horizontal deflection and settlement of footing on the crest of the wall was considerably reduced. Besides, when the tires’ width increased, the lateral deflection along the wall height was significantly reduced, especially at top of the wall. The result indicated that in order to attain the highest interaction between the top and bottom sections of the MRSRWs, having four reinforcement layers and one tier (with tier’s width/wall’s height ratio equal to 0.35) can provide the best result in regard to both lowest lateral deflection and highest bearing capacity of footing installed at top of the wall.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3013_1c1f8d78a97f5a11aeccf8148c8816b7.pdf
2019-10-23
713
724
10.22060/ceej.2018.13915.5509
Geogrid
Reinforced soil
Retaining walls
Multi-tiered configuration
offset distance
Abas
Abedi
abbas.abedi.civil1991@gmail.com
1
Civil Engineering Department, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
AUTHOR
Jahangir
Khazaei
j.khazaie@razi.ac.ir
2
civil engineering, razi university, kermanshah, iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
hossein
moayedi
hossein.moayedi@gmail.com
3
Civil Engineering Department, Kermanshah University of Technology
AUTHOR
[1] M. Darbin, Reinforced Earth for Construction of Freeways, Revue Generale des Routes et Aerodromes, (1970).
1
[2] J.E. Nicks, Case Study: Condition Assessment of a 36-Year-Old Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall in Virginia, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, (2016) 143-145
2
[3] R.M. Koerner, Designing with geosynthetics, Xlibris Corporation, 2012.
3
[4] N. Abu-Hejleh, T. Wang, J.G. Zornberg, Performance of geosynthetic-reinforced walls supporting the Founders/Meadows Bridge and approaching roadway structures, in: Geo-Denver, ASCE, Denver, Colorado, 2000.
4
[5] M. Saghebfar, et al., Performance monitoring of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge System (GRS-IBS) in Louisiana, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 45(2) (2017) 34-47.
5
[6] J.H. Huang, J. Parsons, R.L. Pierson, M., Refined numerical modeling of a laterally loaded drilled shaft in an MSE wall, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 37 (2013) 61-73.
6
[7] J.B.-S. Huang, S. Han, J. Rahman, M.S., Modeling of laterally loaded drilled shaft group in MSE wall, ICE Geotech. Eng. J., 167 (2014) 402-414.
7
[8] K.Z. Lee, and Jonathan TH Wu., A synthesis of case histories on GRS bridge-supporting structures with flexible facing., Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 22(4) (2004) 181-204.
8
[9] S.B. Mohamed, Kuo-Hsin Yang, and Wen-Yi Hung., Limit equilibrium analyses of geosynthetic-reinforced two-tiered walls: Calibration from centrifuge tests, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 41 (2013) 1-16.
9
[10] FHWA; Design and Construction of Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes, Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Publication, 2009.
10
[11] H. Liu, G. Yang, H.I. Ling, Seismic response of multi- tiered reinforced soil retaining walls, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 61–62 (2014) 1-12.
11
[12] N. Abu-Hejleh, T. Wang, J.G. Zornberg, Performance of geosynthetic-reinforced walls supporting the Founders/Meadows Bridge and approaching roadway structures, in: Geo-Denver, ASCE, Denver, Colorado, 2001.
12
[13] A.W. Stuedlein, M. Bailey, D. Lindquist, J. Sankey, W.J. Neely, Design and Performance of a 46-m-High MSE Wall, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 136(6) (2010)
13
[14] D. Leshchinsky, and Jie Han., Geosynthetic reinforced multitiered walls, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 130(12) (2004) 1225-1235.
14
[15] C.-S. Yoo, and Joo-Suk Kim, Behavior of Soil- Reinforced Retaining Walls in Tiered Arrangement, Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, 18(3) (2003) 61-72.
15
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[17] C.a.S.B.K. Yoo, Design Approaches of Geosynthetic Reinforced Modular Block Wall in Tiered Configuration: A Comparative Study, Geosynthetics in Reinforcement and Hydraulic Applications, (2007) 1-10.
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[18] C. Yoo, and Hyuck-Sang Jung, Measured behavior of a geosynthetic-reinforced segmental retaining wall in a tiered configuration, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 22(5) (2004) 359-376.
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[19] C. Yoo, and Sun-Bin Kim, Performance of a two-tier geosynthetic reinforced segmental retaining wall under a surcharge load: full-scale load test and 3D finite element analysis, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 26(6) (2008) 460-472.
19
[20] G.-Q. Yang, et al, Post-construction performance of a two-tiered geogrid reinforced soil wall backfilled with soil-rock mixture, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 42(2) (2014) 91-97.
20
[21] S.B. Mohamed, Kuo-Hsin Yang, and Wen-Yi Hung., Finite element analyses of two-tier geosynthetic- reinforced soil walls: Comparison involving centrifuge tests and limit equilibrium results, Computers and Geotechnics, 61 (2014) 67-84.
21
[22] F. Vahedifard, Shahriar Shahrokhabadi, and Dov Leshchinsky., Geosynthetic-reinforced soil structures with concave facing profile, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 44(3) (2016) 358-365.
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[25] H.a.M.H.-B. Ahmadi, Experimental and analytical investigations on bearing capacity of strip footing in reinforced sand backfills and flexible retaining wall, Acta Geotechnica, 7(4) (2012) 357-373.
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28
[29] B.M. Das, Principles of foundation engineering, Cengage Learning, Boston, USA, 2014.
29
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Evaluation of Factors Affecting Carrying Capacity of Laboratory Flotation Column Treating Copper Sulfides
One of the necessary parameters in designing and scaling up flotation columns is carrying capacity (Ca ) which can be determined in terms of mass of solids per unit time per unit column cross-sectional area. The prediction of Ca for a given flotation technology has been commonly achieved using a simplified expression based on a representative particle size and density of the floatable material, regarding several assumptions in limited data ranges. In determining the Ca , the effect of operational parameters, such as particle size, pulp solids rate, bubble diameter, air flow rate, pulp solid content, frother dosage and froth height should be considered. In this study, the effect of these parameters on the Ca was investigated in column flotation. The studied sample was obtained from rougher circuit concentrate of Sungun copper complex flotation plant. It was found that when the pulp solid rate increased up to 1.4 cm/s, more surface of bubbles is covered by entering more solid particles to the column and Ca increased, but it decreased in higher rates. In lower speed of input pulp, the increase of frother dosage led to higher Ca , but in pulp rate higher than 1.2 cm/s, the maximum Ca was obtained in frother dosage of 45 ppm. By decreasing the froth height and increasing the solid percent up to 30%, Ca increased. Likewise, the results of the experiments with particles of different size distribution showed that the input pulp with size 44-63 μm had the maximum Ca.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2785_a0bf1535a6dc20f37ef770ac5b39eef3.pdf
2019-10-23
725
732
10.22060/ceej.2018.12464.5218
Copper sulphide ores
Carrying capacity
Column flotation
Operating parameters
Sungun
mehdi
Irannajad
iranajad@aut.ac.ir
1
Mining &amp; Metallurgical Eng. Department
LEAD_AUTHOR
رحمان
سلطان پور
r.soltanpoor@yahoo.com
2
دانشکده مهندسی معدن و متالورژی، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر
AUTHOR
فردیس
نخعی
fardis_nakhaei@aut.ac.ir
3
null
AUTHOR
[1] A. Azizi, A study on the modified flotation parameters and selectivity index in copper flotation. Particulate Science and Technology, 35 (1), (2017): 38-44.
1
[2] Y. Liao, J. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Cao, Simulating a fuzzy level controller for flotation columns. Mining Science and Technology, 21, (2011): 815-818.
2
[3] H. A. M. Ahmed, G. M. A. Mahran, Processing of iron ore fines from Alswaween Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Physicochemical problems of mineral processing, 49 (2), (2013): 419−430.
3
[4] M. S. Jena, S. K. Biswal, S. P. Das, and P. S. R. Reddy, Comparative study of the performance of conventional and column flotation when treating coking coal fines. Fuel Processing Technology, 89, (2008): 1409–1415.
4
[5] H. Hacifazlioglu, Recovery of coal from cyclone overflow waste coals by using a combination of jameson and column flotation, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects, 33, (2011): 2044-2057.
5
[6] O. Dalahmetoglu, M. Kemal, Optimisation of enrichment conditions of Zonguldak hardcoal with column flotation.; In: Kemal, Arslan, Akar & Canbazoglu (eds.) Changing Scopes in Mineral Processing, Balkema, Rotterdam, (1996): 355-360.
6
[7] T. C. Eisele, S. K. Kawatra, Stabilization of flotation column performance by horizontal baffle columns. Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, 24 (2), (2007): 61-66.
7
[8] T. P. Meloy, Analysis and optimization of mineral processing and coal cleaning circuit- circuit analysis. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 10 (1), (1983): 61-80.
8
[9] R. Amelunxen, The mechanics of operation of column flotation machines. Proceedings of 17th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mineral Processors; CIM, Ottawa, (1985), 13–18
9
[10] T. F. Al-Fariss, K. A. El-Nagdy, F. A. Abd El- Aleem, A. A. El- Midany, Column versus mechanical flotation for calcareous phosphate fines upgrading. Particulate Science and Technology, 31 (5), (2013): 488-493.
10
[11] K. N. Subramanian, D. E. G. Lonnelly, K. Y., Wong, Commercialization of a column flotation circuit for gold sulphide ore. Society of Mining Engineers, Littleton, Colorado, (1988): 13-18.
11
[12] S. Dey, S. Pani, R. Singh, G. M. Paul, Response of process parameters for processing of iron ore slime using column flotation. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 140, (2015): 58–65.
12
[13] D. Tao, G. H. Luttrell, R. H. Yoon, A parametric study of froth stability and its effect on column flotation of fine particles. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 59, (2000): 25-43.
13
[14] P. S. R. Reddy, S. G. Kumar, K. K. Bhattacharyya, S. R. S. Sastri, K. S. Narasimhan, Flotation column for fine coal beneficiation. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 24, (1988): 161-172.
14
[15] J. A. Finch, G. S. Dobby, Column Flotation, Vol. 180. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1990.
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[16] S. T. Hall, The treatment of industrial minerals by column flotation. Indian Mineral Processing Supply (1990): 30-36.
16
[17] A. Uribe-Salas, R. Pérez-Garibay, F. Nava-Alonso, Operating parameters that affect the carrying capacity of column flotation of a zinc sulfide mineral. Mineral Engineering, 20 (7), (2007): 710-715.
17
[18] V. Martinez-Gomez, R. Pérez-Garibay, J. Rubio, Factors involving the solids-carrying flotation capacity of microbubbles. Minerals Engineering, 53, (2013): 160–166.
18
[19] J. B. Yianatos, F. A. Contreras, On the Carrying capacity limitation in large flotation cells. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 49 (4), (2010): 345-352.
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[20] R. P. King, T. A. Hatton, D. G. Hulbert, Bubble loading during flotation. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, (1974):112–115.
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[21] P. M. Gallegos-Acevedo, R. Pérez-Garibay, A. Uribe-Salas, Maximum bubble loads: experimental measurements vs. analytical estimation. Minerals Engineering, 19, (2006):12-18.
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[22] R. Espinosa-Gomez, J. A. Finch, J. B. Yianatos, G. S. Dobby, Column carrying capacity: particle size and density effects. Minerals Engineering, 1 (1), (1998): 77-79.
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[23] K. V. S. Sastri, Technical note: Carrying capacity in flotation columns. Minerals Engineering, 9 (4), (1996): 465-468.
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[24] A. Patwardhan, R Q. Honaker, Development of a carrying-capacity model for column froth flotation. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 59, (2000): 275–293.
24
[25] Y. Vazifeh, E. Jorjani, A. Bagherian, Optimization of reagent dosages for copper flotation using statistical technique, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 20, (2010): 2371-2378.
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[26] U. P. Veera, K. L. Kataria, J. B. Joshi, Effect of superficial gas velocity on gas holdup profiles in foaming liquids in bubble column reactors. Chemical engineering journal, 99, (2004): 53–58.
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[27] J. A. Finch, J. Xiao, C. Hardie, C. O. Gomez, Gas Dispersion Properties: Bubble Surface Area Flux and Gas Holdup, Minerals Engineering, 13 (4), (2000): 365-372.
27
[28] R. Pérez-Garibay, E. Martínez-Ramos, J. Rubio, Gas dispersion measurements in microbubble flotation systems. Minerals Engineering, 26 (15), (2012): 34–40.
28
[29] R. Pérez Garibay, A. P. M. Gallegos, S. A. Uribe, F. Nava, Effect of collection zone height and operating variables on recovery of overload flotation columns. Minerals Engineering, 15, (2002): 325-331
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[30] H. Kursun, Determination of carrying capacity using talc in column flotation. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 36, (2011): 703-711
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[31] R. M. Rahman, S. Ata, G. J. Jameson, The effect of flotation variables on the recovery of different particle size fractions in the froth and the pulp. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 106-109, (2012): 70–77
31
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
A Mixed Analytical Approach based on Semi-Timoshenko Planar Fiber Frame Element and Modified Compression Field Theory in RC Structures
An accurate assessment of the behavior of structures by an analytical method should be able to estimate the initial stiffness of the structure, the maximum capacity and the local and global ductility. In this research, in order to simulate the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete structures under monotonic loading, a new fiber beam-column element was developed with a displacement control method using linearized arc-length approach. The formulation of the implemented element was based on the combination of Bernoulli and Timoshenko’s theory along with the axial, flexural, and shear interaction effects of each element. The cross-sectional area of each element in Gaussian points was equivalent to a set of discrete fibers with uniaxial constitutive behavior in the process of nonlinear solution. Also, in order to consider the elemental shear deformation, the four-way smeared cracked approach and the modified compression field theory (MCFT) was considered in nonlinear shear analysis using the direct-displacement control algorithm in the main sub-program. The reference configuration of numerical formulation was considered according to the configuration of the previous step and the initial configuration, simultaneously. The analytic approach of the algorithm had the ability to change the updated Lagrangian formulation to the total Lagrangian in accordance with the problem-solving convergence. The developed fiber element was validated by numerous experimental experiments and the evaluation of the proposed analytical method was tested. The proposed method led to an appropriate solution and an acceptable convergence process with high processing speed for problems with mixed combinational mechanisms.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2904_9eeccfbab7627499362122bc821ef289.pdf
2019-10-23
733
748
10.22060/ceej.2018.14017.5536
Fiber Beam-Column Element
Displacement Control
Linearized Arc-Length
Timoshenko's Theory
Modified Compression Field Theory
Behrooz
Yousefi
b.yousefi@mail.um.ac.ir
1
Civil Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
AUTHOR
Mohammadreza
Esfahani
esfahani@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi Unversity of Mashhad
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mohammad Reza
Tavakolizadeh
drt@um.ac.ir
3
Civil Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] F. Taucer, E. Spacone, F.C. Filippou, A fiber beam-column element for seismic response analysis of reinforced concrete structures, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, University of California Berkeley, California, 1991.
1
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2
[3] M.H. Scott, G.L. Fenves, Plastic hinge integration methods for force-based beam–column elements, Journal of Structural Engineering, 132(2) (2006) 244- 252.
3
[4] Z.-X. Li, Y. Gao, Q. Zhao, A 3D flexure–shear fiber element for modeling the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete columns, Engineering Structures, 117(Supplement C) (2016) 372-383.
4
[5] P. Ceresa, L. Petrini, R. Pinho, Flexure-shear fiber beam-column elements for modeling frame structures under seismic loading—state of the art, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 11(S1) (2007) 46-88.
5
[6] M. Lodhi, H. Sezen, Estimation of monotonic behavior of reinforced concrete columns considering shear‐flexure‐axial load interaction, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 41(15) (2012) 2159-2175.
6
[7] A. Marini, E. Spacone, Analysis of reinforced concrete elements including shear effects, ACI Structural Journal, 103(5) (2006) 645.
7
[8] P. Mergos, A. Kappos, A distributed shear and flexural flexibility model with shear–flexure interaction for R/C members subjected to seismic loading, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 37(12) (2008) 1349-1370.
8
[9] S.Y. Xu, J. Zhang, Hysteretic shear–flexure interaction model of reinforced concrete columns for seismic response assessment of bridges, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 40(3) (2011) 315- 337.
9
[10] S.-Y. Xu, J. Zhang, Axial–shear–flexure interaction hysteretic model for RC columns under combined actions, Engineering Structures, 34 (2012) 548-563.
10
[11] M. Petrangeli, P.E. Pinto, V. Ciampi, Fiber element for cyclic bending and shear of RC structures. I: Theory, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 125(9) (1999) 994-1001.
11
[12] P. Ceresa, L. Petrini, R. Pinho, R. Sousa, A fibre flexure–shear model for seismic analysis of RC‐framed structures, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 38(5) (2009) 565-586.
12
[13] R.S. Stramandinoli, H.L. La Rovere, FE model for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete beams considering shear deformation, Engineering structures, 35 (2012) 244-253.
13
[14] T. Mullapudi, A. Ayoub, Analysis of reinforced concrete columns subjected to combined axial, flexure, shear, and torsional loads, Journal of Structural Engineering, 139(4) (2012) 561-573.
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[15] M. Sasani, A. Werner, A. Kazemi, Bar fracture modeling in progressive collapse analysis of reinforced concrete structures, Engineering Structures, 33(2) (2011) 401-409.
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[16]H.R. Valipour, S.J. Foster, Finite element modelling of reinforced concrete framed structures including catenary action, Computers & structures, 88(9) (2010) 529-538.
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[17] K. Orakcal, L.M.M. Sanchez, J.W. Wallace, Analytical modeling of reinforced concrete walls for predicting flexural and coupled-shear-flexural responses, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 2006.
17
[18] A. Bazoune, Y. Khulief, N. Stephen, Shape functions of three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 259(2) (2003) 473- 480.
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[19] S. Puchegger, S. Bauer, D. Loidl, K. Kromp, H. Peterlik, Experimental validation of the shear correction factor, Journal of sound and vibration, 261(1) (2003) 177-184.
19
[20] W. Yu, D.H. Hodges, Elasticity solutions versus asymptotic sectional analysis of homogeneous, isotropic, prismatic beams, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 71(1) (2004) 15-23.
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[21] J. Hutchinson, Shear coefficients for Timoshenko beam theory, TRANSACTIONS-AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS, 68(1) (2001) 87-92.
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[22] S. Dong, C. Alpdogan, E. Taciroglu, Much ado about shear correction factors in Timoshenko beam theory, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 47(13) (2010) 1651-1665.
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[23] K. Chan, K. Lai, N. Stephen, K. Young, A new method to determine the shear coefficient of Timoshenko beam theory, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 330(14) (2011) 3488-3497.
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[26] K. Maekawa, H. Okamura, A. Pimanmas, Non- linear mechanics of reinforced concrete, Spon Press, 2003.
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[33] C. Jin, M. Soltani, X. An, Experimental and numerical study of cracking behavior of openings in concrete dams, Computers & structures, 83(8) (2005) 525-535.
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36
[37] C.A. Felippa, Nonlinear finite element methods, Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and Center for Space Structures and Controls, 2001.
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38
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39
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40
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[42] S. Shaingchin, P. Lukkunaprasit, S.L. Wood, Influence of diagonal web reinforcement on cyclic behavior of structural walls, Engineering Structures, 29(4) (2007) 498-510.
42
[43] S.-C. Chun, D.-Y. Kim, Evaluation of mechanical anchorage of reinforcement by exterior beam-column joint experiments, in: Proceedings of 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (2004).
43
[44] F.J. Vecchio, M.B. Emara, Shear deformations in reinforced concrete frames, ACI Structural Journal, 89(1) (1992) 46-56.
44
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Laboratory Study of the Effects of Step Number, Slope and Particle Size on Energy Dissipation in Gabion Stepped Weirs
Gabion stepped weir is a simple hydraulic and environment friendly structure that can be used to dissipate flow energy in downstream of dams or to control downstream erosion of various structures. Most researches have been related to concrete and rigid stepped spillways, so studies on gabion stepped weirs are very small. In this research, using the experimental method and physical model, various components that affected the energy loss in gabion stepped weirs were studied and comparisons with other studies by researchers were also made. The flow passes in gabion stepped weir was carried out both in overflow and inflow (both simultaneously) and the amount of energy dissipation along the structure was calculated based on the energy relation. In this study, completely uniform particles with three diameters (d50) of 10, 25 and 40 mm were used. The height and width of physical models made of gabion stepped weirs were 60 cm and 40 cm respectively, with stairs of 3, 6 and 12 and height of stairs 5, 10 and 20 cm and the slope of the weirs are 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (2 and 3 horizontals, 1 vertical). In the gabion stepped weirs, the downward slope of the weir had a negligible impact on the energy dissipation. As the number of steps increased (for constant h/l), the energy loss was decreased. The average diameter of the particles of 10 mm for y0/Hw<0.92 and the average diameter of the particles of 40 mm for y0/Hw>0.92 had the highest of relative energy loss. Due to the fact that the stone materials used in this research are of a broken type, it is recommended that further research be carried out on round stone materials.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2865_6efe898e2e642347410549ff01c044fe.pdf
2019-10-23
749
756
10.22060/ceej.2018.13984.5527
Gabion Weir
stepped spillway
energy loss
Stone Size
Sina
Razi
razi_sina@yahoo.com
1
PhD candidate, University of Tabriz, Tabriz-Iran
AUTHOR
Farzin
Salmasi
ferzin.salmasi@gmail.com
2
Tabriz University, Agricultural faculty, Irrigation department
LEAD_AUTHOR
Ali
Hoseinzade Dalir
ahdalir@tabrizu.ac.ir
3
Professor, University of Tabriz, Tabriz-Iran
AUTHOR
[1] I. Ohtsu, Y. Yasuda, M. Takahashi, Flow characteristics of skimming flows in stepped channels, Journal of hydraulic Engineering, 130(9) (2004) 860- 869.
1
[2] C. Chinnarasri, S. Wongwises, Flow regimes and energy loss on chutes with upward inclined steps, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 31(5) (2004) 870-879.
2
[3] R.M. Boes, W.H. Hager, Two-phase flow characteristics of stepped spillways, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 129(9) (2003) 661-670.
3
[4] C. Chinnarasri, S. Donjadee, U. Israngkura, Hydraulic characteristics of gabion-stepped weirs, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 134(8) (2008) 1147-1152.
4
[5] F. Salmasi, M. Chamani, D.F. Zadeh, Experimental study of energy dissipation over stepped gabion spillways with low heights, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology. Transactions of Civil Engineering, 36(C2) (2012) 253.
5
[6] H.I. Mohamed, Flow over gabion weirs, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 136(8) (2009) 573-577.
6
[7] C.A. Gonzalez, M. Takahashi, H. Chanson, An experimental study of effects of step roughness in skimming flows on stepped chutes, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 46(sup1) (2008) 24-35.
7
[8] R.M. Sorensen, Stepped spillway hydraulic model investigation, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 111(12) (1985) 1461-1472.
8
[9] G.C. Christodoulou, Energy dissipation on stepped spillways, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 119(5) (1993) 644-650.
9
[10] W. Rand, Flow geometry at straight drop spillways, in: Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE, 1955, pp. 1-13.
10
[11] L.a. Peyras, P. Royet, G. Degoutte, Flow and energy dissipation over stepped gabion weirs, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 118(5) (1992) 707-717.
11
[12] M. Chamani, N. Rajaratnam, Characteristics of skimming flow over stepped spillways, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 125(4) (1999) 361-368.
12
[13] A. Hamedi, A. Mansoori, I. Malekmohamadi, H. Roshanaei, Estimating energy dissipation in stepped spillways with reverse inclined steps and end sill, in: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011: Bearing Knowledge for Sustainability, 2011, pp. 2528-2537.
13
[14] H.K. Zare, J.C. Doering, Effect of rounding edges of stepped spillways on the flow characteristics, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 39(2) (2012) 140-153.
14
[15] C. Chinnarasri, S. Wongwises, Flow Patterns and Energy Dissipation over Various Stepped Chutes, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 132(1) (2006) 70-76.
15
[16] G.M.A. Aal, M. Sobeah, E. Helal, M. El-Fooly, Improving energy dissipation on stepped spillways using breakers, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, (2017).
16
[17] E. Elnikhely, Investigation and analysis of scour downstream of a spillway, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, (2017).
17
[18] D. Stephenson, Gabion energy dissipators, in: Proc. 13th ICOLD Congress, 1979, pp. 33-43.
18
[19] G.G. Pegram, A.K. Officer, S.R. Mottram, Hydraulics of skimming flow on modeled stepped spillways, Journal of hydraulic engineering, 125(5) (1999) 500-510.
19
[20] C.-l. Chen, Momentum and energy coefficients based on power-law velocity profile, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 118(11) (1992) 1571-1584.
20
[21] J. Kells, Energy dissipation at a gabion weir with throughflow and overflow, in: Ann. Conference Can. Soc. Civ. Engrg., Winnipeg, Canada, June, 1994, pp. 1-4.
21
[22] J.M. Leu, H.C. Chan, M.S. Chu, Comparison of turbulent flow over solid and porous structures mounted on the bottom of a rectangular channel, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 19(6) (2008) 331-337.
22
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Seismic Assessment of Steel Frame Bridges and Comparison with Damage Indices
Vulnerability assessment and seismic retrofit of bridges as lifelines are of great importance. In recent years, performance-based procedures in bridges are taken into consideration by researchers. In this paper after evaluation of proposed methods for seismic performance assessment of bridges, a laboratory model of box-shaped steel bridge piers was analyzed for verification and results were compared with a tested model’s data. Then based on the properties of a real bridge, several bridges’ models were designed for parametric studies. The mentioned bridge is continuous and consists of steel moment frames in a longitudinal direction. Further, after evaluating performance levels of the bridges, obtained results were compared with damage indices and the difference between structural specifications and mentioned indices were indicated. The nonlinear static analysis procedure was utilized to analyze the models. Energy, effective stiffness and Park-Ang damage indices were employed to evaluate damage. Independence of indices from geometric changes of structures, the high adaptation of Park- Ang index with energy index due to use of energy as a common concept and more accurate results of energy damage index in each performance level were some of the results.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3098_90d2e6fe96ab3a816c9dee0348ad7ca5.pdf
2019-10-23
757
766
10.22060/ceej.2018.10095.4825
vulnerability
seismic performance
steel bridge
Nonlinear Static analysis
damage index
Alireza
Rahaei
rahai@aut.ac.ir
1
Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Ali
Mirzazade
mirzazade@aut.ac.ir
2
دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر
AUTHOR
Negin
Sadeghi
nsadeghi128@gmail.com
3
Civil Engineering,Amirkabir university,Tehran,Iran
AUTHOR
[1] H. Iemura and T. Mikami, “Demand Spectra Of yielding and ductility factor for requierd seismic performance objectives,” Proceeding JSCE, no. 689, pp. 333–342, 2001.
1
[2] B. C. Pantelides, D. Ph, and L. Reaveley, “IN-SITU TESTS OF THREE BRIDGE ON INTERSTATE 15 –,” no. June, 2003.
2
[3] S. Banerjee and M. Shinozuka, “Experimental verification of bridge seismic damage states quantified by calibrating analytical models with empirical field data,” Earthq. Eng. Eng. Vib., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 383– 393, Dec. 2008.
3
[4] N. Roy, P. Paultre, and J. Proulx, “Performance- based seismic retrofit of a bridge bent: Design and experimental validation,” Can. J. Civ. Eng., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 367–379, Mar. 2010.
4
[5] M. K. Bahrani, V. A, E. A, and S. M, “Experimental study on Seismic Behavior of Conventional Concrete Bridge Bents,” J. Seismol. Earthq. Eng., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 107–118, 2010.
5
[6] A. Ghobarah, H. Abou-Elfath, and A. Biddah, “Response-based damage assessment of structures,” Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 79–104, Jan. 1999.
6
[7] American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), “FEMA 356 Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Building,” 2000.
7
[8] A.R. Rahai and A. Firouzi, “Performance assessment, vulnerability and retrofitting of bridges,” Tehran: Amirkabir University of Technology publication, 2005.
8
[9] F. Azhdary and N. Shabakhty, “PERFORMANCE BASED DESIGN AND DAMAGES ESTIMATION OF STEEL FRAMES WITH CONSIDERATION OF UNCERTAINTIES,” Teh. Vjesn., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 351–358, 2014.
9
[10] K. Arjomandi, H. Estekanchi, and A. Vafai, “Correlation Between Structural Performance Levels and Damage Indexes in Steel Frames Subjected to Earthquakes,” Sci. Iran., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 147–155, 2009.
10
[11] Y. J. Park, A. H. S. Ang, and Y. K. Wen, “Seismic Damage Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings,” J. Struct. Eng., vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 740–757, Apr. 1985.
11
[12] K. A. S. Susantha, T. Aoki, T. Kumano, and K. Yamamoto, “Applicability of low-yield-strength steel for ductility improvement of steel bridge piers,” Eng. Struct., vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1064–1073, Jun. 2005.
12
[13] Seismosoft, “SeismoStruct: A computer program for static and dynamic nonlinear analysis of framed structures.” 2013.
13
[14] Designing of steel bridges, publication number 395,...
14
[15] Y. Zheng, T. Usami, and H. Ge, “Seismic response predictions of multi-span steel bridges through pushover analysis,” Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1259–1274, Jul. 2003.
15
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Damage Detection of Cable-Stayed Bridges Using Frequency Domain Analysis and Clustering
Cable-stayed bridges are vital structures which need significant maintenance and repair costs every year. Therefore, health monitoring of such structures can mitigate human and financial losses. In this paper, a damage detection method for cable-stayed bridges was proposed using signal processing and clustering. Since the accuracy of signal processing can considerably affect the accuracy of damage detection results, in the first part of the paper, a comparison was carried out between the popular FDD method and two newer AFDD and TDD methods, which were improved some of the FDD drawbacks. Then, the most effective method was selected. Among these procedures, FDD was successfully implemented in signal-based procedures. However, the two newer ones had not adequately investigated in comparison to FDD. In the second part, by using competitive neural network for clustering, a new damage index was introduced by calculation of the Euclidian distances of cluster centers. Results showed that the proposed damage detection algorithm can differentiate healthy and damage states with acceptable accuracy.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2960_661b13e0da35db50fefc957711d8c900.pdf
2019-10-23
767
780
10.22060/ceej.2018.14141.5568
damage detection
Structural health monitoring
signal processing
clustering
competitive neural network
Ehsan
Darvishan
darvishan@riau.ac.ir
1
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Basten, T., & Schiphorst, F. (2012). Structural health monitoring with a wireless vibration sensor network. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering, ISMA.
1
[2] Brincker, R., Andersen, P., & Jacobsen, N.-J. (2007). Automated frequency domain decomposition for operational modal analysis. Paper presented at the Proceedings of The 25th International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC), Orlando, Florida.
2
[3] Brincker, R., Zhang, L., & Andersen, P. (2001). Modal identification of output-only systems using frequency domain decomposition. Smart materials and structures, 10(3), 441.
3
[4] Cabboi, A. (2014). Automatic operational modal analysis: challenges and applications to historic structures and infrastructures.
4
[5] Farrar, C. R., Doebling, S. W., & Nix, D. A. (2001). Vibration–based structural damage identification. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 359(1778), 131-149.
5
[6] Górski, P. (2017). Dynamic characteristic of tall industrial chimney estimated from GPS measurement and frequency domain decomposition. Engineering Structures, 148, 277-292.
6
[7] Hsu, K., Cheng, C., & Chiang, C. (2016). Long-term monitoring of two highway bridges using microwave interferometer-case studies. Paper presented at the 2016 16th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR).
7
[8] Ibrahim, S. (1977). Random decrement technique for modal identification of structures. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 14(11), 696-700.
8
[9] Johnson, E. A., Lam, H.-F., Katafygiotis, L. S., & Beck, J. L. (2004). Phase I IASC-ASCE structural health monitoring benchmark problem using simulated data. Journal of engineering mechanics, 130(1), 3-15.
9
[10] Kim, B. H., Stubbs, N., & Park, T. (2005). A new method to extract modal parameters using output- only responses. Journal of sound and vibration, 282(1-2), 215-230.
10
[11] Li, S., Li, H., Liu, Y., Lan, C., Zhou, W., & Ou, J. (2014). SMC structural health monitoring benchmark problem using monitored data from an actual cable‐stayed bridge. Structural Control and Health Monitoring, 21(2), 156-172.
11
[12] Malekjafarian, A., & OBrien, E. J. (2014). Identification of bridge mode shapes using short time frequency domain decomposition of the responses measured in a passing vehicle. Engineering Structures, 81, 386-397.
12
[13] McClelland, J. L., Rumelhart, D. E., & Group, P. R. (1987). Parallel distributed processing (Vol. 2): MIT press Cambridge, MA.
13
[14] Mieloszyk, M., Opoka, S., & Ostachowicz, W. (2015). Frequency Domain Decomposition performed on the strain data obtained from the aluminium model of an offshore support structure. Paper presented at the Journal of Physics: Conference Series.
14
[15] Pastor, M., Binda, M., & Harčarik, T. (2012). Modal assurance criterion. Procedia Engineering, 48, 543- 548.
15
[16] Peter, C., Alison, F., & Liu, S. (2003). Review paper: health monitoring of civil infrastructure. Structural health monitoring, 2(3), 0257-0267.
16
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
1D Numerical Modeling of Sediment Pattern in Settling Basins
Settling basins are one of the most important structures, which are commonly used for deposition of sediment particles in water and wastewater systems in order to prevent the damage of sediment particles. The purpose of this study was to provide a one-dimensional numerical model for simulating flow and sediment in a rectangular settling basin. The governing equations are depth averaged equations of flow and sediment transport. In order to the numerical solution, the finite difference method has been used. The model can be used for non-uniform flow and non-uniform particles and may predict important information such as removal efficiency, thickness, and distribution of particle size of sludge. Comparison of the results of the proposed numerical model with the results of other researchers stated the acceptable accuracy of the proposed model, so that in all cases the error rate was less than 3%. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that more than 50% of suspended sediment was deposited at the first 5 meters of the basin; therefore, the increase in the dimensions of the rectangular reservoir was not the best way to improve the performance of the pond. In fact, increasing the removal efficiency can be achieved by reducing the depth of the settling basin, increasing the cross-sectional area of flow and reducing the surface loading rate.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2940_34f79e5fbe357e149122bd79fff6be6b.pdf
2019-10-23
781
792
10.22060/ceej.2018.13948.5517
Rectangular settling basin
sediment
removal efficiency
numerical Model
Sludge
Hamed
Sarveram
hamed.sarveram@gmail.com
1
Department of Civil engineering, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
Fatemeh
Rostami
fa.rostami@gmail.com
2
Department of Civil engineering, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
Mehdi
Shahrokhi
mhd.shahrokhi@gmail.com
3
Department of Civil engineering, Ghiaseddin Jamshid Kashani Higher Education, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] H.M. El-Baroudi, Characterization of settling tanks by eddy diffusion, Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, 95 (1969).
1
[2] D.R. Schamber, B.E. Larock, Numerical analysis of flow in sedimentation basins, Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 107(5) (1981) 575-591.
2
[3] E. Imam, J.A. McCorquodale, J.K. Bewtra, Numerical Modeling of Sedimentation Tanks, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 109(12) (1983) 1740-1754.
3
[4] D.W. Ostendorf, B.C. Botkin, Sediment Diffusion in Primary Shallow Rectangular Clarifiers, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 113(3) (1987) 595-611.
4
[5] E.W. Adams, W. Rodi, Modeling Flow and Mixing in Sedimentation Tanks, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 116(7) (1990) 895-913.
5
[6] S. Zhou, J.A. McCorquodale, Modeling of Rectangular Settling Tanks, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 118(10) (1992) 1391-1405.
6
[7] P.K. Swamee, A. Tyagi, Design of Class-I Sedimentation Tanks, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 122(1) (1996) 71-73.
7
[8] Y.-C. Jin, Q.-C. Guo, T. Viraraghavan, Modeling of Class I Settling Tanks, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 126(8) (2000) 754-760.
8
[9] Q. Guo, Numerical modeling of suspended sediment transport, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, 2001.
9
[10] F. Rostami, M. Shahrokhi, M.A. Md Said, R. Abdullah, Syafalni, Numerical modeling on inlet aperture effects on flow pattern in primary settling tanks, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 35(6) (2011) 3012-3020.
10
[11] M. Shahrokhi, F. Rostami, M.A. Md Said, Syafalni, Numerical modeling of baffle location effects on the flow pattern of primary sedimentation tanks, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 37(6) (2013) 4486-4496.
11
[12] M. Shahrokhi, F. Rostami, M.A.M. Said, S.-
12
R. Sabbagh-Yazdi, S. Syafalni, R. Abdullah, The effect of baffle angle on primary sedimentation tank efficiency, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 39(3) (2012) 293-303.
13
[13] X. Liu, H. Xue, Z. Hua, Q. Yao, J. Hu, Inverse Calculation Model for Optimal Design of Rectangular Sedimentation Tanks, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 139(3) (2013) 455-459.
14
[14] T. Tu, K.J. Carr, A. Ercan, M.L. Kavvas, J. Nosacka, Two-Dimensional Sediment Transport Modeling in Cache Creek Settling Basin, California, in: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2015.
15
[15] T. Tu, K.J. Carr, A. Ercan, T. Trinh, M.L. Kavvas, K. Brown, J. Nosacka, Two-Dimensional Sediment Transport Modeling under Extreme Flood at Lower Cache Creek, California, in: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2017
16
[16] B.S. Booshehri, R. Rahimzadegan, Optimum Design of Settling Basin in Irrigation Networks, Isfahan University of Technology, Esfahan, 1995.
17
[17] S.-N. Shetab-Boushehri, S.-F. Mousavi, S.-B. Shetab- Boushehri, Design of Settling Basins in Irrigation Network Using Simulation and Mathematical Programming, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 136(2) (2010) 99-106.
18
[18] M.E. Ahmadi, H.G. Najafabadi, Numerical simulation of water flow and sediment in settling Basins, Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran, 2011.
19
[19] W. Sun, Modeling Flocculation in Sedimentation Tank with Depth-Averaged Method, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, University of Regina, 2014.
20
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Prediction of the Stress-Strain Behavior of MSW Materials Using Hyperbolic Model and Evolutionary Polynomial Regression (EPR)
In recent years, the rupture of landfill centers has resulted in the importance of studying the behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW as the main constituent element in landfills has a complicated performance. In this study, by using the results of large–scale direct shear experiments with dimensions of 300 mm*300 mm*150 mm, 2 models to predict the behavior of MSW with ages of fresh and 3 months were presented. The purpose of this investigation was prediction of MSW stress-strain behavior for kahrizak landfill as a sample of developing countries landfills under aging and by structural models. These models were Hyperbolic model and Evolutionary Polynomial Regression (EPR). In these collection of experiments, aging process up to 3 months was artificially applied to samples. Three normal stresses 20, 50 and 100 kpa along with three shear displacement rates of 0.8, 8 and 19 mm/min were used for samples with different ages. The results of these two models showed high accordance with experimental results by direct shear apparatus, in addition to predict MSW behavior under aging and degradation. Finally, this study stated the advantage of EPR model relative to Hyperbolic model in higher accuracy for all experiments.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2993_fe0f79ce4d46bdc03cf79163f175be02.pdf
2019-10-23
793
804
10.22060/ceej.2018.13955.5519
Municipal solid waste
Landfill
Aging effect
Hyperbolic
EPR
Mohsen
Keramati
keramati@shahroodut.ac.ir
1
Assistant professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shahrood University of technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
Hossain
Moradi Moghaddam
moradimoqdm@gmail.com
2
M.Sc. Student, Faculty of civil engineering, Shahrood university of technology
AUTHOR
Amin
Ramesh
aminramesh2012@gmail.com
3
M.Sc. Student, Faculty of civil Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology
AUTHOR
[1] G. Blight, Slope failures in municipal solid waste dumps and landfills: a review, Waste Management & Research, 26(5) (2008) 448-463.
1
[2] R.M. Koerner, T.-Y. Soong, Leachate in landfills: the stability issues, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 18(5) (2000) 293-309.
2
[3] N. Shariatmadari, M. Karimpour-Fard, M. Keramati, H. Jafari Kalarijani, Mechanical response of MSW materials subjected to shearing in direct shear test apparatus, in: 4th International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering and Soil Mechanics, Tehran, Iran, 2010
3
[4] M.A. Gabr, M. Hossain, M. Barlaz, Shear strength parameters of municipal solid waste with leachate recirculation, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 133(4) (2007) 478- 484.
4
[5] D. Zekkos, J.D. Bray, G.A. Athanasopoulos, M.F. Riemer, E. Kavazanjian, X. Founta, A. Grizi, Compositional and loading rate effects on the shear strength of municipal solid waste, in: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, 2007, pp. 25-28.
5
[6] E. Kavazanjian, Mechanical properties of municipal solid waste, in: Proceedings sardinia, 2001, pp. 415- 424.
6
[7] M. Karimpour-Fard, S.L. Machado, N. Shariatmadari, A. Noorzad, A laboratory study on the MSW mechanical behavior in triaxial apparatus, Waste management, 31(8) (2011) 1807-1819.
7
[8] S.L. Machado, M.F. Carvalho, O.M. Vilar, Constitutive model for municipal solid waste, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 128(11) (2002) 940-951.
8
[9] M. Singh, I. Fleming, Application of a hyperbolic model to municipal solid waste, Geotechnique, 61(7) (2011) 533-547.
9
[10] M. Asadi, N. Shariatmadari, M. Karimpour-Fard, A. Noorzad, Validation of Hyperbolic Model by the Results of Triaxial and Direct Shear Tests of Municipal Solid Waste, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 35(5) (2017) 2003-2015.
10
[11] J.W. Davidson, D. Savic, G.A. Walters, Method for the identification of explicit polynomial formulae for the friction in turbulent pipe flow, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 1(2) (1999) 115-126.
11
[12] O. Gistolisi, D. Savic, A. Doglioni, Data reconstruction and forecasting by evolutionary polynomial regression, in: Hydroinformatics: (In 2 Volumes, with CD-ROM), World Scientific, 2004, pp. 1245-1252.
12
[13] M. Keramati, S.K. Reshad, S. Asgarpour, M.A. Tutunchian, Predicting shear strength of municipal waste material by evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 19 (2014) 53-62.
13
[14] D. ASTM, 3080-90: Standard test method for direct shear test of soils under consolidated drained conditions, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 4 (1994) 290-295.
14
[15] E. Kavazanjian Jr, N. Matasovic, R.C. Bachus, Large-diameter static and cyclic laboratory testing of municipal solid waste, in: Proceedings Sardinia, 1999, pp. 437-444.
15
[16] D.P. Zeccos, Evaluation of static and dynamic properties of municipal solid-waste, University of California, Berkeley, 2005.
16
[17] J. Nascimento, Mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste. Ms. C, thesis, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil (in Portuguese), 2007.
17
[18] F. Kölsch, The influence of fibrous constituents on shear strength of municipal solid waste, Ph. D. Thesis, Leichtweiss-Institut, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Brauschweig, Germany (in German), 1996.
18
[19] R.L. Kondner, Hyperbolic stress-strain response: cohesive soils, J. Geotech. Engrg. Div., 89(1) (1963) 115-143.
19
[20] J.M. Duncan, C.-Y. Chang, Nonlinear analysis of stress and strain in soils, Journal of Soil Mechanics & Foundations Div, (1970).
20
[21] M.K. Singh, Characterization of stress-deformation behaviour of municipal solid waste, 2008.
21
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Mapped Moving Least Squares Approximation Used in Mixed Discrete Least Squares Meshfree Method
The Mixed Least Squares Meshfree (MDLSM) method has shown its appropriate efficiency for solving Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) related to the engineering problems. The method is based on the minimizing the residual functional. The residual functional is defined as a summation of the weighted residuals on the governing PDEs and the boundaries. The Moving Least Squares (MLS) is usually applied in the MDLSM method for constructing the shape functions. Although the required consistency and compatibility for the approximation function are satisfied by the MLS, the method loses its appropriate efficiency when the nodal points cluster become too much. In the current study, the mentioned drawback is overcome using the novel approximation function called Mapped Moving Least Squares (MMLS). In this approach, the cluster of closed nodal was pointed maps to standard nodal distribution. Then the approximation function and its derivatives were computed incorporating some consideration. The efficiency of suggested MMLS for overcoming the drawback of MLS was evaluated by approximating the mathematical function. The obtained results showed the ability of suggested MMLS method to solve the drawback. The suggested approximation function was applied in MDLSM method, and used for solving the Burgers equations. Obtained results approved the efficiency of suggested method.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_3018_ee45eb8b3e1064f8e1d86fc332a70338.pdf
2019-10-23
805
816
10.22060/ceej.2018.13861.5505
Mapped Moving Least Squares (MMLS)
Moving Least Squares Meshfree (MLS)
Partial Differential Equations (PDEs)
Meshfree method
Discrete Least Squares Meshfree method (DLSM)
Morteza
Kolahdoozan
mklhdzan@aut.ac.ir
1
دانشکده عمران
LEAD_AUTHOR
Ehsan
Amani
eamani@aut.ac.ir
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Saeb
Faraji
saebfaraji@aut.ac.ir
3
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] R.A. Gingold, J.J. Monaghan, Smoothed particle hydrodynamics: theory and application to non- spherical stars, Monthly notices of the royal astronomical society, 181(3) (1977) 375-389.
1
[2] E. Daly, S. Grimaldi, H.H. Bui, Explicit incompressible SPH algorithm for free-surface flow modelling: A comparison with weakly compressible schemes, Advances in water resources, 97 (2016) 156-167.
2
[3] M. Fleming, Y. Chu, B. Moran, T. Belytschko, Enriched element‐free Galerkin methods for crack tip fields, International journal for numerical methods in engineering, 40(8) (1997) 1483-1504.
3
[4] T. Belytschko, Y.Y. Lu, L. Gu, Element‐free Galerkin methods, International journal for numerical methods in engineering, 37(2) (1994) 229-256.
4
[5] S.N. Atluri, T. Zhu, A new meshless local Petrov- Galerkin (MLPG) approach in computational mechanics, Computational Mechanics, 22(2) (1998) 117-127.
5
[6] C.A. Duarte, J.T. Oden, An hp adaptive method using clouds, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 139(1-4) (1996) 237-262.
6
[7] E. Onate, S. Idelsohn, O. Zienkiewicz, R. Taylor, C. Sacco, A stabilized finite point method for analysis of fluid mechanics problems, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 139(1-4) (1996) 315-346.
7
[8] W.K. Liu, S. Jun, Y.F. Zhang, Reproducing kernel particle methods, International journal for numerical methods in fluids, 20(8‐9) (1995) 1081-1106.
8
[9] K. Kiani, A nonlocal meshless solution for flexural vibrations of double-walled carbon nanotubes, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 234 (2014) 557-578.
9
[10] K. Kiani, A meshless approach for free transverse vibration of embedded single-walled nanotubes with arbitrary boundary conditions accounting for nonlocal effect, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 52(10) (2010) 1343-1356.
10
[11] T. Zhu, J.-D. Zhang, S. Atluri, A local boundary integral equation (LBIE) method in computational mechanics, and a meshless discretization approach, Computational Mechanics, 21(3) (1998) 223-235.
11
[12] G.-R. Liu, Meshfree methods: moving beyond the finite element method, CRC press, 2009.
12
[13] S. Koshizuka, Y. Oka, Moving-particle semi-implicit method for fragmentation of incompressible fluid, Nuclear science and engineering, 123(3) (1996) 421- 434.
13
[14] B. Ataie-Ashtiani, L. Farhadi, A stable moving- particle semi-implicit method for free surface flows, Fluid dynamics research, 38(4) (2006) 241.
14
[15] H. Arzani, M. Afshar, Solving Poisson’s equations by the discrete least square meshless method, WIT Transactions on Modelling and Simulation, 42 (2006) 23-31.
15
[16] M. Afshar, M. Naisipour, J. Amani, Node moving adaptive refinement strategy for planar elasticity problems using discrete least squares meshless method, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 47(12) (2011) 1315-1325.
16
[17] G. Shobeyri, M. Afshar, Simulating free surface problems using discrete least squares meshless method, Computers & Fluids, 39(3) (2010) 461-470.
17
[18] A.R. Firoozjaee, M.H. Afshar, Discrete least squares meshless method with sampling points for the solution of elliptic partial differential equations, Engineering analysis with boundary elements, 33(1) (2009) 83-92.
18
[19] M. Naisipour, M.H. Afshar, B. Hassani, A.R. Firoozjaee, Collocation discrete least square (CDLS) method for elasticity problems, International Journal of Civil Engineering. v7, (2009) 9-18.
19
[20] M. Afshar, M. Lashckarbolok, G. Shobeyri, Collocated discrete least squares meshless (CDLSM) method for the solution of transient and steady‐ state hyperbolic problems, International journal for numerical methods in fluids, 60(10) (2009) 1055-1078.
20
[21] S. Faraji, M. Afshar, Node enrichment-moving error estimate and adaptive refinement in Mixed Discrete Least Squares Meshless method for solution of elasticity problems, Modares Mechanical Engineering, 14(3) (2014) 194-202. (In persian).
21
[22] S.N. Kazeroni, M. Afshar, An adaptive node regeneration technique for the efficient solution of elasticity problems using MDLSM method, Engineering analysis with boundary elements, 50 (2015) 198-211.
22
[23] S. Faraji, M.H. Afshar, J. Amani, Mixed discrete least square meshless method for solution of quadratic partial differential equations, Scientia Iranica, 21(3) (2014) 492-504.
23
[24] S. Faraji, M. Kolahdoozan, M.H. Afshar, Collocated Mixed Discrete Least Squares Meshless (CMDLSM) method for solving quadratic partial differential equations, Scientia Iranica, 25(4) (2018) 2000-2011.
24
[25] S. Faraji, M. Kolahdoozan, M.H. Afshar, Mixed discrete least squares meshless method for solving the linear and non-linear propagation problems, Scientia Iranica, 25(2) (2018) 565-578.
25
[26] S.F. Gargari, M. Kolahdoozan, M. Afshar, Mixed Discrete Least Squares Meshfree method for solving the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, Engineering analysis with boundary elements, 88 (2018) 64-79.
26
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ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Study of Geotechnical Parameters Uncertainties in Analysis of New Tunnel Construction Over the Existing Tunnel
This paper aims to study the problem of a new tunnel construction over – crossing the existing tunnel through the probabilistic point of view. Metro line-7 tunnel above-crossing line-6 tunnel in Tehran was chosen as a case study project. The numerical modeling of the problem was carried out by the FLAC3D software. The parameters of the cohesion and the friction angle of the third layer as well as the surcharge on the ground level were assumed as random variables. Generating the random numbers and fitting the probabilistic distributions to these variables was carried out by the Monte – Carlo method. The displacements at four points of the existing tunnel (line 6) were recorded due to new tunneling, and the appropriate probabilistic distribution was fitted based on the mean, median and skewness of each set of random numbers. According to these probabilistic distributions, the probability of the displacements more or less than a specific displacement can be determined. The results indicate that although input parameters have normal distributions, not all of the outputs have symmetric or normal distributions, and the results of the deterministic method are not the same as the mean values of stochastic approach. As well, the probability of displacements greater than the mean value at the bottom and right side of the existing tunnel is 56 % and 55/5 %, respectively.
https://ceej.aut.ac.ir/article_2918_228bdf4315b416637649ead35916470d.pdf
2019-10-23
817
830
10.22060/ceej.2018.13969.5522
Intersecting tunnels
Probabilistic analysis
Monte – Carlo Method
stability
Mahsa
Tajdid Khaje
m.tajdedi94@ms.tabrizu.ac.ir
1
Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz
AUTHOR
Masoud
Ranjbarnia
m.ranjbarnia@tabrizu.ac.ir
2
Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Vahid
Nourani
nourani@tabrizu.ac.ir
3
Department of Water Engineering , Faculty of civil Engineering, University of Tabriz
AUTHOR
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